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Special Issue "Plant Innate Immunity 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (9 July 2018).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Milan, Italy
Interests: environmental pollution; agrochemicals; mycotoxins; biomonitoring
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Even if immunology has been purely regarded as a medical science, immunity represents a trait common to many living organisms. Classically, the mammalian immune system consists of innate and adaptive mechanisms that protect the host from pathogens; in particular, innate mechanisms function independently of previous exposure of the host to the infectious agent.

Animal and plant innate immunities share some similarities, and plants, as the animals, are capable of recognizing and distinguishing between self and non-self. Recognition by the innate immune system is based on germline-encoded receptors (also called pattern recognition receptors, PRRs) expressed on host cells which sense conserved structural components and metabolism products of fungi, bacteria and viruses (known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) including lipids, polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defence strategies in order to face pathogens. Although lacking immunoglobulin molecules, circulating cells and phagocytic processes, the effectors of the mammalian immunity, plants possess a rather complex and efficient innate immune system. Therefore, disease is a rare outcome in the spectrum of plant-microbe interactions because plants have (co)evolved a complex set of defence mechanisms to hinder pathogen challenging and, in most cases, prevent infection. The battery of defence reactions includes physical and chemical barriers, both preformed (or constitutive or passive) and inducible (or active), depending on whether they are pre-existing features of the plant or are switched on after challenging. When a pathogen is able to overcome these defences, disease ceases to be the exception.

We invite investigators to submit both original research and review articles that explore all the aspects of the plant innate immunity.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Host resistance
  • Non-host resistance
  • Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)
  • Induced systemic resistance (ISR)
  • Plant-microbe interaction
  • Plant-insect interaction
  • Plant-nematode interaction
  • Elicitors
  • Plant activators
  • PAMPs/MAMPs/DAMPs (pathogen/microbe/damage-associated molecular patterns)
  • PRRs (pattern recognition receptors)
  • Hypersensitive response/Programmed cell death (PCD)
  • Phytoanticipins
  • Phytoalexins
  • Ribosome inactivating proteinsPathogenesis-related (PR) proteins
  • Fitness costs

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Crop protection
  • Plant diseases
  • Systemic acquired immunity
  • Defence metabolism
  • Secondary metabolites

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Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Evidence-Based Phytoiatry, a New Approach in Crop Protection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20010171 - 05 Jan 2019
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
In the past decades, the scientific quality of biomedical studies has been hierarchically depicted in the well-known pyramid of evidence-based medicine (EBM), with higher and higher levels of evidence moving from the base to the top. Such an approach is missing in the [...] Read more.
In the past decades, the scientific quality of biomedical studies has been hierarchically depicted in the well-known pyramid of evidence-based medicine (EBM), with higher and higher levels of evidence moving from the base to the top. Such an approach is missing in the modern crop protection and, therefore, we introduce, for the first time, this novel concept of evidence-based phytoiatry in this field. This editorial is not a guideline on plant protection products (PPP) registration, but rather a scientific and technical support for researchers involved in the general area of plant pathology, providing them with evidence-based information useful to design critically new studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Research

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Article
Overexpression of OsGID1 Enhances the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2744; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19092744 - 13 Sep 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Gibberellins (GAs) play pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in defenses against pathogens. Thus far, how the GA-mediated signaling pathway regulates plant defenses against herbivores remains largely unknown. In this study, we cloned the rice GA receptor gene OsGID1, whose [...] Read more.
Gibberellins (GAs) play pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in defenses against pathogens. Thus far, how the GA-mediated signaling pathway regulates plant defenses against herbivores remains largely unknown. In this study, we cloned the rice GA receptor gene OsGID1, whose expression was induced by damage from the brown planthopper (BPH) Niaparvata lugens, mechanical wounding, and treatment with salicylic acid (SA), but not jasmonic acid. The overexpression of OsGID1 (oe-GID1) decreased BPH-induced levels of SA, H2O2, and three SA-pathway-related WRKY transcripts, but enhanced BPH-induced levels of ethylene. Bioassays in the laboratory revealed that gravid BPH females preferred to feed and lay eggs on wild type (WT) plants than on oe-GID1 plants. Moreover, the hatching rate of BPH eggs on oe-GID1 plants was significantly lower than that on WT plants. In the field, population densities of BPH adults and nymphs were consistently and significantly lower on oe-OsGID1 plants than on WT plants. The increased resistance in oe-GID1 plants was probably due to the increased lignin level mediated by the GA pathway, and to the decrease in the expression of the three WRKY genes. Our findings illustrated that the OsGID1-mediated GA pathway plays a positive role in mediating the resistance of rice to BPH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Two New Polyphenol Oxidase Genes of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Respond Differentially to the Regurgitant of Tea Geometrid, Ectropis obliqua
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2414; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19082414 - 16 Aug 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have been reported to play an important role in protecting plants from attacks by herbivores. Though PPO genes in other plants have been extensively studied, research on PPO genes in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is lacking. In [...] Read more.
Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have been reported to play an important role in protecting plants from attacks by herbivores. Though PPO genes in other plants have been extensively studied, research on PPO genes in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is lacking. In particular, which members of the PPO gene family elicit the defense response of the tea plant are as yet unknown. Here, two new PPO genes, CsPPO1 and CsPPO2, both of which had high identity with PPOs from other plants, were obtained from tea leaves. The full length of CsPPO1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1740 bp that encoded a protein of 579 amino acids, while CsPPO2 contained an ORF of 1788 bp that encoded a protein of 595 amino acids. The deduced CsPPO1 and CsPPO2 proteins had calculated molecular masses of 64.6 and 65.9 kDa; the isoelectric points were 6.94 and 6.48, respectively. The expression products of recombinant CsPPO1 and CsPPO2 in Escherichia coli were about 91 and 92 kDa, respectively, but the recombinant proteins existed in the form of an inclusion body. Whereas CsPPO1 is highly expressed in stems, CsPPO2 is highly expressed in roots. Further results showed that the expression of CsPPO1 and CsPPO2 was wound- and Ectropis obliqua-induced, and that regurgitant, unlike treatment with wounding plus deionized water, significantly upregulated the transcriptional expression of CsPPO2 but not of CsPPO1. The difference between regurgitant and wounding indicates that CsPPO2 may play a more meaningful defensive role against E. obliqua than CsPPO1. Meanwhile, we found the active component(s) of the regurgitant elicited the expression of CsPPO may contain small molecules (under 3-kDa molecular weight). These conclusions advance the understanding of the biological function of two new PPO genes and show that one of these, CsPPO2, may be a promising gene for engineering tea plants that are resistant to E. obliqua. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Comparative Analysis of Impatiens Leaf Transcriptomes Reveal Candidate Genes for Resistance to Downy Mildew Caused by Plasmopara obducens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2057; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19072057 - 15 Jul 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Impatiens downy mildew (IDM) is a devastating disease to garden impatiens. A good understanding of IDM resistance in New Guinea impatiens is essential for improving garden impatiens resistance to this disease. The present study was conducted to sequence, assemble, annotate and compare the [...] Read more.
Impatiens downy mildew (IDM) is a devastating disease to garden impatiens. A good understanding of IDM resistance in New Guinea impatiens is essential for improving garden impatiens resistance to this disease. The present study was conducted to sequence, assemble, annotate and compare the leaf transcriptomes of two impatiens cultivars differing in resistance to IDM, reveal sequence polymorphisms and identify candidate genes for IDM resistance. RNA-Seq was performed on cultivars Super Elfin® XP Pink (SEP) and SunPatiens® Compact Royal Magenta (SPR). De novo assembly of obtained sequence reads resulted in 121,497 unigenes with an average length of 1156 nucleotides and N50 length of 1778 nucleotides. Searching the non-redundant protein and non-redundant nucleotide, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Clusters of Orthologous Groups and Gene Ontology databases, resulted in annotation of 57.7% to 73.6% of the unigenes. Fifteen unigenes were highly similar to disease resistance genes and more abundant in the IDM-resistant cultivar than in the susceptible cultivar. A total of 22,484 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 245,936 and 120,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from SPR and SEP respectively. The assembled transcripts and unigenes, identified disease resistance genes and SSRs and SNPs sites will be a valuable resource for improving impatiens and its IDM resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insights into Rice Defense Mechanisms against Magnaporthe oryzae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1950; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19071950 - 03 Jul 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
Blast disease is one of the major rice diseases, and causes nearly 30% annual yield loss worldwide. Resistance genes that have been cloned, however, are effective only against specific strains. In cultivation practice, broad-spectrum resistance to various strains is highly valuable, and requires [...] Read more.
