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Special Issue "Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Luis Vicente López-Llorca
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Institute for Environmental Studies/Department of Marine Sciences and Applied Biology, University of Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
Interests: biocontrol; nematophagous fungi; entomopathogenic fungi; chitosan; plant pathology; endophytes; fungal "omics"
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Federico Lopez-Moya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Multidisciplinary Institute for Environmental Studies/Department of Marine Sciences and Applied Biology, University of Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
Interests: biocontrol; nematophagous fungi; entomopathogenic fungi; chitosan; plant pathology; endophytes; fungal "omics"
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a follow-up of the last "Host-Microbe Interaction"; Special Issue. We would like to introduce, in this new issue, the multiscale and dynamic nature of ecosystems. Therefore, we envisage a focus on multitrophic microbial interactions of diverse biological outcome (pathogenesis, mutualism, etc.) with hosts of pluricelular or unicelular natures. The concept of the microbiome will be pursued and scientific contributions on microbial interactions of importance in ecology (habitat conservation and human impact), agro-food (food security), medical, and industrial activities are all welcome. All original or review articles should include hard data on the role of molecules (-omics) in these multitrophic interactions. We also encourage work on sequencing technologies and bioinformatics applied to the study of microbe interactomics. The role of new developments in microbe interactions in system biology is also a key issue.

Prof. Dr. Luis Vicente López-Llorca
Dr. Federico Lopez-Moya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Secretome
  • host response
  • attenuation of pathogenesis
  • biocontrol
  • coevolution
  • horizontal gene transfer
  • Interactomics
  • Systems Biology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Influence of Serratia marcescens and Rhodococcus rhodnii on the Humoral Immunity of Rhodnius prolixus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10901; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222010901 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Chagas disease is a human infectious disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and can be transmitted by triatomine vectors, such as Rhodnius prolixus. One limiting factor for T. cruzi development is the composition of the bacterial gut microbiota in the triatomine. Herein, we [...] Read more.
Chagas disease is a human infectious disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and can be transmitted by triatomine vectors, such as Rhodnius prolixus. One limiting factor for T. cruzi development is the composition of the bacterial gut microbiota in the triatomine. Herein, we analyzed the humoral immune responses of R. prolixus nymphs treated with antibiotics and subsequently recolonized with either Serratia marcescens or Rhodococcus rhodnii. The treatment with antibiotics reduced the bacterial load in the digestive tract, and the recolonization with each bacterium was successfully detected seven days after treatment. The antibiotic-treated insects, recolonized with S. marcescens, presented reduced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph, and lower nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and higher defensin C gene (DefC) gene expression in the fat body. These insects also presented a higher expression of DefC, lower prolixicin (Prol), and lower NOS levels in the anterior midgut. However, the antibiotic-treated insects recolonized with R. rhodnii had increased antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and lower activity against S. aureus, higher phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph, and lower NOS expression in the fat body. In the anterior midgut, these insects presented higher NOS, defensin A (DefA) and DefC expression, and lower Prol expression. The R. prolixus immune modulation by these two bacteria was observed not only in the midgut, but also systemically in the fat body, and may be crucial for the development and transmission of the parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
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Article
Bacterial Antigens Reduced the Inhibition Effect of Capsaicin on Cal 27 Oral Cancer Cell Proliferation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168686 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Oral cancer is a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. The oral cavity contains biofilms as dental plaques that harbour both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial antigens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), respectively. LPS and LTA are known [...] Read more.
Oral cancer is a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. The oral cavity contains biofilms as dental plaques that harbour both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial antigens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), respectively. LPS and LTA are known to stimulate cancer cell growth, and the bioactive phytochemical capsaicin has been reported to reverse this effect. Here, we tested the efficacy of oral cancer chemotherapy treatment with capsaicin in the presence of LPS, LTA or the combination of both antigens. LPS and LTA were administered to Cal 27 oral cancer cells prior to and/or concurrently with capsaicin, and the treatment efficacy was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death. We found that while capsaicin inhibits oral cancer cell proliferation and metabolism (MT Glo assay) and increases cell death (Trypan blue exclusion assay and Caspase 3/7 expression), its anti-cancer effect was significantly reduced on cells that are either primed or exposed to the bacterial antigens. Capsaicin treatment significantly increased oral cancer cells’ suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 gene expression. This increase was reversed in the presence of bacterial antigens during treatment. Our data establish a rationale for clinical consideration of bacterial antigens that may interfere with the treatment efficacy of oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
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Article
Copresence of High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses and Epstein–Barr Virus in Colorectal Cancer: A Tissue Microarray and Molecular Study from Lebanon
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158118 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) have been reported to be present in different types of human cancers, including CRCs, where they can play a key role in the [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) have been reported to be present in different types of human cancers, including CRCs, where they can play a key role in the onset and/or progression of these cancers. Thus, we herein explored the prevalence of high-risk HPVs and EBV in a cohort of 94 CRC tissue samples and 13 colorectal normal tissues from the Lebanese population using polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and tissue microarray methodologies. We found that high-risk HPVs are present in 64%, while EBV is present in 29% of our CRC samples. Additionally, our data showed that high-risk HPV types (16, 18, 35, 58, 51, 45, 52, 31, and 33) are the most frequent in CRC in the Lebanese cohort, respectively. Our data point out that HPVs and EBV are copresent in 28% of the samples. Thus, this study clearly suggests that high-risk HPVs and EBV are present/copresent in CRCs, where they could play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, further investigations using a larger cohort are needed to elucidate the possible cooperation between these oncoviruses in the development of CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
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Article
Comparison of Gut Bacterial Communities of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Different Host Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6843; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136843 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Intestinal symbiotic bacteria have played an important role in the digestion, immunity detoxification, mating, and reproduction of insects during long-term coevolution. The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an important fruit tree pest worldwide. However, the composition of the G. molesta microbial [...] Read more.
