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Special Issue "Human Saliva as a Source of Biomarkers for Oral Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alberto Spisni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
Interests: NMR; circular dichroism of proteins and peptides; protein and peptide structure; structural biology; metabolomics clinical applications; blood storage and transfusion
Prof. Dr. Marco Meleti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
Interests: Salivary Biomarkers; Salivary glands; Laser Therapy; Oral pigmented lesions; Potential malignant diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Thelma Pertinhez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In the past 10 years, we faced a tremendous surge in studies on salivary biomarkers, including gene transcripts, proteins, and metabolites. The use of “omics” sciences to study saliva has led to the definition of a new field of oral sciences: “salivomics”. The focus is to interpret the molecular content of each type of saliva in view of the physiological and pathological processes occurring in salivary glands, oral cavity, and the whole body.

The identification of specific salivary molecules associated with physiological or pathological states has promoted the development of novel and non-invasive diagnostic tools for oral health evaluation and biomarker identification.

Topics of the present Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Salivary biomarkers for dental and periodontal diagnosis
  • Salivary biomarkers and oral mucosal diseases
  • Salivary biomarkers and salivary gland diseases
  • Salivary biomarkers and jawbones diseases

The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the state-of the-art of the multifaceted aspects of saliva. Thus, we invite scientists to send original research articles as well as review articles to further stimulate the efforts necessary to comprehend the heterogeneity of the molecules present in saliva, the biochemical mechanisms they reflect, and the diagnostic potentiality they hide.

Prof. Dr. Alberto Spisni
Prof. Dr. Marco Meleti
Prof. Dr. Thelma Pertinhez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • saliva subtype composition
  • diagnosis
  • biomarkers
  • metabolites
  • proteins
  • miRNA

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Salivary Outer Membrane Vesicles and DNA Methylation of Small Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers for Periodontal Status: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052423 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, associated with a microbial dysbiosis. Early detection using salivary small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) biomarkers may facilitate timely prevention. sEVs derived from different species (i.e., humans, bacteria) are expected to circulate in saliva. This pilot study recruited 22 participants [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, associated with a microbial dysbiosis. Early detection using salivary small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) biomarkers may facilitate timely prevention. sEVs derived from different species (i.e., humans, bacteria) are expected to circulate in saliva. This pilot study recruited 22 participants (seven periodontal healthy, seven gingivitis and eight periodontitis) and salivary sEVs were isolated using the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method. The healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups were compared in terms of salivary sEVs in the CD9+ sEV subpopulation, Gram-negative bacteria-enriched lipopolysaccharide (LPS+) outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and global DNA methylation pattern of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and N6-Methyladenosine (m6dA). It was found that LPS+ OMVs, global 5mC methylation and four periodontal pathogens (T. denticola, E. corrodens, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum) that secreted OMVs were significantly increased in periodontitis sEVs compared to those from healthy groups. These differences were more pronounced in sEVs than the whole saliva and were more superior in distinguishing periodontitis than gingivitis, in comparison to healthy patients. Of note, global 5mC hypermethylation in salivary sEVs can distinguish periodontitis patients from both healthy controls and gingivitis patients with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 1). The research findings suggest that assessing global sEV methylation may be a useful biomarker for periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Saliva as a Source of Biomarkers for Oral Diseases)
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Review

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Review
Salivary Cytokines as Biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6795; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136795 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 516
Abstract
The prognosis of patients with oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) largely depends on the stage at diagnosis, the 5-year survival rate being approximately 30% for advanced tumors. Early diagnosis, including the detection of lesions at risk for malignant transformation, is crucial for limiting the [...] Read more.
The prognosis of patients with oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) largely depends on the stage at diagnosis, the 5-year survival rate being approximately 30% for advanced tumors. Early diagnosis, including the detection of lesions at risk for malignant transformation, is crucial for limiting the need for extensive surgery and for improving disease-free survival. Saliva has gained popularity as a readily available source of biomarkers (including cytokines) useful for diagnosing specific oral and systemic conditions. Particularly, the close interaction between oral dysplastic/neoplastic cells and saliva makes such fluid an ideal candidate for the development of non-invasive and highly accurate diagnostic tests. The present review has been designed to answer the question: “Is there evidence to support the role of specific salivary cytokines in the diagnosis of OSCC?” We retrieved 27 observational studies satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among the most frequent cytokines investigated as candidates for OSCC biomarkers, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α are present at higher concentration in the saliva of OSCC patients than in healthy controls and may therefore serve as basis for the development of rapid tests for early diagnosis of oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Saliva as a Source of Biomarkers for Oral Diseases)
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Review
A Bioinformatics Systems Biology Analysis of the Current Oral Proteomic Biomarkers and Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment of External Root Resorption
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063181 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 644
Abstract
External root resorption (ERR) is a silent destructive phenomenon detrimental to dental health. ERR may have multiple etiologies such as infection, inflammation, traumatic injuries, pressure, mechanical stimulations, neoplastic conditions, systemic disorders, or idiopathic causes. Often, if undiagnosed and untreated, ERR can lead to [...] Read more.
External root resorption (ERR) is a silent destructive phenomenon detrimental to dental health. ERR may have multiple etiologies such as infection, inflammation, traumatic injuries, pressure, mechanical stimulations, neoplastic conditions, systemic disorders, or idiopathic causes. Often, if undiagnosed and untreated, ERR can lead to the loss of the tooth or multiple teeth. Traditionally, clinicians have relied on radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images for the diagnosis of ERR; however, these techniques are not often precise or definitive and may require exposure of patients to more ionizing radiation than necessary. To overcome these shortcomings, there is an immense need to develop non-invasive approaches such as biomarker screening methods for rapid and precise diagnosis for ERR. In this review, we performed a literature survey for potential salivary or gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) proteomic biomarkers associated with ERR and analyzed the potential pathways leading to ERR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteomics biomarker survey that connects ERR to body biofluids which represents a novel approach to diagnose and even monitor treatment progress for ERR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Saliva as a Source of Biomarkers for Oral Diseases)
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