Blast disease is one of the major rice diseases, and causes nearly 30% annual yield loss worldwide. Resistance genes that have been cloned, however, are effective only against specific strains. In cultivation practice, broad-spectrum resistance to various strains is highly valuable, and requires researchers to investigate the basal defense responses that are effective for diverse types of pathogens. In this study, we took a quantitative proteomic approach and identified 634 rice proteins responsive to infections by both Magnaporthe oryzae strains Guy11 and JS153. These two strains have distinct pathogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, the common responding proteins represent conserved basal defense to a broad spectrum of blast pathogens. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the “responding to stimulus” biological process is explicitly enriched, among which the proteins responding to oxidative stress and biotic stress are the most prominent. These analyses led to the discoveries of OsPRX59 and OsPRX62 that are robust callose inducers, and OsHSP81 that is capable of inducing both ROS production and callose deposition. The identified rice proteins and biological processes may represent a conserved rice innate immune machinery that is of great value for breeding broad-spectrum resistant rice in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Studies of Microbiota Dynamics Reveals Association of “Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus” Infection with Citrus (Citrus sinensis) Decline in South of Iran
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1817; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19061817 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Citrus Decline Disease was recently reported to affect several citrus species in Iran when grafted on a local rootstock variety, Bakraee. Preliminary studies found “Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae” and “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as putative etiological agents, but were not ultimately able to [...] Read more.
Citrus Decline Disease was recently reported to affect several citrus species in Iran when grafted on a local rootstock variety, Bakraee. Preliminary studies found “Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae” and “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as putative etiological agents, but were not ultimately able to determine which one, or if an association of both, were causing the disease. The current study has the aim of characterizing the microbiota of citrus plants that are either asymptomatic, showing early symptoms, or showing late symptoms through amplification of the V1–V3 region of 16S rRNA gene using an Illumina sequencer in order to (i) clarify the etiology of the disease, and (ii) describe the microbiota associated to different symptom stages. Our results suggest that liberibacter may be the main pathogen causing Citrus Decline Disease, but cannot rule out the possibility of phytoplasma being involved as well. The characterization of microbiota shows that the leaves show only two kinds of communities, either symptomatic or asymptomatic, while roots show clear distinction between early and late symptoms. These results could lead to the identification of bacteria that are related to successful plant defense response and, therefore, to immunity to the Citrus Decline Disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
CaWRKY22 Acts as a Positive Regulator in Pepper Response to Ralstonia Solanacearum by Constituting Networks with CaWRKY6, CaWRKY27, CaWRKY40, and CaWRKY58
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1426; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051426 - 10 May 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
The WRKY web, which is comprised of a subset of WRKY transcription factors (TFs), plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant immunity, however, the mode of organization and operation of this network remains obscure, especially in non-model plants such as pepper [...] Read more.
The WRKY web, which is comprised of a subset of WRKY transcription factors (TFs), plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant immunity, however, the mode of organization and operation of this network remains obscure, especially in non-model plants such as pepper (Capsicum annuum). Herein, CaWRKY22, a member of a subgroup of IIe WRKY proteins from pepper, was functionally characterized in pepper immunity against Ralstonia Solanacearum. CaWRKY22 was found to target the nuclei, and its transcript level was significantly upregulated by Ralstonia Solanacearum inoculation (RSI) and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA), Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), or ethephon (ETH). Loss-of-function CaWRKY22, caused by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), enhanced pepper’s susceptibility to RSI. In addition, the silencing of CaWRKY22 perturbed the hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death elicited by RSI and downregulated defense-related genes including CaPO2, CaPR4, CaACC, CaBPR1, CaDEF1, CaHIR1, and CaWRKY40. CaWRKY22 was found to directly bind to the promoters of CaPR1, CaDEF1, and CaWRKY40 by chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) analysis. Contrastingly, transient overexpression of CaWRKY22 in pepper leaves triggered significant HR-like cell death and upregulated the tested immunity associated maker genes. Moreover, the transient overexpression of CaWRKY22 upregulated the expression of CaWRKY6 and CaWRKY27 while it downregulated of the expression of CaWRKY58. Conversely, the transient overexpression of CaWRKY6, CaWRKY27, and CaWRKY40 upregulated the expression of CaWRKY22, while transient overexpression of CaWRKY58 downregulated the transcript levels of CaWRKY22. These data collectively recommend the role of CaWRKY22 as a positive regulator of pepper immunity against R. Solanacearum, which is regulated by signaling synergistically mediated by SA, jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET), integrating into WRKY networks with WRKY TFs including CaWRKY6, CaWRKY27, CaWRKY40, and CaWRKY58. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
CaWRKY40b in Pepper Acts as a Negative Regulator in Response to Ralstonia solanacearum by Directly Modulating Defense Genes Including CaWRKY40
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051403 - 08 May 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in plant growth, development, and in response to environmental cues; however, the function of the majority of pepper WRKY TFs remains unclear. In the present study, we functionally characterized CaWRKY40b, a homolog of AtWRKY40, [...] Read more.
