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Special Issue "MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nalini Santanam
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA
Interests: oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease; obesity; microRNA; biomarker; translational research; endometriosis; ovarian cancer
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MicroRNAs, which were discovered just a decade ago, have now revolutionized the biomedical field. Better understandings of their biogenesis, regulation, and function have evolved over time. The changes in microRNA profiles in diseased states have made microRNAs good diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Furthermore, the identifications of the targets of miRNAs have made microRNAs potential targets for therapies. The advent of premirs and antagomirs has helped us further understand the role of microRNAs in disease conditions. In addition, the discovery of circulating microRNAs and their tissue specificity has added to the value of microRNAs a biomarkers. With these exciting developments, this Special Issue focuses on “MicroRNAs in Various Disease States as Biomarkers”.

We invite investigators to submit both original research and review articles that explore the role of miRNAs in disease states and biomarkers. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

1. MicroRNAs as biomarkers: new tools and targets

2. Updates on microRNA regulation and editing

3. MicroRNAs as cancer biomarkers and drug resistance

4. Circulating microRNAs for type 2 diabetes

5. MicroRNA targets in cardiovascular disease

6. MicroRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases

7. MicroRNAs that are altered with aging

8. Mitochondrial associated microRNAs

Prof. Dr. Nalini Santanam
Dr. William Chi-shing Cho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microRNA biogenesis
  • microRNA editing
  • premiR (precursor miRNA)
  • antagomirs
  • biomarkers
  • cardiovascular microRNAs
  • circulating microRNAs
  • mitomiRs (mitochondrial microRNAs)
  • cancer microRNAs
  • diabetic microRNAs

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

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Article
Differential MicroRNA Expression Profile in Myxomatous Mitral Valve Prolapse and Fibroelastic Deficiency Valves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 753; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17050753 - 18 May 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse (MMVP) and fibroelastic deficiency (FED) are two common variants of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), which is a leading cause of mitral regurgitation worldwide. While pathohistological studies have revealed differences in extracellular matrix content in MMVP and FED, the [...] Read more.
Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse (MMVP) and fibroelastic deficiency (FED) are two common variants of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), which is a leading cause of mitral regurgitation worldwide. While pathohistological studies have revealed differences in extracellular matrix content in MMVP and FED, the molecular mechanisms underlying these two disease entities remain to be elucidated. By using surgically removed valvular specimens from MMVP and FED patients that were categorized on the basis of echocardiographic, clinical and operative findings, a cluster of microRNAs that expressed differentially were identified. The expressions of has-miR-500, -3174, -17, -1193, -646, -1273e, -4298, -203, -505, and -939 showed significant differences between MMVP and FED after applying Bonferroni correction (p < 0.002174). The possible involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of DMVD were further suggested by the presences of in silico predicted target sites on a number of genes reported to be involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis and marker genes for cellular composition of mitral valves, including decorin (DCN), aggrecan (ACAN), fibromodulin (FMOD), α actin 2 (ACTA2), extracellular matrix protein 2 (ECM2), desmin (DES), endothelial cell specific molecule 1 (ESM1), and platelet/ endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1), as well as inverse correlations of selected microRNA and mRNA expression in MMVP and FED groups. Our results provide evidence that distinct molecular mechanisms underlie MMVP and FED. Moreover, the microRNAs identified may be targets for the future development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
Association of the MicroRNA-146a SNP rs2910164 with Ischemic Stroke Incidence and Prognosis in a Chinese Population
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17050660 - 05 May 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
We conducted a case-control study investigating the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2910164 in microRNA (miR)-146a and the risk and prognosis of stroke. We recruited a total of 1139 ischemic stroke patients and 1585 sex- and age-matched control subjects. After a median follow-up [...] Read more.