Intestinal symbiotic bacteria have played an important role in the digestion, immunity detoxification, mating, and reproduction of insects during long-term coevolution. The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an important fruit tree pest worldwide. However, the composition of the G. molesta microbial community, especially of the gut microbiome, remains unclear. To explore the differences of gut microbiota of G. molesta when reared on different host plants, we determined the gut bacterial structure when G. molesta was transferred from an artificial diet to different host plants (apples, peaches, nectarines, crisp pears, plums, peach shoots) by amplicon sequencing technology. The results showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes are dominant in the gut microbiota of G. molesta. Plum-feeding G. molesta had the highest richness and diversity of gut microbiota, while apple-feeding G. molesta had the lowest. PCoA and PERMANOVA analysis revealed that there were significant differences in the gut microbiota structure of G. molesta on different diets. PICRUSt2 analysis indicated that most of the functional prediction pathways were concentrated in metabolic and cellular processes. Our results confirmed that gut bacterial communities of G. molesta can be influenced by host diets and may play an important role in host adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
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Article
Putative LysM Effectors Contribute to Fungal Lifestyle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063147 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Fungal LysM effector proteins can dampen plant host–defence responses, protecting hyphae from plant chitinases, but little is known on these effectors from nonpathogenic fungal endophytes. We found four putative LysM effectors in the genome of the endophytic nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc123). All [...] Read more.
Fungal LysM effector proteins can dampen plant host–defence responses, protecting hyphae from plant chitinases, but little is known on these effectors from nonpathogenic fungal endophytes. We found four putative LysM effectors in the genome of the endophytic nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc123). All four genes encoding putative LysM effectors are expressed constitutively by the fungus. Additionally, the gene encoding Lys1—the smallest one—is the most expressed in banana roots colonised by the fungus. Pc123 Lys1, 2 and 4 display high homology with those of other strains of the fungus and phylogenetically close entomopathogenic fungi. However, Pc123 Lys3 displays low homology with other fungi, but some similarities are found in saprophytes. This suggests evolutionary divergence in Pc123 LysM effectors. Additionally, molecular docking shows that the NAcGl binding sites of Pc123 Lys 2, 3 and 4 are adjacent to an alpha helix. Putative LysM effectors from fungal endophytes, such as Pc123, differ from those of plant pathogenic fungi. LysM motifs from endophytic fungi show clear conservation of cysteines in Positions 13, 51 and 63, unlike those of plant pathogens. LysM effectors could therefore be associated with the lifestyle of a fungus and give us a clue of how organisms could behave in different environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
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Review

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Review
The Lung Microbiome during Health and Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10872; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910872 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Healthy human lungs have traditionally been considered to be a sterile organ. However, culture-independent molecular techniques have reported that large numbers of microbes coexist in the lung and airways. The lungs harbor diverse microbial composition that are undetected by previous approaches. Many studies [...] Read more.
Healthy human lungs have traditionally been considered to be a sterile organ. However, culture-independent molecular techniques have reported that large numbers of microbes coexist in the lung and airways. The lungs harbor diverse microbial composition that are undetected by previous approaches. Many studies have found significant differences in microbial composition between during health and respiratory disease. The lung microbiome is likely to not only influence susceptibility or causes of diseases but be affected by disease activities or responses to treatment. Although lung microbiome research has some limitations from study design to reporting, it can add further dimensionality to host-microbe interactions. Moreover, there is a possibility that extending understanding to the lung microbiome with new multiple omics approaches would be useful for developing both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for respiratory diseases in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
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Review
Bacterial Infection and Non-Hodgkin B-Cell Lymphoma: Interactions between Pathogen, Host and the Tumor Environment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147372 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid neoplasms with complex etiopathology, rich symptomatology, and a variety of clinical courses, therefore requiring different therapeutic approaches. The hypothesis that an infectious agent may initiate chronic inflammation and facilitate B lymphocyte transformation and [...] Read more.
Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid neoplasms with complex etiopathology, rich symptomatology, and a variety of clinical courses, therefore requiring different therapeutic approaches. The hypothesis that an infectious agent may initiate chronic inflammation and facilitate B lymphocyte transformation and lymphogenesis has been raised in recent years. Viruses, like EBV, HTLV-1, HIV, HCV and parasites, like Plasmodium falciparum, have been linked to the development of lymphomas. The association of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, Borrelia burgdorferi with cutaneous MALT lymphoma and Chlamydophila psittaci with ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma is well documented. Recent studies have indicated that other infectious agents may also be relevant in B-cell lymphogenesis such as Coxiella burnettii, Campylobacter jejuni, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Escherichia coli. The aim of the present review is to provide a summary of the current literature on infectious bacterial agents associated with B-cell NHL and to discuss its role in lymphogenesis, taking into account the interaction between infectious agents, host factors, and the tumor environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
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