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in plant growth, development, and in response to environmental cues; however, the function of the majority of pepper WRKY TFs remains unclear. In the present study, we functionally characterized CaWRKY40b, a homolog of AtWRKY40, in pepper immunity. Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) in pepper plants resulted in downregulation of CaWRKY40b transcript, and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged CaWRKY40b was localized to the nuclei when transiently overexpressed in the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaWRKY40b significantly decreased pepper’ susceptibility to RSI. Consistently, the transient over-expression of CaWRKY40b-SRDX (chimeric repressor version of CaWRKY40b) triggered cell death, as indicated by darker trypan blue and DAB staining. CaWRKY40b targets a number of immunity-associated genes, including CaWRKY40 JAR, RLK1, EIN3, FLS2, CNGIC8, CDPK13, and heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), which were identified by ChIP-seq and confirmed using ChIP-real time PCR. Among these target genes, the negative regulator HSC70 was upregulated by transient overexpression of CaWRKY40b and downregulated by silencing of CaWRKY40b, whereas other positive regulators as well as two non-target genes, CaNPR1 and CaDEF1, were downregulated by the transient overexpression of CaWRKY40b and upregulated by CaWRKY40b silencing or transient overexpression of CaWRKY40b-SRDX. In addition, CaWRKY40b exhibited a positive feedback regulation at transcriptional level by directly targeting the promoter of itself. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that CaWRKY40b acts as a negative regulator in pepper immunity against R. solanacearum by transcriptional modulation of a subset of immunity-associated genes; it also represses immunity in the absence of a pathogen, and derepresses immunity upon pathogen challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
A Biocontrol Strain of Bacillus subtilis WXCDD105 Used to Control Tomato Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke and Promote the Growth of Seedlings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1371; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051371 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3349
Abstract
In this study, a strain named WXCDD105, which has strong antagonistic effects on Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke, was screened out from the rhizosphere of healthy tomato plants. The tomato plants had inhibition diameter zones of 5.00 mm during the dual culture [...] Read more.
In this study, a strain named WXCDD105, which has strong antagonistic effects on Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke, was screened out from the rhizosphere of healthy tomato plants. The tomato plants had inhibition diameter zones of 5.00 mm during the dual culture for four days. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, the 16S rDNA sequence, and the gyrB gene sequence analysis, the strain WXCDD105 was identified as Bacillus subtilis suBap. subtilis. The results of the mycelial growth test showed that the sterile filtrate of the strain WXCDD105 could significantly inhibit mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke. The inhibition rates were 95.28 and 94.44%, respectively. The potting experiment showed that the strain WXCDD105 made effective the control of tomato gray mold and tomato leaf mold. The control efficiencies were 74.70 and 72.07%. The antagonistic test results showed that the strain WXCDD105 had different degrees of inhibition on 10 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi and the average inhibition rates were more than 80%. We also found that the strain WXCDD105 stimulated both the seed germination and seedling growth of tomatoes. Using the fermentation liquid of WXCDD105 (108 cfu·mL−1) to treat the seeds, the germination rate and radicle length were increased. Under the treatment of the fermentation liquid of the strain WXCDD105 (106 cfu·mL−1), nearly all physiological indexes of tomato seedlings were significantly higher than that of the control groups. This could not only keep the nutritional quality of tomato fruits but also prevent them from rotting. This study provided us with an excellent strain for biological control of tomato gray mold, tomato leaf mold, and tomato growth promotion. This also laid the technical foundation for its application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
The Commonly Used Bactericide Bismerthiazol Promotes Rice Defenses against Herbivores
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1271; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051271 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
Chemical elicitors that enhance plant resistance to pathogens have been extensively studied, however, chemical elicitors that induce plant defenses against insect pests have received little attention. Here, we found that the exogenous application of a commonly used bactericide, bismerthiazol, on rice induced the [...] Read more.