We conducted a case-control study investigating the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2910164 in microRNA (miR)-146a and the risk and prognosis of stroke. We recruited a total of 1139 ischemic stroke patients and 1585 sex- and age-matched control subjects. After a median follow-up period of 4.5 years, 1071 of these ischemic stroke patients were then recruited for a prospective study. Our study revealed that rs2910164 was not associated with ischemic stroke incidence (odds ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.80–1.24; p = 0.985) by multivariate logistic regression. Meta-analysis of our case-control study and three others on Asian populations also suggested that there was no relationship between rs2910164 and ischemic stroke incidence. The significance of differences in long-term outcomes was examined by the log-rank test of the respective comparison groups. The prospective study showed that rs2910164 led to a 1.56-fold increased risk of stroke recurrence (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.10–2.20; p = 0.013) and a 2.13-fold increased risk of death caused by cardiovascular disease or stroke (Csdeath) (HR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.31–3.46; p = 0.002). The independent association of rs2910164 with stroke prognosis was evaluated using Cox regression models. Therefore, rs2910164 appears to be a strong predictor of stroke prognosis but not of stroke incidence in Asian populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
Downregulation of Plasma miR-215 in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Successful Discontinuation of Imatinib
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 570; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040570 - 15 Apr 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Approximately 40% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients who discontinue imatinib (IM) therapy maintain undetectable minimal residual disease (UMRD) for more than one year (stopping IM (STOP-IM)). To determine a possible biomarker for STOP-IM CML, we examined plasma miRNA expression in CML patients [...] Read more.
Approximately 40% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients who discontinue imatinib (IM) therapy maintain undetectable minimal residual disease (UMRD) for more than one year (stopping IM (STOP-IM)). To determine a possible biomarker for STOP-IM CML, we examined plasma miRNA expression in CML patients who were able to discontinue IM. We first screened candidate miRNAs in unselected STOP-IM patients, who had sustained UMRD after discontinuing IM for more than six months, in comparison with healthy volunteers, by using a TaqMan low-density array for plasma or exosomes. Exosomal miR-215 and plasma miR-215 were downregulated in the STOP-IM group compared to the control, indicating that the biological relevance of the plasma miR-215 level is equivalent to that of the exosomal level. Next, we performed real-time quantitative RT-PCR in 20 STOP-IM patients, 32 patients with UMRD on continued IM therapy (IM group) and 28 healthy volunteers. The plasma miRNA-215 level was significantly downregulated in the STOP-IM group (p < 0.0001); we determined the cut-off level and divided the IM group patients into two groups according to whether the plasma miR-215 was downregulated or not. The IM group patients with a low plasma miR-215 level had a significantly higher total IM intake, compared to the patients with elevated miR-215 levels (p = 0.0229). Functional annotation of miR-215 target genes estimated by the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) bioinformatic tools involved cell cycle, mitosis, DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint. Our study suggests a possible role of miR-215 in successful IM discontinuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
MicroRNA-15b Modulates Molecular Mediators of Blood Induced Arthropathy in Hemophilia Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040492 - 08 Apr 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
The development of arthropathy is a major co-morbidity in patients with hemophilia. The present study was designed to study the role of a microRNA biomarker (miR-15b) in the development of joint disease. To investigate the expression profile of miR-15b during the development of [...] Read more.
The development of arthropathy is a major co-morbidity in patients with hemophilia. The present study was designed to study the role of a microRNA biomarker (miR-15b) in the development of joint disease. To investigate the expression profile of miR-15b during the development of arthropathy, we first isolated and studied small RNA from the acute and chronic hemarthrosis model of hemophilia A mice. We observed that miR-15b was consistently repressed (~1- to 4-fold) from the onset of joint bleeding (1, 3, 7 and 24 h) until six bleeding episodes (up to 90 days). To test if reconstitution of miR-15b modulates biomarkers of joint damage in a chronic hemarthrosis model, we administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) 5-miR-15b vector intra-articularly alone or in combination with systemic administration of AAV2-factor VIII. miR-15b overexpression downregulated markers of angiogenesis and hypoxia (vascular epithelial growth factor α (VEGF-α) and hypoxia inducing factor 2α (HIF-2α), ~70% and ~34%, respectively) in the affected joints. In addition, the co-administration of miR-15b and factor VIII vectors reduced the levels of the chondrodegenerative matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 3, 9 and 14 (~14% to 60%) in the injured joints. These data demonstrate for the first time the role of a miR-15b in the development of hemophilic arthropathy and has implications in development of miR based therapies for joint disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
