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Special Issue "Genomics of Brain Disorders 3.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Neurobiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ramón Cacabelos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Euroespes Biomedical Research Center, International Center of Neuroscience and Genomic Medicine, 15165 Corunna, Spain
Interests: pharmacogenomics; pharmacoepigenetics; genomics of brain disorders; neuroepigenetics; CNS drug development; neurodegenerative disorders; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our 2019 Special Issue, "Genomics of Brain Disorders 2.0" (https://0-www-mdpi-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/journal/ijms/special_issues/genomics_brain2).

Brain disorders represent the third major problem of health and disability in developed countries after cardiovascular disorders and cancer. From a global health perspective, important issues to be addressed with regard to neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) are: (i) disease burden (DALYs: disability-adjusted life years; YLDs: years lived with disability; YLLs: years of life lost); (ii) the costs (direct, indirect) of disease; (iii) disease pathogenesis; (iv) the identification of presymptomatic biomarkers; (v) novel targets for drug development; and (vi) personalized treatments with pharmacogenetic procedures for optimizing drug efficacy and safety. NPDs contribute approximately 10% of the global burden of disease. About 30% of all YLDs are assigned to NPDs, especially depression, alcohol use disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. NPDs are the leading cause of disease burden, responsible for 7.4% of global DALYs and 22.9% of global YLDs. Within NPDs, mental disorders account for 56.7% DALYs, followed by neurological disorders (28.6%) and substance use disorder (14.7%).

The global cost of NPDs is projected to be about US$6 trillion by 2030. An estimated eight million deaths annually are attributed to mental disorders. Approximately 127 million Europeans suffer brain disorders. The total annual cost of brain disorders in Europe is about €386 billion, with €135 billion in direct medical expenditures, €179 billion in indirect costs, and €72 billion in direct non-medical costs. Mental disorders represent €240 billion (62% of the total cost, excluding dementia), followed by neurological diseases (€84 billion, 22%).

The primary cause of most brain disorders is poorly understood. In NPDs there is a convergence of multiple genomic defects distributed across the human genome with epigenetic phenomena and environmental risk factors leading to the phenotypic expression of the disease. In children, neurodevelopmental disorders are determinant for abnormal brain maturation and early mental derailment. In age-related neurodegenerative disorders, a common feature is the presence of intracellular and/or extracellular deposits of abnormally processed proteins that represent prototypical hallmarks probably contributing to premature neuronal death. A better characterization of the genomic background of mental and neurological disorders is necessary for elucidating disease-specific pathogenesis, as well as the identification of accurate biomarkers, and the implementation of novel treatments addressing pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter and pleiotropic genes, and their products, associated with specific NPDs.

Prof. Dr. Ramón Cacabelos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Open AccessReview
Polymorphisms of Dopamine Receptor Genes and Parkinson’s Disease: Clinical Relevance and Future Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3781; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073781 - 06 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. PD is clinically characterized by a variety of motor and nonmotor symptoms, and treatment relies on dopaminergic replacement. Beyond a common pathological hallmark, PD patients may present [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. PD is clinically characterized by a variety of motor and nonmotor symptoms, and treatment relies on dopaminergic replacement. Beyond a common pathological hallmark, PD patients may present differences in both clinical progression and response to drug therapy that are partly affected by genetic factors. Despite extensive knowledge on genetic variability of dopaminergic receptors (DR), few studies have addressed their relevance as possible influencers of clinical heterogeneity in PD patients. In this review, we summarized available evidence regarding the role of genetic polymorphisms in DR as possible determinants of PD development, progression and treatment response. Moreover, we examined the role of DR in the modulation of peripheral immunity, in light of the emerging role of the peripheral immune system in PD pathophysiology. A better understanding of all these aspects represents an important step towards the development of precise and personalized disease-modifying therapies for PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Brain Disorders 3.0)
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