Chemical elicitors that enhance plant resistance to pathogens have been extensively studied, however, chemical elicitors that induce plant defenses against insect pests have received little attention. Here, we found that the exogenous application of a commonly used bactericide, bismerthiazol, on rice induced the biosynthesis of constitutive and/or elicited jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile), ethylene and H2O2 but not salicylic acid. These activated signaling pathways altered the volatile profile of rice plants. White-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) nymphs and gravid females showed a preference for feeding and/or oviposition on control plants: survival rates were better and more eggs were laid than on bismerthiazol-treated plants. Moreover, bismerthiazol treatment also increased both the parasitism rate of WBPH eggs laid on plants in the field by Anagrus nilaparvatae, and also the resistance of rice to the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens and the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis. These findings suggest that the bactericide bismerthiazol can induce the direct and/or indirect resistance of rice to multiple insect pests, and so can be used as a broad-spectrum chemical elicitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Investigation of VaHAESA from Vitis amurensis Inoculated with Plasmopara viticola
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19041204 - 16 Apr 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for immune responses and establishing symbiosis. Plants detect invaders via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by PRRs. This phenomenon is termed PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We investigated disease resistance in Vitis amurensis to identify PRRs [...] Read more.
Plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for immune responses and establishing symbiosis. Plants detect invaders via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by PRRs. This phenomenon is termed PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We investigated disease resistance in Vitis amurensis to identify PRRs that are important for resistance against downy mildew, analyzed the PRRs that were upregulated by incompatible Plasmopara viticola infection, and cloned the full-length cDNA of the VaHAESA gene. We then analyzed the structure, subcellular localization, and relative disease resistance of VaHAESA. VaHAESA and PRR-receptor-like kinase 5 (RLK5) are highly similar, belonging to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-RLK family and localizing to the plasma membrane. The expression of PRR genes changed after the inoculation of V. amurensis with compatible and incompatible P. viticola; during early disease development, transiently transformed V. vinifera plants expressing VaHAESA were more resistant to pathogens than those transformed with the empty vector and untransformed controls, potentially due to increased H2O2, NO, and callose levels in the transformants. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana showed upregulated expression of genes related to the PTI pathway and improved disease resistance. These results show that VaHAESA is a positive regulator of resistance against downy mildew in grapevines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Expressing OsMPK4 Impairs Plant Growth but Enhances the Resistance of Rice to the Striped Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19041182 - 13 Apr 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) play a central role not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. Yet, their role in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we [...] Read more.
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) play a central role not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. Yet, their role in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we cloned a rice MPK gene, OsMPK4, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, infestation of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis, and treatment with jasmonic acid (JA), but not by treatment with salicylic acid (SA). The overexpression of OsMPK4 (oe-MPK4) enhanced constitutive and/or SSB-induced levels of JA, jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), ethylene (ET), and SA, as well as the activity of elicited trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs), and reduced SSB performance. On the other hand, compared to wild-type plants, oe-MPK4 lines in the greenhouse showed growth retardation. These findings suggest that OsMPK4, by regulating JA-, ET-, and SA-mediated signaling pathways, functions as a positive regulator of rice resistance to the SSB and a negative regulator of rice growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
A Comparison of the Effects of FATTY ACID DESATURASE 7 and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE on Plant–Aphid Interactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1077; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19041077 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
The spr2 mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which disrupts function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE 7 (FAD7), confers resistance to the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) and modifies the plant’s C6 volatile profiles. To investigate whether C6 volatiles play a role [...] Read more.
