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Special Issue "Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tomotsugu Koyama
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bioorganic Research Institute, Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Kyoto 619-0284, Japan
Interests: gene regulation; leaf development; senscence; transcription factor; transgenic plant
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As our first Special Issue on "Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis" (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/leafmorphogenesis) was such a great success, we are now launching a second edition, with the deadline in 2021.

Leaf morphology is obviously determined in a plant. By contrast, its morphology is often changeable when the plant copes with various environmental changes. We can speculate that leaf morphogenesis is based on regulatory mechanisms with remarkable robustness and flexibility. Recent research has increasingly investigated the regulatory network of leaf morphogenesis, and revealed some important regulators functioning in leaf development, but a full view of the molecular mechanisms of leaf morphogenesis has yet to be obtained.

To update our understanding of leaf morphogenesis, this Special Issue will focus on the regulation of genes, proteins, hormones, and other metabolites for leaf morphogenesis in various plant species. It will further provide important insights into biochemical, developmental, and physiological events operating during morphogenesis. Emphasis will also be placed on the perspective views of how these molecular mechanisms contribute to the survival of plants and are applicable to improve plant traits.

Dr. Tomotsugu Koyama
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • genes
  • leaf morphogenesis
  • metabolites
  • plant hormones
  • proteins
  • regulation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
A MADS-Box Gene CiMADS43 Is Involved in Citrus Flowering and Leaf Development through Interaction with CiAGL9
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22105205 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
MADS-box genes are involved in various developmental processes including vegetative development, flower architecture, flowering, pollen formation, seed and fruit development. However, the function of most MADS-box genes and their regulation mechanism are still unclear in woody plants compared with model plants. In this [...] Read more.
MADS-box genes are involved in various developmental processes including vegetative development, flower architecture, flowering, pollen formation, seed and fruit development. However, the function of most MADS-box genes and their regulation mechanism are still unclear in woody plants compared with model plants. In this study, a MADS-box gene (CiMADS43) was identified in citrus. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed that CiMADS43 is a GOA-like Bsister MADS-box gene. It was localized in the nucleus and as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of CiMADS43 promoted early flowering and leaves curling in transgenic Arabidopsis. Besides, overexpression or knockout of CiMADS43 also showed leaf curl phenotype in citrus similar to that of CiMADS43 overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Protein–protein interaction found that a SEPALLATA (SEP)-like protein (CiAGL9) interacted with CiMADS43 protein. Interestingly, CiAGL9 also can bind to the CiMADS43 promoter and promote its transcription. Expression analysis also showed that these two genes were closely related to seasonal flowering and the development of the leaf in citrus. Our findings revealed the multifunctional roles of CiMADS43 in the vegetative and reproductive development of citrus. These results will facilitate our understanding of the evolution and molecular mechanisms of MADS-box genes in citrus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis 2.0)
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Article
Lighting Direction Affects Leaf Morphology, Stomatal Characteristics, and Physiology of Head Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063157 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Plants are exposed to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses, and light is one of the most important factors that influences the plant morphology. This study was carried out to examine how the lighting direction affected the plant morphology by investigating the growth parameters, [...] Read more.
Plants are exposed to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses, and light is one of the most important factors that influences the plant morphology. This study was carried out to examine how the lighting direction affected the plant morphology by investigating the growth parameters, epidermal cell elongation, stomatal properties, and physiological changes. Seedlings of two head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars, Caesar Green and Polla, were subjected to a 12 h photoperiod with a 300 μmol·m−2·s−1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) provided by light emitting diodes (LEDs) from three directions: the top, side, and bottom, relative to the plants. Compared with the top and side lighting, the bottom lighting increased the leaf angle and canopy by stimulating the epidermal cell elongation in leaf midrib, reduced the leaf number and root biomass, and induced large stomata with a low density, which is associated with reduced stomatal conductance and carbohydrate contents. However, the proline content and quantum yield exhibited no significant differences with the different lighting directions in both cultivars, which implies that the plants were under normal physiological conditions. In a conclusion, the lighting direction had a profound effect on the morphological characteristics of lettuce, where the plants adapted to the changing lighting environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis 2.0)
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Article
Morphological and Genetic Diversities of Habenaria radiata (Orchidaceae) in the Kinki Area, Japan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010311 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Floral organs have evolved from leaves for reproduction, and the morphological analyses help to understand the plant diversity and evolution. Habenaria radiata (syn. Pecteilis radiata) is a terrestrial orchid living in wetlands in Japan, Russia, South Korea, and China. The habitats of [...] Read more.
Floral organs have evolved from leaves for reproduction, and the morphological analyses help to understand the plant diversity and evolution. Habenaria radiata (syn. Pecteilis radiata) is a terrestrial orchid living in wetlands in Japan, Russia, South Korea, and China. The habitats of this plant in Japan have been reduced because of environmental destruction and overexploitation, and thus it is on the Red List of Japan as a Near Threatened species. One of the three petals of the H. radiata flower is called a lip or labellum, which resembles a flying white bird, egret, or white heron, with its proposed function being to attract pollinators. To understand the diversity of H. radiata plants in different areas, we examined the lip morphology and phylogeny of populations from eight habitats in the Kinki area, Japan. The complex shapes of the lips were quantified and presented as a radar chart, enabling characterization of the morphological difference among populations. Phylogenetic analysis with microsatellite markers that we generated showed the variation of genetic diversity among populations, suggesting the different degrees of inbreeding, outbreeding, and vegetative propagation. Our approach offers a basic method to characterize the morphological and genetic diversity in natural populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis 2.0)
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Review

