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Special Issue "Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge 2020"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past several decades, the beneficial properties of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) have become extremely popular among the majority of the population. Usually, nutritionists recommend fish and nuts as dietary sources, and it has become a common practice to take ω-3 PUFA supplements for various accepted health reasons. On this basis, and in order to prevent them from becoming considered as a panacea on a non-scientific basis, there is an urgent need to gather recent scientific knowledge in the field, so as to precisely outline the current documented and specific ω-3 PUFA healthy properties as well as their possible harmful effects. This Special Issue intends to cover new advances in: (a) ω-3 PUFA effects and mechanisms of action in the areas of cardiovascular health, physiological development of the central nervous system, maintenance of cognitive functions, vision and mental health, as well as aging, immunity, inflammation, metabolism, epigenetics, and cancer; (b) the combination of ω-3 PUFA with other preventive or therapeutic agents; (c) genetic or metabolic conditions—and others—that could make individuals more/less sensitive to the effects of ω-3 PUFA; and (d) innovative ω-3 PUFA sources and delivery.

Prof. Gabriella Calviello
Dr. Simona Serini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aging
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • delivery
  • inflammation
  • nanomaterials
  • neurologic disorders
  • omega-3 PUFA
  • personalized medicine
  • prevention and therapy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Ileum Gene Expression in Response to Acute Systemic Inflammation in Mice Chronically Fed Ethanol: Beneficial Effects of Elevated Tissue n-3 PUFAs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1582; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041582 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Chronic alcohol consumption leads to disturbances in intestinal function which can be exacerbated by inflammation and modulated by different factors, e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The mechanisms underlying these alterations are not well understood. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was performed on ileum [...] Read more.
Chronic alcohol consumption leads to disturbances in intestinal function which can be exacerbated by inflammation and modulated by different factors, e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The mechanisms underlying these alterations are not well understood. In this study, RNA-seq analysis was performed on ileum tissue from WT and fat-1 transgenic mice (which have elevated endogenous n-3 PUFAs). Mice were chronically fed ethanol (EtOH) and challenged with a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose to induce acute systemic inflammation. Both WT and fat-1 mice exhibited significant ileum transcriptome changes following EtOH + LPS treatment. Compared to WT, fat-1 mice had upregulated expression of genes associated with cell cycle and xenobiotic metabolism, while the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-fibrotic genes was decreased. In response to EtOH + LPS, fat-1 mice had an increased expression of genes related to antibacterial B cells (APRIL and IgA), as well as an elevation in markers of pro-restorative macrophages and γδ T cells that was not observed in WT mice. Our study significantly expands the knowledge of regulatory mechanisms underlying intestinal alterations due to EtOH consumption and inflammation and identifies the beneficial transcriptional effects of n-3 PUFAs, which may serve as a viable nutritional intervention for intestinal damage resulting from excessive alcohol consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge 2020)
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Article
Comparison of Dietary Oils with Different Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid n-3 and n-6 Content in the Rat Model of Cutaneous Wound Healing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 7911; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21217911 - 24 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3 can affect cutaneous wound healing; however, recent findings demonstrate the variable extent of their influence on the quality of healing. Here, we compare the effect of several dietary oils, containing different levels of PUFA n-3 [...] Read more.
Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-3 can affect cutaneous wound healing; however, recent findings demonstrate the variable extent of their influence on the quality of healing. Here, we compare the effect of several dietary oils, containing different levels of PUFA n-3 and PUFA n-6, on wound healing in the rat model. Rats were fed the feed mixture with 8% palm oil (P), safflower oil (S), fish oil (F) or Schizochytrium microalga extract (Sch) and compared to the animals fed by control feed mixture (C). Dorsal full-thickness cutaneous excisions were performed after 52 days of feeding and skin was left to heal for an additional 12 days. Histopathological analysis of skin wounds was performed, including immune cells immunolabeling and the determination of hydroxyproline amount as well as gene expression analyses of molecules contributing to different steps of the healing. Matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization mass-spectrometry-imaging (MALDI-MSI) was used to determine the amount of collagen α-1(III) chain fragment in healing samples. Treatment by Schizochytrium extract resulted in decrease in the total wound area, in contrast to the safflower oil group where the size of the wound was larger when comparing to control animals. Diet with Schizochytrium extract and safflower oils displayed a tendency to increase the number of new vessels. The number of MPO-positive cells was diminished following any of oil treatment in comparison to the control, but their highest amount was found in animals with a fish oil diet. On the other hand, the number of CD68-positive macrophages was increased, with the most significant enhancement in the fish oil and safflower oil group. Hydroxyproline concentration was the highest in the safflower oil group but it was also enhanced in all other analyzed treatments in comparison to the control. MALDI-MSI signal intensity of a collagen III fragment decreased in the sequence C > S > Sch > P > F treatment. In conclusion, we observed differences in tissue response during healing between dietary oils, with the activation of inflammation observed following the treatment with oil containing high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) level (fish oil) and enhanced healing features were induced by the diet with high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, Schizochytrium extract). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge 2020)
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Review

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Review
Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites on Haemostasis—Current Perspectives in Cardiovascular Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052394 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
The beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) in cardioprotection are widely known and generally accepted. In this literature review, we have focused on the known and postulated mechanisms of action of omega-3 PUFAs and their metabolites on various components [...] Read more.
The beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) in cardioprotection are widely known and generally accepted. In this literature review, we have focused on the known and postulated mechanisms of action of omega-3 PUFAs and their metabolites on various components of the haemostatic system, in particular on blood platelets and endothelium. We have also made an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies with particular regard to clinical trials. Notably, the results of these studies are contradictory, and some of them failed to report the beneficial effects of taking or supplementing omega-3 PUFAs in the diet. A potential explanation, in our opinion, could be the need to use higher doses of omega-3 PUFAs and a proper ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. An additional problem which is difficult to solve is the use of a proper neutral placebo for interventional studies. Despite some controversies regarding the beneficial effects of supplementation of omega-3 PUFAs in cardiovascular disease, our review suggests that a promising aspect of future studies and applications is to focus on the anti-thrombotic properties of these compounds. An argument supporting this assumption is the recent use of omega-3 PUFAs as a supporting tool for the treatment of COVID-19 complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge 2020)
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Review
Efficacy of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on Impulsive Behaviours and Aggressiveness in Psychiatric Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 620; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020620 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
It is the focus of increasing interest to investigate the effects of long-chain n-3 and long-chain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs; LC n-6 PUFAs) on psychiatric symptoms in a transdiagnostic perspective. There is some evidence that low levels of LC n-3 [...] Read more.
It is the focus of increasing interest to investigate the effects of long-chain n-3 and long-chain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs; LC n-6 PUFAs) on psychiatric symptoms in a transdiagnostic perspective. There is some evidence that low levels of LC n-3 PUFAs and a higher ratio of LC n-6 to LC n-3 PUFAs in plasma and blood cells are associated with aggressive and impulsive behaviours. Therefore, implementation of LC n-3 PUFAs may produce positive effects on hostility, aggression, and impulsivity in both psychiatric and non-psychiatric samples across different stages of life. A possible mechanism of action of LC n-3 PUFAs in conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression is due to the effect of these compounds on the serotonin system and membrane stability. Studies that evaluated the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs on impulsivity and aggressiveness indicated that addition of rather low doses of these agents to antipsychotic treatment might reduce agitation and violent behaviours in psychosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, and impulsive control and conduct disorders. The present review is aimed at examining and discussing available data from recent trials on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease: New Knowledge 2020)
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