The spr2 mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which disrupts function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE 7 (FAD7), confers resistance to the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) and modifies the plant’s C6 volatile profiles. To investigate whether C6 volatiles play a role in resistance, HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), which encodes a critical enzyme in C6 volatile synthesis, was silenced in wild-type tomato plants and spr2 mutants. Silencing HPL in wild-type tomato increased potato aphid host preference and reproduction on 5-week old plants but had no influence on 3-week old plants. The spr2 mutation, in contrast, conferred strong aphid resistance at both 3 and 5 weeks, and silencing HPL in spr2 did not compromise this aphid resistance. Moreover, a mutation in the FAD7 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana also conferred resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) in a genetic background that carries a null mutation in HPL. These results indicate that HPL contributes to certain forms of aphid resistance in tomato, but that the effects of FAD7 on aphids in tomato and Arabidopsis are distinct from and independent of HPL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Compatible and Incompatible Potato Response to Infection Caused by Potato Virus Y (PVYNTN)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 862; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19030862 - 15 Mar 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers [...] Read more.
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers a number of inducible basal defense responses, including defense proteins, especially those involved in cell wall metabolism. This study investigates the comparison of cell wall host dynamics induced in a compatible (potato cv. Irys) and incompatible (potato cv. Sárpo Mira with hypersensitive reaction gene Ny-Smira) PVYNTN–host–plant interaction. Ultrastructural analyses revealed numerous cell wall changes induced by virus infection. Furthermore, the localization of essential defensive wall-associated proteins in susceptible and resistant potato host to PVYNTN infection were investigated. The data revealed a higher level of detection of pathogenesis-related protein 2 (PR-2) in a compatible compared to an incompatible (HR) interaction. Immunofluorescence analyses indicated that hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGP) (extensin) synthesis was induced, whereas that of cellulose synthase catalytic subunits (CesA4) decreased as a result of PVYNTN infection. The highest level of extensin localization was found in HR potato plants. Proteins involved in cell wall metabolism play a crucial role in the interaction because they affect the spread of the virus. Analysis of CesA4, PR-2 and HRGP deposition within the apoplast and symplast confirmed the active trafficking of these proteins as a step-in potato cell wall remodeling in response to PVYNTN infection. Therefore, cell wall reorganization may be regarded as an element of “signWALLing”—involving apoplast and symplast activation as a specific response to viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Arabidopsis RETICULON-LIKE3 (RTNLB3) and RTNLB8 Participate in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 638; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19020638 - 24 Feb 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3867 | Correction
Abstract
Agrobacterium tumefaciens can genetically transform various eukaryotic cells because of the presence of a resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. During infection, a defined region of the Ti plasmid, transfer DNA (T-DNA), is transferred from bacteria into plant cells and causes plant cells to abnormally [...] Read more.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens can genetically transform various eukaryotic cells because of the presence of a resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. During infection, a defined region of the Ti plasmid, transfer DNA (T-DNA), is transferred from bacteria into plant cells and causes plant cells to abnormally synthesize auxin and cytokinin, which results in crown gall disease. T-DNA and several virulence (Vir) proteins are secreted through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) composed of T-pilus and a transmembrane protein complex. Three members of Arabidopsis reticulon-like B (RTNLB) proteins, RTNLB1, 2, and 4, interact with VirB2, the major component of T-pilus. Here, we have identified that other RTNLB proteins, RTNLB3 and 8, interact with VirB2 in vitro. Root-based A. tumefaciens transformation assays with Arabidopsis rtnlb3, or rtnlb5-10 single mutants showed that the rtnlb8 mutant was resistant to A. tumefaciens infection. In addition, rtnlb3 and rtnlb8 mutants showed reduced transient transformation efficiency in seedlings. RTNLB3- or 8 overexpression transgenic plants showed increased susceptibility to A. tumefaciens and Pseudomonas syringae infection. RTNLB1-4 and 8 transcript levels differed in roots, rosette leaves, cauline leaves, inflorescence, flowers, and siliques of wild-type plants. Taken together, RTNLB3 and 8 may participate in A. tumefaciens infection but may have different roles in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Article
Detection and Management of Mango Dieback Disease in the United Arab Emirates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2086; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18102086 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4676
Abstract
Mango is affected by different decline disorders causing significant losses to mango growers. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the pathogen was isolated from all tissues sampled from diseased trees affected by Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Symptoms at early stages of the disease included [...] Read more.
