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Special Issue "Kinase Signal Transduction"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Atsushi Matsuzawa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Health Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan
Interests: kinase signal transduction; MAP kinase signaling; stress response; ubiquitination; post-translational modifications; redox signaling; cell death; innate immunity; inflammasome; cancer; drug toxicity
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Protein kinases phosphorylate a wide variety of substrates, the phosphorylation of which changes their conformation, activity, stability, intracellular localization, and affinity to other molecules. Therefore, protein kinases are critical for various biological functions and cellular processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, protein degradation, vesicle transport, cell growth and death, stress response, immunoregulation, and metabolism. Various types of protein kinases and their regulators have been identified and play a pivotal role in the determination of cell fate. Disregulation of the protein kinase signal transduction leads to various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, autoimmune disorder, neurodegeneration, heart failure, ischemia, and diabetes, indicating that protein kinases and their regulators are important therapeutic targets for these diseases. Thus, understanding of how protein kinases respond to stimuli and regulate cellular functions is crucial both biologically and clinically. This Special Issue, “Kinase Signal Transduction”, welcomes contributions in all areas of recent and current research associated with novel physiological and pathological functions and regulatory mechanisms of protein kinases, as shown above.

Prof. Dr. Atsushi Matsuzawa
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Article
Brefeldin A-Inhibited Guanine Nucleotide-Exchange Factor 1 (BIG1) Governs the Recruitment of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 2 (TRAF2) to Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1) Signaling Complexes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1869; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17111869 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3725
Abstract
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a critical mediator of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signaling. However, the regulatory mechanisms of TRAF2 are not fully understood. Here we show evidence that TRAF2 requires brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (BIG1) to be [...] Read more.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a critical mediator of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signaling. However, the regulatory mechanisms of TRAF2 are not fully understood. Here we show evidence that TRAF2 requires brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (BIG1) to be recruited into TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling complexes. In BIG1 knockdown cells, TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was attenuated and the sensitivity to TNF-α-induced apoptosis was increased. Since these trends correlated well with those of TRAF2 deficient cells as previously demonstrated, we tested whether BIG1 functions as an upstream regulator of TRAF2 in TNFR1 signaling. As expected, we found that knockdown of BIG1 suppressed TNF-α-dependent ubiquitination of TRAF2 that is required for JNK activation, and impaired the recruitment of TRAF2 to the TNFR1 signaling complex (complex I). Moreover, we found that the recruitment of TRAF2 to the death-inducing signaling complex termed complex II was also impaired in BIG1 knockdown cells. These results suggest that BIG1 is a key component of the machinery that drives TRAF2 to the signaling complexes formed after TNFR1 activation. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel and unexpected function of BIG1 that regulates TNFR1 signaling by targeting TRAF2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
TLR4-Activated MAPK-IL-6 Axis Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17091394 - 24 Aug 2016
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4097
Abstract
Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima is considered to be a vital event in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Despite substantial evidence supporting the pathogenic role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of atherogenesis, its function in the [...] Read more.
Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima is considered to be a vital event in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Despite substantial evidence supporting the pathogenic role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of atherogenesis, its function in the regulation of VSMC migration remains unclear. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which TLR4 regulates VSMC migration. Inhibitor experiments revealed that TLR4-induced IL-6 secretion and VSMC migration were mediated via the concerted actions of MyD88 and TRIF on the activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling. Neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibodies abrogated TLR4-driven VSMC migration and F-actin polymerization. Blockade of p38 MAPK or ERK1/2 signaling cascade inhibited TLR4 agonist-mediated activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Moreover, siRNA-mediated suppression of CREB production repressed TLR4-induced IL-6 production and VSMC migration. Rac-1 inhibitor suppressed TLR4-driven VSMC migration but not IL-6 production. Importantly, the serum level of IL-6 and TLR4 endogenous ligand HMGB1 was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) than in healthy subjects. Serum HMGB1 level was positively correlated with serum IL-6 level in CAD patients. The expression of both HMGB1 and IL-6 was clearly detected in the atherosclerotic tissue of the CAD patients. Additionally, there was a positive association between p-CREB and HMGB1 in mouse atherosclerotic tissue. Based on our findings, we concluded that, upon ligand binding, TLR4 activates p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling through MyD88 and TRIF in VSMCs. These signaling pathways subsequently coordinate an additive augmentation of CREB-driven IL-6 production, which in turn triggers Rac-1-mediated actin cytoskeleton to promote VSMC migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
Biological Effect of a Hybrid Anticancer Agent Based on Kinase and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Triple-Negative (MDA-MB231) Breast Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17081235 - 30 Jul 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2498
Abstract
We examined the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) combined with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1/2 inhibitor (3Z)-5-hydroxy-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (triple-negative) in the form of both a cocktail [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) combined with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1/2 inhibitor (3Z)-5-hydroxy-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (triple-negative) in the form of both a cocktail of the separate compounds and a chemically synthesized hybrid (N-hydroxy-N'-[(3Z)-2-oxo-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl]octanediamide). Comparative flow cytometric and Western blot analyses were performed on cocktail- and hybrid-treated cells to evaluate cell cycle distribution, autophagy/apoptosis modulation, and mitochondrial metabolic state in order to understand the cellular basis of the cytotoxic effect. Cell cycle analysis showed a perturbation of the rate of progression through the cycle, with aspects of redistribution of cells over different cycle phases for the two treatments. In addition, the results suggest that the two distinct classes of compounds under investigation could induce cell death by different preferential pathways, i.e., autophagy inhibition (the cocktail) or apoptosis promotion (the hybrid), thus confirming the enhanced potential of the hybrid approach vs. the combination approach in finely tuning the biological activities of target cells and also showing the hybrid compound as an additional promising drug-like molecule for the prevention or therapy of “aggressive” breast carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
Methylsulfonylmethane Induces p53 Independent Apoptosis in HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17071123 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4505
Abstract
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organic sulfur-containing compound which has been used as a dietary supplement for osteoarthritis. MSM has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as exhibit apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects depending on the cell type or activating stimuli. [...] Read more.
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organic sulfur-containing compound which has been used as a dietary supplement for osteoarthritis. MSM has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as exhibit apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects depending on the cell type or activating stimuli. However, there are still a lot of unknowns about the mechanisms of actions of MSM. In this study, MSM was tested on colon cancer cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometric analysis revealed that MSM inhibited cell viability and increased apoptotic markers in both HCT-116 p53 +/+ and HCT-116 p53 −/− colon cancer cells. Increased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fragmentation and caspase-3 activity by MSM also supported these findings. MSM also modulated the expression of various apoptosis-related genes and proteins. Moreover, MSM was found to increase c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation in both cell lines, dose-dependently. In conclusion, our results show for the first time that MSM induces apoptosis in HCT-116 colon cancer cells regardless of their p53 status. Since p53 is defective in >50% of tumors, the ability of MSM to induce apoptosis independently of p53 may offer an advantage in anti-tumor therapy. Moreover, the remarkable effect of MSM on Bim, an apoptotic protein, also suggests its potential use as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for Bim-targeted anti-cancer therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
PBK/TOPK Expression Predicts Prognosis in Oral Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1007; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17071007 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
Oral cancer is a common cancer with poor prognosis. We evaluated the expression of PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase) and its prognostic significance in oral cancer. PBK/TOPK expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 287 patients with oral cancer. The [...] Read more.