Microarray Study of Pathway Analysis Expression Profile Associated with MicroRNA-29a with Regard to Murine Cholestatic Liver Injuries
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17030324 - 01 Mar 2016
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 2997
Abstract
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that microRNA-29 (miR-29) expression is prominently decreased in patients with hepatic fibrosis, which consequently stimulates hepatic stellate cells’ (HSCs) activation. We used a cDNA microarray study to gain a more comprehensive understanding of genome-wide gene expressions by adjusting miR-29a expression [...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that microRNA-29 (miR-29) expression is prominently decreased in patients with hepatic fibrosis, which consequently stimulates hepatic stellate cells’ (HSCs) activation. We used a cDNA microarray study to gain a more comprehensive understanding of genome-wide gene expressions by adjusting miR-29a expression in a bile duct-ligation (BDL) animal model. Methods: Using miR-29a transgenic mice and wild-type littermates and applying the BDL mouse model, we characterized the function of miR-29a with regard to cholestatic liver fibrosis. Pathway enrichment analysis and/or specific validation were performed for differentially expressed genes found within the comparisons. Results: Analysis of the microarray data identified a number of differentially expressed genes due to the miR-29a transgene, BDL, or both. Additional pathway enrichment analysis revealed that TGF-β signaling had a significantly differential activated pathway depending on the occurrence of miR-29a overexpression or the lack thereof. Furthermore, overexpression was found to elicit changes in Wnt/β-catenin after BDL. Conclusion: This study verified that an elevated miR-29a level could alleviate liver fibrosis caused by cholestasis. Furthermore, the protective effects of miR-29a correlate with the downregulation of TGF-β and associated with Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway following BDL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
miR-30-5p Regulates Muscle Differentiation and Alternative Splicing of Muscle-Related Genes by Targeting MBNL
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17020182 - 29 Jan 2016
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3432
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of single stranded, small (~22 nucleotides), non-coding RNAs, play an important role in muscle development. We focused on the role of the miR-30-5p family during bovine muscle development from previous high-throughput sequencing results and analyzed their expression profiles. MHC [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of single stranded, small (~22 nucleotides), non-coding RNAs, play an important role in muscle development. We focused on the role of the miR-30-5p family during bovine muscle development from previous high-throughput sequencing results and analyzed their expression profiles. MHC and MyoG mRNAs expression as well as their proteins were suppressed in differentiated C2C12 cells, suggesting the importance of miR-30-5p in muscle development. MBNL, the candidate target of miR-30-5p, is an alternative splicing regulation factor. MBNL1 and MBNL3 have opposite effects on muscle differentiation. Our results confirmed that miR-30a-5p and miR-30e-5p repress the expression of MBNL1, MBNL2 and MBNL3, whereas miR-30b-5p inhibits MBNL1 and MBNL2 expression. This provides direct evidence that MBNL expression can be flexibly regulated by miR-30-5p. Previous studies showed that MBNL1 promotes exon inclusion of two muscle-related genes (Trim55 and INSR). Through RNA splicing studies, we found that miR-30-5p had an effect on their alternative splicing, which means miR-30-5p via MBNL1 could be integrated into muscle signaling pathways in which INSR or Trim55 are located. In conclusion, miR-30-5p could inhibit muscle cell differentiation and regulate the alternative splicing of Trim55 and INSR by targeting MBNL. These results promote the understanding of the function of miRNAs in muscle development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
MicroRNA-214 and MicroRNA-126 Are Potential Biomarkers for Malignant Endothelial Proliferative Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25377-25391; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161025377 - 23 Oct 2015
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
Malignant endothelial proliferative diseases including human angiosarcoma (AS) and canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) are serious diseases with a grave prognosis. Establishing liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for screening has definite clinical utility; however, plasma miRNAs up- or down-regulated in these sarcomas have been unclear. For identifying [...] Read more.
