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Special Issue "Extracellular Vesicles in Cancer Diagnosis, Progression and Therapy"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Oncology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022 | Viewed by 3345

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria Caterina Mione
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Integrative Biology, University of Trento, Via Sommarive, 9, 38123, Povo Trento, Italy
Interests: cancer; Zebrafish; cancer metabolism; telomere maintenance; melanoma; brain tumor; apoptosis; cell-cell interactions; exosomes; cell migration; cell cycle
Dr. Vito Giuseppe D'Agostino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology-CIBIO, University of Trento, Trento, Italy
Interests: extracellular vesicles; RNA-binding proteins; liquid biopsy; cancer; biomarkers; ultrasensitive assays; nanocarriers; high-throughput screening

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), representing an intercellular communication system that is highly enhanced in cancer, continue to attract formidable interest from a wide range of scientists for their tremendous potential to allow discoveries ranging from basic biology to innovative therapeutic approaches.

We are still far away from a full understanding of the roles of EVs in cancer progression, as we have not yet developed their potential as diagnostic or prognostic tools, and we have only glimpsed their value as precision delivery vehicles to transport drugs and non-coding RNAs to target cells.

With this Special Issue, we aim to attract reports that take innovative approaches or express novel views on the multifaceted world of EVs in cancer biology, progression and therapy.

Original papers and review articles that focus on the latest advances in EV studies are welcome. Key areas that will be covered include the following:

  • The use of model systems to study the biology of EVs in cancer and exploit them for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches;
  • The relations between the cell of origin and their targets;
  • EVs as a source of biomarkers in liquid biopsy;
  • The role of EVs in inflammation and in shaping the tumor microenvironment;
  • Specific cargos and their role in recipient cells and cancer progression;
  • EV engineering for targeted therapy.

Dr. Maria Caterina Mione
Dr. Vito Giuseppe D'Agostino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles
  • model systems
  • intercellular communication
  • cancer biomarker
  • non-coding RNA in cancer
  • molecular diagnostics
  • liquid biopsies
  • biomarkers
  • molecular engineering
  • targeted therapies

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Zebrafish Melanoma-Derived Interstitial EVs Are Carriers of ncRNAs That Induce Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms23105510 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous particles released by all cell types. Their role as functional carrier of bioactive molecules is boosted by cells that actively secrete them in biological fluids or in the intercellular space (interstitial EVs, iEVs). Here we have optimised a [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous particles released by all cell types. Their role as functional carrier of bioactive molecules is boosted by cells that actively secrete them in biological fluids or in the intercellular space (interstitial EVs, iEVs). Here we have optimised a method for the isolation and characterization of zebrafish iEVs from whole melanoma tissues. Zebrafish melanoma iEVs are around 140 nm in diameter, as determined by nanoparticle tracking and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Western blot analysis shows enrichment for CD63 and Alix in the iEV fraction, but not in melanoma cell lysates. Super resolution and confocal microscopy reveal that purified zebrafish iEVs are green fluorescent protein positive (GFP+), indicating that they integrate the oncogene GFP-HRASV12G used to induce melanoma in this model within their vesicular membrane or luminal content. Analysis of RNA-Seq data found 118 non-coding (nc)RNAs differentially distributed between zebrafish melanoma and their iEVs, with only 17 of them being selectively enriched in iEVs. Among these, the RNA components of RNAses P and MRP, which process ribosomal RNA precursors, mitochondrial RNAs, and some mRNAs, were enriched in zebrafish and human melanoma EVs, but not in iEVs extracted from brain tumours. We found that melanoma iEVs induce an inflammatory response when injected in larvae, with increased expression of interferon responsive genes, and this effect is reproduced by MRP- or P-RNAs injected into circulation. This suggests that zebrafish melanoma iEVs are a source of MRP- and P-RNAs that can trigger inflammation in cells of the innate immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Cancer Diagnosis, Progression and Therapy)
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Article
CD44 Expression Intensity Marks Colorectal Cancer Cell Subpopulations with Different Extracellular Vesicle Release Capacity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms23042180 - 16 Feb 2022
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Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are released by virtually all cells and they transport biologically important molecules from the release site to target cells. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death cases, thus, it represents a major health issue. Although the EV [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are released by virtually all cells and they transport biologically important molecules from the release site to target cells. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death cases, thus, it represents a major health issue. Although the EV cargo may reflect the molecular composition of the releasing cells and thus, EVs may hold a great promise for tumor diagnostics, the impact of intratumoral heterogeneity on the intensity of EV release is still largely unknown. By using CRC patient-derived organoids that maintain the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of the original epithelial tumor tissue, we proved that CD44high cells produce more organoids with a higher proliferation intensity, as compared to CD44low cells. Interestingly, we detected an increased EV release by CD44high CRC cells. In addition, we found that the miRNA cargos of CD44high and CD44low cell derived EVs largely overlapped and only four miRNAs were specific for one of the above subpopulations. We observed that EVs released by CD44high cells induced the proliferation and activation of colon fibroblasts more strongly than CD44low cells. However, this effect was due to the higher EV number rather than to the miRNA cargo of EVs. Collectively, we identified CRC subpopulations with different EV releasing capabilities and we proved that CRC cell-released EVs have a miRNA-independent effect on fibroblast proliferation and activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Cancer Diagnosis, Progression and Therapy)
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Review

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Review
Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers Carriers in Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2744; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052744 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles, enriched in biomolecular cargo consisting of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, which take part in intercellular communication and play a crucial role in both physiologic functions and oncogenesis. Bladder cancer is the most common urinary malignancy and its incidence [...] Read more.
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles, enriched in biomolecular cargo consisting of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, which take part in intercellular communication and play a crucial role in both physiologic functions and oncogenesis. Bladder cancer is the most common urinary malignancy and its incidence is steadily rising in developed countries. Despite the high five-year survival in patients diagnosed at early disease stage, survival substantially drops in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease. Therefore, early detection of primary disease as well as recurrence is of paramount importance. The role that exosomal biomarkers could play in bladder cancer patient diagnosis and surveillance, as well as their potential therapeutic applications, has not been extensively studied in this malignancy. In the present review, we summarize all relevant data obtained so far from cell lines, animal models, and patient biofluids and tissues. Current literature suggests that urine is a rich source of extracellular vesicle-derived biomarkers, compared with blood and bladder tissue samples, with potential applications in bladder cancer management. Further studies improving sample collection procedures and optimizing purification and analytical methods should augment bladder cancer diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic input of extracellular vesicles biomarkers in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Cancer Diagnosis, Progression and Therapy)
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