Oral cancer is a common cancer with poor prognosis. We evaluated the expression of PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase) and its prognostic significance in oral cancer. PBK/TOPK expression was measured by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 287 patients with oral cancer. The association between PBK/TOPK expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The prognostic value of PBK/TOPK for overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. A high PBK/TOPK expression level was correlated with long overall survival. The prognostic role of PBK/TOPK expression was significant in young patients (p < 0.05), patients with smoking habits (p < 0.05), and late stage disease (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that PBK/TOPK expression is enhanced in oral cancer. High PBK/TOPK expression, either alone or in subgroups according to clinicopathological features, may serve as a favorable prognostic marker for patients with oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 966; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17060966 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3374
Abstract
Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a [...] Read more.
Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
The CLC-2 Chloride Channel Modulates ECM Synthesis, Differentiation, and Migration of Human Conjunctival Fibroblasts via the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 910; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17060910 - 09 Jun 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that chloride channels are critical for cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We examined the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 on chloride channel expression and associations with human conjunctival fibroblast (HConF) biology. To investigate the potential role of chloride channel [...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests that chloride channels are critical for cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We examined the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 on chloride channel expression and associations with human conjunctival fibroblast (HConF) biology. To investigate the potential role of chloride channel (CLC)-2 in migration, transition to myofibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis of HconF, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach was applied. TGF-β1-induced migration and transition of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts characterized by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, supported by increased endogenous expression of CLC-2 protein and mRNA transcripts. ECM (collagen I and fibronectin) synthesis in HConF was enhanced by TGF-β1. CLC-2 siRNA treatment reduced TGF-β1-induced cell migration, transition of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and ECM synthesis of HConF. CLC-2 siRNA treatment in the presence of TGF-β1 inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in HConF. These findings demonstrate that CLC-2 chloride channels are important for TGF-β1-induced migration, differentiation, and ECM synthesis via PI3K/Akt signaling in HConF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 905; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17060905 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2956
Abstract
Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein [...] Read more.
Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK) on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC) counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
Knockdown of AMPKα2 Promotes Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation via mTOR/Skp2/p27Kip1 Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 844; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17060844 - 31 May 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3072
Abstract
It has been shown that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppresses proliferation of a variety of tumor cells as well as nonmalignant cells. In this study, we used post-transcriptional gene silencing with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically examine the effect [...] Read more.
It has been shown that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppresses proliferation of a variety of tumor cells as well as nonmalignant cells. In this study, we used post-transcriptional gene silencing with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically examine the effect of AMPK on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and to further elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that knockdown of AMPKα2 promoted primary cultured PASMCs proliferation; this was accompanied with the elevation of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) protein level and reduction of p27Kip1. Importantly, prior silencing of mTOR with siRNA abolished AMPKα2 knockdown-induced Skp2 upregulation, p27Kip1 reduction as well as PASMCs proliferation. Furthermore, pre-depletion of Skp2 by siRNA also eliminated p27Kip1 downregulation and PASMCs proliferation caused by AMPKα2 knockdown. Taken together, our study indicates that AMPKα2 isoform plays an important role in regulation of PASMCs proliferation by modulating mTOR/Skp2/p27Kip1 axis, and suggests that activation of AMPKα2 might have potential value in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
The Effect of Minimally Invasive Hematoma Aspiration on the JNK Signal Transduction Pathway after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 710; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17050710 - 13 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2751
Abstract
Objective: To explore the effect of minimally invasive hematoma aspiration (MIHA) on the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: In this experiment, 300 adult male Wistar rats were randomly and averagely divided into sham-operated group, [...] Read more.