Malignant endothelial proliferative diseases including human angiosarcoma (AS) and canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) are serious diseases with a grave prognosis. Establishing liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for screening has definite clinical utility; however, plasma miRNAs up- or down-regulated in these sarcomas have been unclear. For identifying possible diagnostic plasma miRNAs for these sarcomas, we investigated whether plasma miR-214 and miR-126, which miRNAs play important roles in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, were elevated in malignant endothelial proliferative diseases. For this investigation, human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines and clinical plasma samples of canine hemangiosarcoma were examined by performing miRNA qRT-PCR. We report here that human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126 via microvesicles; in addition, their levels in the plasma samples from canines with hemangiosarcoma were increased. Moreover, the surgical resection of primary tumors decreased the levels of plasma miR-214 and miR-126. Our findings suggest that these malignant endothelial proliferative diseases over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126, thus suggesting that these miRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for malignant endothelial proliferative diseases in canine and possible in human angiosarcoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
MicroRNAs in Salivary Exosome as Potential Biomarkers of Aging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21294-21309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms160921294 - 07 Sep 2015
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 4376
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine whether salivary exosomal miRNAs could be identified as aging biomarkers. Fifteen young healthy volunteers (median age, 21.0 years) and 13 old individuals (median age, 66.0 years) were recruited. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, salivary exosomes [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine whether salivary exosomal miRNAs could be identified as aging biomarkers. Fifteen young healthy volunteers (median age, 21.0 years) and 13 old individuals (median age, 66.0 years) were recruited. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, salivary exosomes were isolated, and total RNA was extracted. In a microarray, 242 miRNAs were commonly detected in these two mixed samples. Based on the cut-off values of 2- or 0.5-fold changes (FC) and regulatory power for aging process, six candidate miRNAs (miR-24-3p, miR-371a-5p, miR-3175, miR-3162-5p, miR-671-5p, and miR-4667-5p) were selected. After comparing each total RNA obtained by the 15 young and 13 old individuals to validate the FC values using quantitative real-time PCR, miR-24-3p was identified as a novel candidate aging biomarker. This pilot study suggested that salivary exosomal miRNAs could be identified as candidate aging biomarkers. To confirm whether miR-24-3p in salivary exosomes are suitable biomarkers of aging, further validation research is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Article
A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 18312-18327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms160818312 - 06 Aug 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3270
Abstract
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis [...] Read more.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT) counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review

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Review
Involvement and Clinical Aspects of MicroRNA in Osteosarcoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 877; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17060877 - 03 Jun 2016
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents, but its pathogenesis has been difficult to establish because of its well-known heterogeneous nature. OS has been associated with genetic and cytogenetic abnormalities, which include function-impairing mutations in tumor suppressors [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents, but its pathogenesis has been difficult to establish because of its well-known heterogeneous nature. OS has been associated with genetic and cytogenetic abnormalities, which include function-impairing mutations in tumor suppressors and the activation of oncogenes. OS tumorigenesis has been linked to alterations of several genes characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA amplifications and deletions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), 18–25-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, are critical for various biological processes like differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Dysregulation of miRNA expression leads to phenotypic and genotypic changes in cells, which leads to cancer. Studies on miRNAs have initiated a significant effect in both diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the current knowledge of clinical applications of miRNAs for the better diagnosis and management of OS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
Review
Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Biliary Tract Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 791; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17050791 - 23 May 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3630
Abstract
Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a group of highly aggressive malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. The current diagnosis is based mainly on imaging and intraoperative exploration due to brush cytology havinga low sensitivity and the standard markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) [...] Read more.
Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a group of highly aggressive malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. The current diagnosis is based mainly on imaging and intraoperative exploration due to brush cytology havinga low sensitivity and the standard markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate 19-9 (CA19-9), not having enough sensitivity nor specificity to be used in a differential diagnosis and early stage detection. Thus, better non-invasive methods that can distinguish between normal and pathological tissue are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules of ~20–22 nucleotides that regulate relevant physiological mechanisms and can also be involved in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are detectable in multiple body fluids, showing great stability, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles, such as exosomes. miRNAs are ideal biomarkers that may be used in screening and prognosis in biliary tract cancers, aiding also in the clinical decisions at different stages of cancer treatment. This review highlights the progress in the analysis of circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma and bile as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of BTCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
Overview of MicroRNAs in Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fibrosis, and Apoptosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 749; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17050749 - 18 May 2016
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 4313
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in modulating the gene expression in almost all biological events. In the past decade, the involvement of miRNAs in various cardiovascular disorders has been explored in numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in modulating the gene expression in almost all biological events. In the past decade, the involvement of miRNAs in various cardiovascular disorders has been explored in numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In this paper, studies focused upon the discovery of miRNAs, their target genes, and functionality are reviewed. The selected miRNAs discussed herein have regulatory effects on target gene expression as demonstrated by miRNA/3′ end untranslated region (3′UTR) interaction assay and/or gain/loss-of-function approaches. The listed miRNA entities are categorized according to the biological relevance of their target genes in relation to three cardiovascular pathologies, namely cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Furthermore, comparison across 86 studies identified several candidate miRNAs that might be of particular importance in the ontogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as they modulate the expression of clusters of target genes involved in the progression of multiple adverse cardiovascular events. This review illustrates the involvement of miRNAs in diverse biological signaling pathways and provides an overview of current understanding of, and progress of research into, of the roles of miRNAs in cardiovascular health and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
Pathogens Use and Abuse MicroRNAs to Deceive the Immune System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040538 - 09 Apr 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) play a role in the survival and amplification of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. There are various ways in which pathogens can benefit from miR-directed alterations in protein translation and signal transduction. Members of the herpesviridae [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) play a role in the survival and amplification of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. There are various ways in which pathogens can benefit from miR-directed alterations in protein translation and signal transduction. Members of the herpesviridae family have previously been shown to encode multiple miRs, while the production of miRs by viruses like HIV-1 remained controversial. Recently, novel techniques have facilitated the elucidation of true miR targets by establishing miR-argonaute association and the subsequent interactions with their cognate cellular mRNAs. This, in combination with miR reporter assays, has generated physiologically relevant evidence that miRs from the herpesviridae family have the potential to downregulate multiple cellular targets, which are involved in immune activation, cytokine signaling and apoptosis. In addition, viruses and bacteria have also been linked to the induction of host cellular miRs, which have the capacity to mitigate immune activation, cytokine signaling and apoptosis. Interfering with miR expression may be clinically relevant. In the case of hepatitis C infection, the cellular miR-122 is already targeted therapeutically. This not only exemplifies how important miRs can be for the survival of specific viruses, but it also delineates the potential to use miRs as drug targets. In this paper we will review the latest reports on viruses and bacteria that abuse miR regulation for their benefit, which may be of interest in the development of miR-directed therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
Matrix Hyaluronan Promotes Specific MicroRNA Upregulation Leading to Drug Resistance and Tumor Progression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 517; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040517 - 07 Apr 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Solid tumor invasion, metastasis and therapeutic drug resistance are the common causes for serious morbidity and cancer recurrence in patients. A number of research studies have searched for malignancy-related biomarkers and drug targets that are closely linked to tumor cell properties. One of [...] Read more.
Solid tumor invasion, metastasis and therapeutic drug resistance are the common causes for serious morbidity and cancer recurrence in patients. A number of research studies have searched for malignancy-related biomarkers and drug targets that are closely linked to tumor cell properties. One of the candidates is matrix hyaluronan (HA), which is known as one of the major extracellular matrix (ECM) components. HA serves as a physiological ligand for surface CD44 molecule and also functions as a bio-regulator. The binding of HA to CD44 has been shown to stimulate concomitant activation of a number of oncogenic pathways and abnormal cellular processes in cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small RNAs containing ~20–25 nucleotides and are known to promote aberrant cellular functions in cancer cells. In this article, I have focused on the role of HA interaction with CD44 and several important signaling molecules in the regulation of unique miRNAs (e.g., miR-21, miR-302 and miR-10b) and their downstream targets leading to multiple tumor cell-specific functions (e.g., tumor cell growth, drug resistance and metastasis) and cancer progression. This new knowledge could provide the groundwork necessary for establishing new tumor markers and developing important, novel drugs targeted against HA/CD44-associated tumor progression, which can be utilized in the therapeutic treatment of metastatic cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
MicroRNA and Heart Failure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040502 - 06 Apr 2016
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
Heart failure (HF) imposes significant economic and public health burdens upon modern society. It is known that disturbances in neurohormonal status play an important role in the pathogenesis of HF. Therapeutics that antagonize selected neurohormonal pathways, specifically the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, [...] Read more.
