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Special Issue "Enzymes and Mammalian Fatty Acid Metabolism"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Michał Szlis
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Interests: neuroendocrinology; hormones; reproduction; gastrointestinal tract; genetic; animal biotechnology
Dr. Małgorzata Białek
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences
Interests: chromatography; lipidomics; fatty acids; conjugated fatty acids; peroxidation; antioxidants; chemometrics
Dr. Agnieszka Białek
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Institute of Genetics and Animal Biotechnology Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Interests: lipidomics; fatty acids; oxysterols; lipid peroxidation; conjugated fatty acids; cancer; developmental programming; cardio-oncology
Prof. Michael Munday
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UCL, London, UK
Interests: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase; type 2 diabetes; obesity; fatty acid metabolism; fatty liver; biomarkers; proteomics; metabolomics; anti-diabetic drugs; drug metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Issue will focus on the mammalian metabolism of fatty acids. Of particular interest will be any aspect of the structure, function, or regulation of enzymes that are part of these metabolic pathways. This would include investigations of any aspects of the regulation of fatty acid metabolism through post-translational or gene expression mechanisms. It could also include any enzymes or processes that are shown to be targets of the products of these metabolic pathways, or new discoveries in diseases and clinical conditions where the study shows some aspect of fatty acid metabolism to play a causative role in, or to be affected by, the disease (e.g., type 2 diabetes, obesity, immunological disorders, lipodystrophy, steatosis, metabolic syndrome, neurological disorders, cancer). Investigations of drugs and therapeutic interventions that target enzymes or pathways of fatty acid metabolism or research that shows nutritional, therapeutic, or toxicological impacts of fatty acids on physiological function will be of interest. The investigation of fatty acids as potential biomarkers and metabolomic or lipidomic analyses in response to physiological or toxicological challenges will be considered for this Issue.

Dr. Michał Szlis
Dr. Małgorzata Białek
Dr. Agnieszka Białek
Prof. Michael Munday
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fatty acid
  • metabolism
  • regulation
  • enzyme
  • metabolomics
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • disease
  • nutrition

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Article
Cardiolipin Stabilizes and Increases Catalytic Efficiency of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II and Its Variants S113L, P50H, and Y479F
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4831; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094831 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is associated with various mutations in CPT2 gene. In the present study, the impact of the two CPT II variants P50H and Y479F were characterized in terms of stability and activity in vitro in comparison to [...] Read more.
Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is associated with various mutations in CPT2 gene. In the present study, the impact of the two CPT II variants P50H and Y479F were characterized in terms of stability and activity in vitro in comparison to wildtype (WT) and the well investigated variant S113L. While the initial enzyme activity of all variants showed wild-type-like behavior, the activity half-lives of the variants at different temperatures were severely reduced. This finding was validated by the investigation of thermostability of the enzymes using nano differential scanning fluorimetry (nanoDSF). Further, it was studied whether the protein stabilizing diphosphatidylglycerol cardiolipin (CL) has an effect on the variants. CL indeed had a positive effect on the stability. This effect was strongest for WT and least pronounced for variant P50H. Additionally, CL improved the catalytic efficiency for CPT II WT and the investigated variants by twofold when carnitine was the varied substrate due to a decrease in KM. However, there was no influence detected for the variation of substrate palmitoyl-CoA. The functional consequences of the stabilization by CL in vivo remain open. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Mammalian Fatty Acid Metabolism)
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Review

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Review
Disentangling the Molecular Mechanisms of the Antidepressant Activity of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4393; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094393 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Major depressive disorders (MDDs) are often associated with a deficiency in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), as well as signs of low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological and dietary studies suggest that a high intake of fish, the major source of ω-3 PUFAs, is [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorders (MDDs) are often associated with a deficiency in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), as well as signs of low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological and dietary studies suggest that a high intake of fish, the major source of ω-3 PUFAs, is associated with lower rates of MDDs. Meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled ω-3 PUFAs intervention-trials suggest that primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is responsible for the proposed antidepressant effect. In this review, we dissect the current biological knowledge on EPA and DHA and their bioactive lipid metabolites to search for a pharmacological explanation of this, to date, unexplained clinical observation. Through enzymatic conversion by cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (ALOX), and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase (CYP), EPA and DHA are metabolized to major anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators. In addition, both ω-3 PUFAs are precursors for endocannabinoids, with known effects on immunomodulation, neuroinflammation, food intake and mood. Finally, both ω-3 PUFAs are crucial for the structure and organization of membranes and lipid rafts. While most biological effects are shared by these two ω-3 PUFAs, some distinct features could be identified: (1) The preferential CYP monooxygenase pathway for EPA and EPA derived eicosanoids; (2) The high CB2 receptor affinities of EPA-derived EPEA and its epoxy-metabolite 17,18-EEQ-EA, while the DHA-derived endocannabinoids lack such receptor affinities; (3) The competition of EPA but not DHA with arachidonic acid (AA) for particular glycerophospholipids. EPA and AA are preferentially incorporated into phosphatidylinositols, while DHA is mainly incorporated into phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, -serine and -choline. We propose that these distinct features may explain the superior antidepressant activity of EPA rich ω-3 PUFAs and that these are potential novel targets for future antidepressant drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Mammalian Fatty Acid Metabolism)
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