Mango is affected by different decline disorders causing significant losses to mango growers. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the pathogen was isolated from all tissues sampled from diseased trees affected by Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Symptoms at early stages of the disease included general wilting appearance of mango trees, and dieback of twigs. In advanced stages, the disease symptoms were also characterized by the curling and drying of leaves, leading to complete defoliation of the tree and discolouration of vascular regions of the stems and branches. To substantially reduce the devastating impact of dieback disease on mango, the fungus was first identified based on its morphological and cultural characteristics. Target regions of 5.8S rRNA (ITS) and elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) genes of the pathogen were amplified and sequenced. We also found that the systemic chemical fungicides, Score®, Cidely® Top, and Penthiopyrad®, significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of L. theobromae both in vitro and in the greenhouse. Cidely® Top proved to be a highly effective fungicide against L. theobromae dieback disease also under field conditions. Altogether, the morphology of the fruiting structures, molecular identification and pathogenicity tests confirm that the causal agent of the mango dieback disease in the UAE is L. theobromae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Review

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Review
Metabolomics in Plant Priming Research: The Way Forward?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1759; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19061759 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3260
Abstract
A new era of plant biochemistry at the systems level is emerging, providing detailed descriptions of biochemical phenomena at the cellular and organismal level. This new era is marked by the advent of metabolomics—the qualitative and quantitative investigation of the entire metabolome (in [...] Read more.
A new era of plant biochemistry at the systems level is emerging, providing detailed descriptions of biochemical phenomena at the cellular and organismal level. This new era is marked by the advent of metabolomics—the qualitative and quantitative investigation of the entire metabolome (in a dynamic equilibrium) of a biological system. This field has developed as an indispensable methodological approach to study cellular biochemistry at a global level. For protection and survival in a constantly-changing environment, plants rely on a complex and multi-layered innate immune system. This involves surveillance of ‘self’ and ‘non-self,’ molecule-based systemic signalling and metabolic adaptations involving primary and secondary metabolites as well as epigenetic modulation mechanisms. Establishment of a pre-conditioned or primed state can sensitise or enhance aspects of innate immunity for faster and stronger responses. Comprehensive elucidation of the molecular and biochemical processes associated with the phenotypic defence state is vital for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that define the metabolism of plant–pathogen interactions. Such insights are essential for translational research and applications. Thus, this review highlights the prospects of metabolomics and addresses current challenges that hinder the realisation of the full potential of the field. Such limitations include partial coverage of the metabolome and maximising the value of metabolomics data (extraction of information and interpretation). Furthermore, the review points out key features that characterise both the plant innate immune system and enhancement of the latter, thus underlining insights from metabolomic studies in plant priming. Future perspectives in this inspiring area are included, with the aim of stimulating further studies leading to a better understanding of plant immunity at the metabolome level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Review
Signals of Systemic Immunity in Plants: Progress and Open Questions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19041146 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3747
Abstract
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a defence mechanism that induces protection against a wide range of pathogens in distant, pathogen-free parts of plants after a primary inoculation. Multiple mobile compounds were identified as putative SAR signals or important factors for influencing movement of [...] Read more.
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a defence mechanism that induces protection against a wide range of pathogens in distant, pathogen-free parts of plants after a primary inoculation. Multiple mobile compounds were identified as putative SAR signals or important factors for influencing movement of SAR signalling elements in Arabidopsis and tobacco. These include compounds with very different chemical structures like lipid transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE1), methyl salicylate (MeSA), dehydroabietinal (DA), azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate dependent factor (G3P) and the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip). Genetic studies with different SAR-deficient mutants and silenced lines support the idea that some of these compounds (MeSA, DIR1 and G3P) are activated only when SAR is induced in darkness. In addition, although AzA doubled in phloem exudate of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infected tobacco leaves, external AzA treatment could not induce resistance neither to viral nor bacterial pathogens, independent of light conditions. Besides light intensity and timing of light exposition after primary inoculation, spectral distribution of light could also influence the SAR induction capacity. Recent data indicated that TMV and CMV (cucumber mosaic virus) infection in tobacco, like bacteria in Arabidopsis, caused massive accumulation of Pip. Treatment of tobacco leaves with Pip in the light, caused a drastic and significant local and systemic decrease in lesion size of TMV infection. Moreover, two very recent papers, added in proof, demonstrated the role of FMO1 (FLAVIN-DEPENDENT-MONOOXYGENASE1) in conversion of Pip to N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP). NHP systemically accumulates after microbial attack and acts as a potent inducer of plant immunity to bacterial and oomycete pathogens in Arabidopsis. These results argue for the pivotal role of Pip and NHP as an important signal compound of SAR response in different plants against different pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Review
Calcium Signalling in Plant Biotic Interactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 665; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19030665 - 27 Feb 2018
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 3549
Abstract
Calcium (Ca2+) is a universal second messenger involved in various cellular processes, leading to plant development and to biotic and abiotic stress responses. Intracellular variation in free Ca2+ concentration is among the earliest events following the plant perception of environmental [...] Read more.