Heart failure (HF) imposes significant economic and public health burdens upon modern society. It is known that disturbances in neurohormonal status play an important role in the pathogenesis of HF. Therapeutics that antagonize selected neurohormonal pathways, specifically the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, have significantly improved patient outcomes in HF. Nevertheless, mortality remains high with about 50% of HF patients dying within five years of diagnosis thus mandating ongoing efforts to improve HF management. The discovery of short noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and our increasing understanding of their functions, has presented potential therapeutic applications in complex diseases, including HF. Results from several genome-wide miRNA studies have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in HF cohorts suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of HF and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets. Unravelling the functional relevance of miRNAs within pathogenic pathways is a major challenge in cardiovascular research. In this article, we provide an overview of the role of miRNAs in the cardiovascular system. We highlight several HF-related miRNAs reported from selected cohorts and review their putative roles in neurohormonal signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
Diagnosing Lung Cancers through Examination of Micro-RNA Biomarkers in Blood, Plasma, Serum and Sputum: A Review and Summary of Current Literature
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040494 - 01 Apr 2016
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3291
Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the vast majority of lung cancers are diagnosed at a late stage, when patients become symptomatic leading to dismal, less than 15% five-year survival rates. Evidence has demonstrated that [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the vast majority of lung cancers are diagnosed at a late stage, when patients become symptomatic leading to dismal, less than 15% five-year survival rates. Evidence has demonstrated that screening computed tomography scans can be used to detect lung cancer, but these scans have high false positive rates. Therefore, there is a continued need for the development of minimally-invasive methods to screen the high risk population and diagnose lung cancer at an earlier, curable stage. One such promising area is the use micro-RNAs. These are short, non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown in previous research to be dysregulated in cancers. This review will focus on the potential use of miRNA levels in various biological fluids (whole blood, plasma, serum, and sputum) and demonstrate their potential utility as screening and diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer. Current research will be analyzed and compared, and future directions in establishing the use of miRNAs for detecting lung cancer will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
Review
Emerging Role of miRNAs in the Drug Resistance of Gastric Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 424; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17030424 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 3659
Abstract
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Unfortunately, most gastric cancer cases are diagnosed in an advanced, non-curable stage and with a limited response to chemotherapy. Drug resistance is one of the most important causes of therapy failure in [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Unfortunately, most gastric cancer cases are diagnosed in an advanced, non-curable stage and with a limited response to chemotherapy. Drug resistance is one of the most important causes of therapy failure in gastric cancer patients. Although the mechanisms of drug resistance have been broadly studied, the regulation of these mechanisms has not been completely understood. Accumulating evidence has recently highlighted the role of microRNAs in the development and maintenance of drug resistance due to their regulatory features in specific genes involved in the chemoresistant phenotype of malignancies, including gastric cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the miRNAs’ characteristics, their regulation of the genes involved in chemoresistance and their potential as targeted therapies for personalized treatment in resistant gastric cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Theranostics in Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17030421 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 84 | Viewed by 4850
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PC) includes several phenotypes, from indolent to highly aggressive cancer. Actual diagnostic and prognostic tools have several limitations, and there is a need for new biomarkers to stratify patients and assign them optimal therapies by taking into account potential genetic and [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PC) includes several phenotypes, from indolent to highly aggressive cancer. Actual diagnostic and prognostic tools have several limitations, and there is a need for new biomarkers to stratify patients and assign them optimal therapies by taking into account potential genetic and epigenetic differences. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small sequences of non-coding RNA regulating specific genes involved in the onset and development of PC. Stable miRNAs have been found in biofluids, such as serum and plasma; thus, the measurement of PC-associated miRNAs is emerging as a non-invasive tool for PC detection and monitoring. In this study, we conduct an in-depth literature review focusing on miRNAs that may contribute to the diagnosis and prognosis of PC. The role of miRNAs as a potential theranostic tool in PC is discussed. Using a meta-analysis approach, we found a group of 29 miRNAs with diagnostic properties and a group of seven miRNAs with prognostic properties, which were found already expressed in both biofluids and PC tissues. We tested the two miRNA groups on The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset of PC tissue samples with a machine-learning approach. Our results suggest that these 29 miRNAs should be considered as potential panel of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PC, both as in vivo non-invasive test and ex vivo confirmation test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
MicroRNAs in Osteoclastogenesis and Function: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Osteoporosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 349; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17030349 - 09 Mar 2016
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 3895
Abstract
Abnormal osteoclast formation and resorption play a fundamental role in osteoporosis pathogenesis. Over the past two decades, much progress has been made to target osteoclasts. The existing therapeutic drugs include bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin and receptor activator of [...] Read more.