Objective: To explore the effect of minimally invasive hematoma aspiration (MIHA) on the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: In this experiment, 300 adult male Wistar rats were randomly and averagely divided into sham-operated group, ICH group and MIHA group. In each group, 60 rats were used in the detection of indexes in this experiment, while the other 40 rats were used to replace rats which reached the exclusion criteria (accidental death or operation failure). In ICH group and MIHA group, ICH was induced by injection of 70 µL of autologous arterial blood into rat brain, while only the rats in MIHA group were treated by MIHA 6 h after ICH. Rats in sham-operated group were injected nothing into brains, and they were not treated either, like rats in ICH group. In each group, six rats were randomly selected to observe their Bederson’s scales persistently (6, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h after ICH). According to the time they were sacrificed, the remaining rats in each group were divided into 3 subgroups (24, 72, 120 h). The change of brain water content (BWC) was measured by the wet weight to dry weight ratio method. The morphology of neurons in cortex was observed by the hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining. The expressions of phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (pJNK) and JNK in peri-hematomal brain tissue were determined by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). Results: At all time points, compared with the ICH groups, the expression of pJNK decreased obviously in MIHA groups (p < 0.05), while their Bederson’s scales and BWC declined, and neuron injury in the cortex was relieved. The expression level of JNK was not altered at different groups. The data obtained by IHC and WB indicated a high-level of consistency, which provided a certain dependability of the test results. Conclusion: The JNK signal transduction pathway could be activated after intracerebral hemorrhage, with the expressions of pJNK increasing. MIHA could relieve the histo-pathological damage of nerve cells, reducing brain edema and neurological deficits, and these neuroprotective effects might be associated with suppression of JNK signal transduction pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Article
SARS Coronavirus Papain-Like Protease Inhibits the TLR7 Signaling Pathway through Removing Lys63-Linked Polyubiquitination of TRAF3 and TRAF6
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 678; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17050678 - 05 May 2016
Cited by 90 | Viewed by 4361
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLPro) reportedly inhibits the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) pathways. The study investigated the inhibitory effect and its antagonistic mechanism [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLPro) reportedly inhibits the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) pathways. The study investigated the inhibitory effect and its antagonistic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLPro on TLR7-mediated cytokine production. TLR7 agonist (imiquimod (IMQ)) concentration-dependently induced activation of ISRE-, NF-κB- and AP-1-luciferase reporters, as well as the production of IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 in human promonocyte cells. However, SARS-CoV PLPro significantly inhibited IMQ-induced cytokine production through suppressing the activation of transcription factors IRF-3, NF-κB and AP-1. Western blot analysis with anti-Lys48 and anti-Lys63 ubiquitin antibodies indicated the SARS-CoV PLPro removed Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains of TRAF3 and TRAF6, but not Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains in un-treated and treated cells. The decrease in the activated state of TRAF3 and TRAF6 correlated with the inactivation of TBK1 in response to IMQ by PLPro. The results revealed that the antagonism of SARS-CoV PLPro on TLR7-mediated innate immunity was associated with the negative regulation of TRAF3/6-TBK1-IRF3/NF-κB/AP1 signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Review

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Review
Post-Translational Modifications of the TAK1-TAB Complex
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18010205 - 19 Jan 2017
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 4694
Abstract
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family that is activated by growth factors and cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and mediates a wide range of biological processes through activation [...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family that is activated by growth factors and cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and mediates a wide range of biological processes through activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. It is well established that activation status of TAK1 is tightly regulated by forming a complex with its binding partners, TAK1-binding proteins (TAB1, TAB2, and TAB3). Interestingly, recent evidence indicates the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of TAK1 and TABs in the regulation of TAK1 activation. To date, a number of PTMs of TAK1 and TABs have been revealed, and these PTMs appear to fine-tune and coordinate TAK1 activities depending on the cellular context. This review therefore focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the PTMs of the TAK1-TAB complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Review
Focal Adhesion Kinase-Dependent Role of the Soluble Form of Neurotensin Receptor-3/Sortilin in Colorectal Cancer Cell Dissociation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1860; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17111860 - 08 Nov 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
The aim of the present review is to unravel the mechanisms of action of the soluble form of the neurotensin (NT) receptor-3 (NTSR3), also called Sortilin, in numerous physiopathological processes including cancer development, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Sortilin/NTSR3 is a transmembrane protein thought [...] Read more.