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Review
YABBY Genes in the Development and Evolution of Land Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084139 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Mounting evidence from genomic and transcriptomic studies suggests that most genetic networks regulating the morphogenesis of land plant sporophytes were co-opted and modified from those already present in streptophyte algae and gametophytes of bryophytes sensu lato. However, thus far, no candidate genes [...] Read more.
Mounting evidence from genomic and transcriptomic studies suggests that most genetic networks regulating the morphogenesis of land plant sporophytes were co-opted and modified from those already present in streptophyte algae and gametophytes of bryophytes sensu lato. However, thus far, no candidate genes have been identified that could be responsible for “planation”, a conversion from a three-dimensional to a two-dimensional growth pattern. According to the telome theory, “planation” was required for the genesis of the leaf blade in the course of leaf evolution. The key transcription factors responsible for leaf blade development in angiosperms are YABBY proteins, which until recently were thought to be unique for seed plants. Yet, identification of a YABBY homologue in a green alga and the recent findings of YABBY homologues in lycophytes and hornworts suggest that YABBY proteins were already present in the last common ancestor of land plants. Thus, these transcriptional factors could have been involved in “planation”, which fosters our understanding of the origin of leaves. Here, we summarise the current data on functions of YABBY proteins in the vegetative and reproductive development of diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms as well as in the development of lycophytes. Furthermore, we discuss a putative role of YABBY proteins in the genesis of multicellular shoot apical meristems and in the evolution of leaves in early divergent terrestrial plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis 2.0)
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Review
Mechanisms of the Morphological Plasticity Induced by Phytohormones and the Environment in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 765; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020765 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Plants adapt to environmental changes by regulating their development and growth. As an important interface between plants and their environment, leaf morphogenesis varies between species, populations, or even shows plasticity within individuals. Leaf growth is dependent on many environmental factors, such as light, [...] Read more.
Plants adapt to environmental changes by regulating their development and growth. As an important interface between plants and their environment, leaf morphogenesis varies between species, populations, or even shows plasticity within individuals. Leaf growth is dependent on many environmental factors, such as light, temperature, and submergence. Phytohormones play key functions in leaf development and can act as molecular regulatory elements in response to environmental signals. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the effects of different environmental factors and phytohormone pathways on morphological plasticity and intend to summarize the advances in leaf development. In addition, we detail the molecular mechanisms of heterophylly, the representative of leaf plasticity, providing novel insights into phytohormones and the environmental adaptation in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis 2.0)
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Review
Juvenile Leaves or Adult Leaves: Determinants for Vegetative Phase Change in Flowering Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9753; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249753 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Vegetative leaves in Arabidopsis are classified as either juvenile leaves or adult leaves based on their specific traits, such as leaf shape and the presence of abaxial trichomes. The timing of the juvenile-to-adult phase transition during vegetative development, called the vegetative phase change, [...] Read more.
Vegetative leaves in Arabidopsis are classified as either juvenile leaves or adult leaves based on their specific traits, such as leaf shape and the presence of abaxial trichomes. The timing of the juvenile-to-adult phase transition during vegetative development, called the vegetative phase change, is a critical decision for plants, as this transition is associated with crop yield, stress responses, and immune responses. Juvenile leaves are characterized by high levels of miR156/157, and adult leaves are characterized by high levels of miR156/157 targets, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors. The discovery of this miR156/157-SPL module provided a critical tool for elucidating the complex regulation of the juvenile-to-adult phase transition in plants. In this review, we discuss how the traits of juvenile leaves and adult leaves are determined by the miR156/157-SPL module and how different factors, including embryonic regulators, sugar, meristem regulators, hormones, and epigenetic proteins are involved in controlling the juvenile-to-adult phase transition, focusing on recent insights into vegetative phase change. We also highlight outstanding questions in the field that need further investigation. Understanding how vegetative phase change is regulated would provide a basis for manipulating agricultural traits under various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis 2.0)
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