Abnormal osteoclast formation and resorption play a fundamental role in osteoporosis pathogenesis. Over the past two decades, much progress has been made to target osteoclasts. The existing therapeutic drugs include bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin and receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor (denosumab), etc. Among them, bisphosphonates are most widely used due to their low price and high efficiency in reducing the risk of fracture. However, bisphosphonates still have their limitations, such as the gastrointestinal side-effects, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical subtrochanteric fracture. Based on the current situation, research for new drugs to regulate bone resorption remains relevant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new group of small, noncoding RNAs of 19–25 nucleotides, which negatively regulate gene expression after transcription. Recent studies discovered miRNAs play a considerable function in bone remodeling by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function. An increasing number of miRNAs have been identified to participate in osteoclast formation, differentiation, apoptosis, and resorption. miRNAs show great promise to serve as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of how miRNAs regulate osteoclastogenesis and function. We will further discuss the approach to develop drugs for osteoporosis based on these miRNA networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17030280 - 24 Feb 2016
Cited by 119 | Viewed by 6175
Abstract
Serum levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and α-fetoprotein, provide insight into liver function and are used during treatment of liver disease, but such information is limited. In the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is often not detected [...] Read more.
Serum levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and α-fetoprotein, provide insight into liver function and are used during treatment of liver disease, but such information is limited. In the case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is often not detected until an advanced stage, more sensitive biomarkers may help to achieve earlier detection. Serum also contains microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression. miR-122 is specific to the liver and correlates strongly with liver enzyme levels and necroinflammatory activity, and other microRNAs are correlated with the degree of fibrosis. miR-122 has also been found to be required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, whereas other microRNAs have been shown to play antiviral roles. miR-125a-5p and miR-1231 have been shown to directly target hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts, and others are up- or down-regulated in infected individuals. MicroRNA profiles also differ in the case of HBV and HCV infection as well as between HBeAg-positive and negative patients, and in patients with occult versus active HBV infection. In such patients, monitoring of changes in microRNA profiles might provide earlier warning of neoplastic changes preceding HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
Implications of MicroRNAs in the Treatment of Gefitinib-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17020237 - 15 Feb 2016
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4475
Abstract
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents about 85% of the reported cases of lung cancer. Acquired resistance to targeted therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as gefitinib, is not uncommon. It is thus vital to explore novel strategies to [...] Read more.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents about 85% of the reported cases of lung cancer. Acquired resistance to targeted therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as gefitinib, is not uncommon. It is thus vital to explore novel strategies to restore sensitivity to gefitinib. Provided that microRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate their gene targets at the transcriptional level, it is speculated that miRNA mimetics may reduce the expression, activity and signal transduction of EGFR so that sensitization of tumour sites to gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity can be achieved. Indeed, a growing body of evidence has shown that the manipulation of endogenous levels of miRNA not only attenuates the EGFR/PI3K/Akt phosphorylation cascade, but also restores apoptotic cell death in in vitro models of experimentally-induced gefitinib resistance and provoked tumour regression/shrinkage in xenograft models. These data are in concordant with the clinical data showing that the differential expression profiles of miRNA in tumour tissues and blood associate strongly with drug response and overall survival. Furthermore, another line of studies indicate that the chemopreventive effects of a variety of natural compounds may involve miRNAs. The present review aims to discuss the therapeutic capacity of miRNAs in relation to recent discoveries on EGFR-TKI resistance, including chronic drug exposure and mutations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
miRNAs Regulation and Its Role as Biomarkers in Endometriosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17010093 - 13 Jan 2016
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 3746
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (18–22 nt) that function as modulators of gene expression. Since their discovery in 1993 in C. elegans, our knowledge about their biogenesis, function, and mechanism of action has increased enormously, especially in recent years, with the [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (18–22 nt) that function as modulators of gene expression. Since their discovery in 1993 in C. elegans, our knowledge about their biogenesis, function, and mechanism of action has increased enormously, especially in recent years, with the development of deep-sequencing technologies. New biogenesis pathways and sources of miRNAs are changing our concept about these molecules. The study of the miRNA contribution to pathological states is a field of great interest in research. Different groups have reported the implication of miRNAs in pathologies such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and gynecological diseases. It is also well-known that miRNAs are present in biofluids (plasma, serum, urine, semen, and menstrual blood) and have been proposed as ideal candidates as disease biomarkers. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge in the field of miRNAs with a special emphasis to their role in endometriosis and the newest investigations addressing the use of miRNAs as biomarkers for this gynecological disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Sepsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17010078 - 09 Jan 2016
Cited by 112 | Viewed by 5775
Abstract
Sepsis represents a major cause of lethality during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Pharmacological treatment strategies for sepsis are still limited and mainly based on the early initiation of antibiotic and supportive treatment. In this context, numerous clinical and serum based markers have [...] Read more.
