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Special Issue "Omics Approaches to Metabolic Disorders"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Murri Mora
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Endocrine Diseases Research Group Biomedical, Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), University Hospital of Malaga, 29010 Malaga, Spain
Interests: adipose tissue; metabolic disorders; miRNA; mitochondrial dysfunction; obesity; PCOS

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern society is affected by a dramatic increase in chronic diseases and conditions (including, among others, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease), in which metabolic dysregulation plays a key role in pathogenesis and disease progression. Metabolism is defined as the sum of the biochemical processes that either produce or consume energy in living organisms, and it originates from the combinatorial effects of genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, translational, metabolic, microbial and environmental factors.

Over the last few years, the application of omics approaches (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metagenomics) has contributed to a greater understanding of the aetiology of many metabolic disorders. Particularly, these new high-throughput technologies have greatly advanced the ability to identify biomarkers, disease-related genes and targets for potential therapeutic strategies. Therefore, omics tools have great potential to open new avenues towards the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of metabolic disorders.

In this Special Issue titled "Omics Approaches to Metabolic Disorders", we welcome submissions of original research and review articles presenting new insights into the molecular aspects of metabolic disorders. Studies devoted to biomarker discovery and dietary/treatment responses using omics analysis are highly encouraged.

Dr. Murri Mora
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • epigenomics
  • genomics
  • glycomics
  • lipidomics
  • metabolic disorders
  • metabolism
  • metabolomics
  • metagenomics
  • omics
  • proteomics
  • transcriptomics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Proteomic Study of Low-Birth-Weight Nephropathy in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10294; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910294 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
The hyperfiltration theory has been used to explain the mechanism of low birth weight (LBW)-related nephropathy. However, the molecular changes in the kidney proteome have not been defined in this disease, and early biomarkers are lacking. We investigated the molecular pathogenesis of LBW [...] Read more.
The hyperfiltration theory has been used to explain the mechanism of low birth weight (LBW)-related nephropathy. However, the molecular changes in the kidney proteome have not been defined in this disease, and early biomarkers are lacking. We investigated the molecular pathogenesis of LBW rats obtained by intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone into pregnant animals. Normal-birth-weight (NBW) rats were used as controls. When the rats were four weeks old, the left kidneys were removed and used for comprehensive label-free proteomic studies. Following uninephrectomy, all rats were fed a high-salt diet until 9 weeks of age. Differences in the molecular composition of the kidney cortex were observed at the early step of LBW nephropathy pathogenesis. Untargeted quantitative proteomics showed that proteins involved in energy metabolism, such as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the TCA cycle, and glycolysis, were specifically downregulated in the kidneys of LBW rats at four weeks. No pathological changes were detected at this early stage. Pathway analysis identified NEFL2 (NRF2) and RICTOR as potential upstream regulators. The search for biomarkers identified components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, namely, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex subunits (UQCR7/11) and ATP5I/L, two components of mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase. These findings were further validated by immunohistology. At later stages of the disease process, the right kidneys revealed an increased frequency of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Our findings revealed proteome changes in LBW rat kidneys and revealed a strong downregulation of specific mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins, such as UQCR7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Approaches to Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Time-of-Day-Dependent Effects of Bromocriptine to Ameliorate Vascular Pathology and Metabolic Syndrome in SHR Rats Held on High Fat Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22116142 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The treatment of type 2 diabetes patients with bromocriptine-QR, a unique, quick release micronized formulation of bromocriptine, improves glycemic control and reduces adverse cardiovascular events. While the improvement of glycemic control is largely the result of improved postprandial hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin [...] Read more.