The aim of the present review is to unravel the mechanisms of action of the soluble form of the neurotensin (NT) receptor-3 (NTSR3), also called Sortilin, in numerous physiopathological processes including cancer development, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Sortilin/NTSR3 is a transmembrane protein thought to exert multiple functions both intracellularly and at the level of the plasma membrane. The Sortilin/NTSR3 extracellular domain is released by shedding from all the cells expressing the protein. Although the existence of the soluble form of Sortilin/NTSR3 (sSortilin/NTSR3) has been evidenced for more than 10 years, the studies focusing on the role of this soluble protein at the mechanistic level remain rare. Numerous cancer cells, including colonic cancer cells, express the receptor family of neurotensin (NT), and particularly Sortilin/NTSR3. This review aims to summarize the functional role of sSortilin/NTSR3 characterized in the colonic cancer cell line HT29. This includes mechanisms involving signaling cascades through focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a key pathway leading to the weakening of cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix adhesions, a series of events which could be responsible for cancer metastasis. Finally, some future approaches targeting the release of sNTSR3 through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Review
Homeodomain-Interacting Protein Kinase-2: A Critical Regulator of the DNA Damage Response and the Epigenome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1638; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17101638 - 27 Sep 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3144
Abstract
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates and activates the apoptotic program through interaction with diverse downstream targets including tumor suppressor p53. HIPK2 is activated by genotoxic stimuli and modulates cell fate following DNA damage. The DNA damage response [...] Read more.
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates and activates the apoptotic program through interaction with diverse downstream targets including tumor suppressor p53. HIPK2 is activated by genotoxic stimuli and modulates cell fate following DNA damage. The DNA damage response (DDR) is triggered by DNA lesions or chromatin alterations. The DDR regulates DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint activation, and apoptosis to restore genome integrity and cellular homeostasis. Maintenance of the DDR is essential to prevent development of diseases caused by genomic instability, including cancer, defects of development, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies reveal a novel HIPK2-mediated pathway for DDR through interaction with chromatin remodeling factor homeodomain protein 1γ. In this review, we will highlight the molecular mechanisms of HIPK2 and show its functions as a crucial DDR regulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Review
Kinase Signaling in Apoptosis Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids in Pancreatic β-Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17091400 - 12 Sep 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4104
Abstract
Pancreatic β-cell failure and death is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for type 2 diabetes. It is caused by, in addition to hyperglycemia, chronic exposure to increased concentrations of fatty acids, mainly saturated fatty acids. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis [...] Read more.
Pancreatic β-cell failure and death is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for type 2 diabetes. It is caused by, in addition to hyperglycemia, chronic exposure to increased concentrations of fatty acids, mainly saturated fatty acids. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in β-cells are not completely clear. It has been proposed that kinase signaling could be involved, particularly, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt kinases and their pathways. In this review, we discuss these kinases and their signaling pathways with respect to their possible role in apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in pancreatic β-cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Review
Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1495; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17091495 - 07 Sep 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4463
Abstract
Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the [...] Read more.
Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Review
Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17081307 - 10 Aug 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3457
Abstract
The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple [...] Read more.
The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5), sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3), sodium-chloride symporter (NCC), and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2); as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A). Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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Review
Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17071127 - 14 Jul 2016
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3332
Abstract
A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both [...] Read more.
A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances gene and protein expression of enzymes involved in the steroidogenic cascade. d-Asp also directly affects spermatogonial mitotic activity. In spermatogonial GC-1 cells, d-Asp induces phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT serine-threonine kinase proteins, and stimulates expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and aurora kinase B (AURKB). Further stimulation of spermatogonial GC-1 cell proliferation might come from estradiol/estrogen receptor β (ESR2) interaction. d-Asp modulates androgen and estrogen levels as well as the expression of their receptors in the rat epididymis by acting on mRNA levels of Srd5a1 and Cyp19a1 enzymes, hence suggesting involvement in spermatozoa maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction)
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