Sepsis represents a major cause of lethality during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Pharmacological treatment strategies for sepsis are still limited and mainly based on the early initiation of antibiotic and supportive treatment. In this context, numerous clinical and serum based markers have been evaluated for the diagnosis, the severity, and the etiology of sepsis. However until now, few of these factors could be translated into clinical use. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) do not encode for proteins but regulate gene expression by inhibiting the translation or transcription of their target mRNAs. Recently it was demonstrated that miRNAs are released into the circulation and that the spectrum of circulating miRNAs might be altered during various pathologic conditions, such as inflammation, infection, and sepsis. By using array- and single PCR-based methods, a variety of deregulated miRNAs, including miR-25, miR-133a, miR-146, miR-150, and miR-223, were described in the context of sepsis. Some of the miRNAs correlated with the disease stage, as well as patients’ short and long term prognosis. Here, we summarize the current findings on the role of circulating miRNAs in the diagnosis and staging of sepsis in critically ill patients. We compare data from patients with findings from animal models and, finally, highlight the challenges and drawbacks that currently prevent the use of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers in clinical routine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Review
miRNAs and Other Epigenetic Changes as Biomarkers in Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28347-28376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161226090 - 30 Nov 2015
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 5060
Abstract
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterised by the lack of receptors for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). Since it cannot be treated by current endocrine therapies which target these receptors and due to its aggressive nature, [...] Read more.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterised by the lack of receptors for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). Since it cannot be treated by current endocrine therapies which target these receptors and due to its aggressive nature, it has one of the worst prognoses of all breast cancer subtypes. The only treatments remain chemo- and/or radio-therapy and surgery and because of this, novel biomarkers or treatment targets are urgently required to improve disease outcomes. MicroRNAs represent an attractive candidate for targeted therapies against TNBC, due to their natural ability to act as antisense interactors and regulators of entire gene sets involved in malignancy and their superiority over mRNA profiling to accurately classify disease. Here we review the current knowledge regarding miRNAs as biomarkers in TNBC and their potential use as therapeutic targets in this disease. Further, we review other epigenetic changes and interactions of these changes with microRNAs in this breast cancer subtype, which may lead to the discovery of new treatment targets for TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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Brief Report
Oncogenic MicroRNAs Characterization in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29219-29225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161226160 - 08 Dec 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
A key challenge for the improvement of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) management could derive from a deeper characterization of the biology of these neoplasms that could greatly improve the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment choice. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
A key challenge for the improvement of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) management could derive from a deeper characterization of the biology of these neoplasms that could greatly improve the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment choice. The aim of this study was to identify specific miRNAs that are deregulated in tumor vs. normal kidney tissues and that could impact on the biology of ccRCC. To this end we selected four miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-210-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-221-3p) and their expression has been evaluated in a retrospective cohort of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from 20 ccRCC patients who underwent surgical nephrectomy resection. miR-21-5p and miR-210-3p resulted the most significantly up-regulated miRNAs in this patient cohort, highlighting these onco-miRNAs as possible relevant players involved in ccRCC tumorigenesis. Thus, this study reports the identification of specific oncogenic miRNAs that are altered in ccRCC tissues and suggests that they might be useful biomarkers in ccRCC management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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