The treatment of type 2 diabetes patients with bromocriptine-QR, a unique, quick release micronized formulation of bromocriptine, improves glycemic control and reduces adverse cardiovascular events. While the improvement of glycemic control is largely the result of improved postprandial hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin action, the mechanisms underlying the drug’s cardioprotective effects are less well defined. Bromocriptine is a sympatholytic dopamine agonist and reduces the elevated sympathetic tone, characteristic of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which potentiates elevations of vascular oxidative/nitrosative stress, known to precipitate cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of bromocriptine treatment upon biomarkers of vascular oxidative/nitrosative stress (including the pro-oxidative/nitrosative stress enzymes of NADPH oxidase 4, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the pro-inflammatory/pro-oxidative marker GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH 1), and the pro-vascular health enzyme, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) as well as the plasma level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a circulating marker of systemic oxidative stress), in hypertensive SHR rats held on a high fat diet to induce metabolic syndrome. Inasmuch as the central nervous system (CNS) dopaminergic activities both regulate and are regulated by CNS circadian pacemaker circuitry, this study also investigated the time-of-day-dependent effects of bromocriptine treatment (10 mg/kg/day at either 13 or 19 h after the onset of light (at the natural waking time or late during the activity period, respectively) among animals held on 14 h daily photoperiods for 16 days upon such vascular biomarkers of vascular redox state, several metabolic syndrome parameters, and mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) mRNA expression levels of neuropeptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) which regulate the peripheral fuel metabolism and of mRNA expression of other MBH glial and neuronal cell genes that support such metabolism regulating neurons in this model system. Such bromocriptine treatment at ZT 13 improved (reduced) biomarkers of vascular oxidative/nitrosative stress including plasma TBARS level, aortic NADPH oxidase 4, iNOS and GTPCH 1 levels, and improved other markers of coupled eNOS function, including increased sGC protein level, relative to controls. However, bromocriptine treatment at ZT 19 produced no improvement in either coupled eNOS function or sGC protein level. Moreover, such ZT 13 bromocriptine treatment reduced several metabolic syndrome parameters including fasting insulin and leptin levels, as well as elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, body fat store levels and liver fat content, however, such effects of ZT 19 bromocriptine treatment were largely absent versus control. Finally, ZT 13 bromocriptine treatment reduced MBH NPY and AgRP mRNA levels and mRNA levels of several MBH glial cell/neuronal genes that code for neuronal support/plasticity proteins (suggesting a shift in neuronal structure/function to a new metabolic control state) while ZT 19 treatment reduced only AgRP, not NPY, and was with very little effect on such MBH glial cell genes expression. These findings indicate that circadian-timed bromocriptine administration at the natural circadian peak of CNS dopaminergic activity (that is diminished in insulin resistant states), but not outside this daily time window when such CNS dopaminergic activity is naturally low, produces widespread improvements in biomarkers of vascular oxidative stress that are associated with the amelioration of metabolic syndrome and reductions in MBH neuropeptides and gene expressions known to facilitate metabolic syndrome. These results of such circadian-timed bromocriptine treatment upon vascular pathology provide potential mechanisms for the observed marked reductions in adverse cardiovascular events with circadian-timed bromocriptine-QR therapy (similarly timed to the onset of daily waking as in this study) of type 2 diabetes subjects and warrant further investigations into related mechanisms and the potential application of such intervention to prediabetes and metabolic syndrome patients as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Approaches to Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Common Transcriptional Program of Liver Fibrosis in Mouse Genetic Models and Humans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 832; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020832 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Multifactorial metabolic diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are a major burden to modern societies, and frequently present with no clearly defined molecular biomarkers. Herein we used system medicine approaches to decipher signatures of liver fibrosis in mouse models with malfunction in [...] Read more.
Multifactorial metabolic diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are a major burden to modern societies, and frequently present with no clearly defined molecular biomarkers. Herein we used system medicine approaches to decipher signatures of liver fibrosis in mouse models with malfunction in genes from unrelated biological pathways: cholesterol synthesis—Cyp51, notch signaling—Rbpj, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling—Ikbkg, and unknown lysosomal pathway—Glmp. Enrichment analyses of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Reactome and TRANScription FACtor (TRANSFAC) databases complemented with genome-scale metabolic modeling revealed fibrotic signatures highly similar to liver pathologies in humans. The diverse genetic models of liver fibrosis exposed a common transcriptional program with activated estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling, and a network of interactions between regulators of lipid metabolism and transcription factors from cancer pathways and the immune system. The novel hallmarks of fibrosis are downregulated lipid pathways, including fatty acid, bile acid, and steroid hormone metabolism. Moreover, distinct metabolic subtypes of liver fibrosis were proposed, supported by unique enrichment of transcription factors based on the type of insult, disease stage, or potentially, also sex. The discovered novel features of multifactorial liver fibrotic pathologies could aid also in improved stratification of other fibrosis related pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Approaches to Metabolic Disorders)
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