Calcium (Ca2+) is a universal second messenger involved in various cellular processes, leading to plant development and to biotic and abiotic stress responses. Intracellular variation in free Ca2+ concentration is among the earliest events following the plant perception of environmental change. These Ca2+ variations differ in their spatio-temporal properties according to the nature, strength and duration of the stimulus. However, their conversion into biological responses requires Ca2+ sensors for decoding and relaying. The occurrence in plants of calmodulin (CaM) but also of other sets of plant-specific Ca2+ sensors such as calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs), Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) indicate that plants possess specific tools and machineries to convert Ca2+ signals into appropriate responses. Here, we focus on recent progress made in monitoring the generation of Ca2+ signals at the whole plant or cell level and their long distance propagation during biotic interactions. The contribution of CaM/CMLs and CDPKs in plant immune responses mounted against bacteria, fungi, viruses and insects are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Review
Indispensable Role of Proteases in Plant Innate Immunity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 629; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19020629 - 23 Feb 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3596
Abstract
Plant defense is achieved mainly through the induction of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI), systemic acquired resistance (SAR), induced systemic resistance (ISR), and RNA silencing. Plant immunity is a highly complex phenomenon with its own unique features that have [...] Read more.
Plant defense is achieved mainly through the induction of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI), systemic acquired resistance (SAR), induced systemic resistance (ISR), and RNA silencing. Plant immunity is a highly complex phenomenon with its own unique features that have emerged as a result of the arms race between plants and pathogens. However, the regulation of these processes is the same for all living organisms, including plants, and is controlled by proteases. Different families of plant proteases are involved in every type of immunity: some of the proteases that are covered in this review participate in MTI, affecting stomatal closure and callose deposition. A large number of proteases act in the apoplast, contributing to ETI by managing extracellular defense. A vast majority of the endogenous proteases discussed in this review are associated with the programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cells and exhibit caspase-like activities. The synthesis of signal molecules, such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, and their signaling pathways, are regulated by endogenous proteases that affect the induction of pathogenesis-related genes and SAR or ISR establishment. A number of proteases are associated with herbivore defense. In this review, we summarize the data concerning identified plant endogenous proteases, their effect on plant-pathogen interactions, their subcellular localization, and their functional properties, if available, and we attribute a role in the different types and stages of innate immunity for each of the proteases covered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Review
Molecular Biology of Prune Dwarf Virus—A Lesser Known Member of the Bromoviridae but a Vital Component in the Dynamic Virus–Host Cell Interaction Network
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2733; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18122733 - 16 Dec 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is one of the members of Bromoviridae family, genus Ilarvirus. Host components that participate in the regulation of viral replication or cell-to-cell movement via plasmodesmata are still unknown. In contrast, viral infections caused by some other Bromoviridae members [...] Read more.
Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is one of the members of Bromoviridae family, genus Ilarvirus. Host components that participate in the regulation of viral replication or cell-to-cell movement via plasmodesmata are still unknown. In contrast, viral infections caused by some other Bromoviridae members are well characterized. Bromoviridae can be distinguished based on localization of their replication process in infected cells, cell-to-cell movement mechanisms, and plant-specific response reactions. Depending upon the genus, “genome activation” and viral replication are linked to various membranous structures ranging from endoplasmic reticulum, to tonoplast. In the case of PDV, there is still no evidence of natural resistance sources in the host plants susceptible to virus infection. Apparently, PDV has a great ability to overcome the natural defense responses in a wide spectrum of plant hosts. The first manifestations of PDV infection are specific cell membrane alterations, and the formation of replicase complexes that support PDV RNA replication inside the spherules. During each stage of its life cycle, the virus uses cell components to replicate and to spread in whole plants, within the largely suppressed cellular immunity environment. This work presents the above stages of the PDV life cycle in the context of current knowledge about other Bromoviridae members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Correction
Correction: Huang, F.-C., et al. Arabidopsis RETICULON-LIKE3 (RTNLB3) and RTNLB8 Participate in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 638
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20030664 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
The authors would like to make a correction to their published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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