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Special Issue "Plant Innate Immunity 4.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Milan, Italy
Interests: environmental pollution; agrochemicals; mycotoxins; biomonitoring
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Even if immunology has been purely regarded as a medical science, immunity represents a trait common to many living organisms. Classically, the mammalian immune system consists of innate and adaptive mechanisms that protect the host from pathogens; in particular, innate mechanisms function independently of previous exposure of the host to the infectious agent.

Animal and plant innate immunities share some similarities, and plants, as the animals, are capable of recognizing and distinguishing between self and non-self. Recognition by the innate immune system is based on germline-encoded receptors (also called pattern recognition receptors, PRRs) expressed on host cells which sense conserved structural components and metabolism products of fungi, bacteria and viruses (known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) including lipids, polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defence strategies in order to face pathogens. Although lacking immunoglobulin molecules, circulating cells and phagocytic processes, the effectors of the mammalian immunity, plants possess a rather complex and efficient innate immune system. Therefore, disease is a rare outcome in the spectrum of plant-microbe interactions because plants have (co)evolved a complex set of defence mechanisms to hinder pathogen challenging and, in most cases, prevent infection. The battery of defence reactions includes physical and chemical barriers, both preformed (or constitutive or passive) and inducible (or active), depending on whether they are pre-existing features of the plant or are switched on after challenging. When a pathogen is able to overcome these defences, disease ceases to be the exception.

We invite investigators to submit both original research and review articles that explore all the aspects of the plant innate immunity.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Host resistance
  • Non-host resistance
  • Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)
  • Induced systemic resistance (ISR)
  • Plant-microbe interaction
  • Plant-insect interaction
  • Plant-nematode interaction
  • Elicitors
  • Plant activators
  • PAMPs/MAMPs/DAMPs (pathogen/microbe/damage-associated molecular patterns)
  • PRRs (pattern recognition receptors)
  • Hypersensitive response/Programmed cell death (PCD)
  • Phytoanticipins
  • Phytoalexins
  • Ribosome inactivating proteins
  • Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins
  • Fitness costs

Related Special Issues:

Plant Innate Immunity (10 articles)

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Plant Immunity—At the Crossroad of Life and Death
Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)
Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings
Characterization of Stripe Rust Resistance Genes in the Wheat Cultivar Chuanmai45
The Fundamental Role of NOX Family Proteins in Plant Immunity and Their Regulation
The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens
PAMP Activity of Cerato-Platanin during Plant Interaction: An -Omic Approach
Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection
Plant Resistance Inducers against Pathogens in Solanaceae Species—From Molecular Mechanisms to Field Application
Moving to the Field: Plant Innate Immunity in Crop Protection

Plant Innate Immunity 2.0 (21 articles)

Evidence-Based Phytoiatry, a New Approach in Crop Protection
Detection and Management of Mango Dieback Disease in the United Arab Emirates
Molecular Biology of Prune Dwarf Virus—A Lesser Known Member of the Bromoviridae but a Vital Component in the Dynamic Virus–Host Cell Interaction Network
Indispensable Role of Proteases in Plant Innate Immunity
Arabidopsis RETICULON-LIKE3 (RTNLB3) and RTNLB8 Participate in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation
Calcium Signalling in Plant Biotic Interactions
Plant Cell Wall Dynamics in Compatible and Incompatible Potato Response to Infection Caused by Potato Virus Y (PVYNTN)
A Comparison of the Effects of FATTY ACID DESATURASE 7 and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE on Plant–Aphid Interactions
Signals of Systemic Immunity in Plants: Progress and Open Questions
Expressing OsMPK4 Impairs Plant Growth but Enhances the Resistance of Rice to the Striped Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis
Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Investigation of VaHAESA from Vitis amurensis Inoculated with Plasmopara viticola
The Commonly Used Bactericide Bismerthiazol Promotes Rice Defenses against Herbivores
A Biocontrol Strain of Bacillus subtilis WXCDD105 Used to Control Tomato Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke and Promote the Growth of Seedlings
CaWRKY40b in Pepper Acts as a Negative Regulator in Response to Ralstonia solanacearum by Directly Modulating Defense Genes Including CaWRKY40
CaWRKY22 Acts as a Positive Regulator in Pepper Response to Ralstonia Solanacearum by Constituting Networks with CaWRKY6, CaWRKY27, CaWRKY40, and CaWRKY58
Metabolomics in Plant Priming Research: The Way Forward?
Studies of Microbiota Dynamics Reveals Association of “Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus” Infection with Citrus (Citrus sinensis) Decline in South of Iran
Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insights into Rice Defense Mechanisms against Magnaporthe oryzae
Comparative Analysis of Impatiens Leaf Transcriptomes Reveal Candidate Genes for Resistance to Downy Mildew Caused by Plasmopara obducens
Two New Polyphenol Oxidase Genes of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Respond Differentially to the Regurgitant of Tea Geometrid, Ectropis obliqua
Overexpression of OsGID1 Enhances the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

Plant Innate Immunity 3.0 (14 articles)

Effects of Abscisic Acid and Salicylic Acid on Gene Expression in the Antiviral RNA Silencing Pathway in Arabidopsis
OsMKK3, a Stress-Responsive Protein Kinase, Positively Regulates Rice Resistance to Nilaparvata lugens via Phytohormone Dynamics
Aphid-Triggered Changes in Oxidative Damage Markers of Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Lipids in Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings
Metabolomic Profiling of the Host Response of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Following Infection by Ralstonia solanacearum
The Highly Conserved Barley Powdery Mildew Effector BEC1019 Confers Susceptibility to Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens in Wheat
Proteomics of PTI and Two ETI Immune Reactions in Potato Leaves
Transcriptomic Insights into Innate Immunity Responding to Red Rot Disease in Red Alga Pyropia yezoensis
Unravelling the Roles of Nitrogen Nutrition in Plant Disease Defences
Elicitor and Receptor Molecules: Orchestrators of Plant Defense and Immunity
Oxathiapiprolin, a Novel Chemical Inducer Activates the Plant Disease Resistance
Arabidopsis RETICULON-LIKE4 (RTNLB4) Protein Participates in Agrobacterium Infection and VirB2 Peptide-Induced Plant Defense Response
Prospects of Gene Knockouts in the Functional Study of MAMP-Triggered Immunity: A Review
Zinc and Copper Enhance Cucumber Tolerance to Fusaric Acid by Mediating Its Distribution and Toxicity and Modifying the Antioxidant System
Characterization of the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and Analysis of the PR1 Molecular Marker in Vitis vinifera L. Inoculated with the Nematode Xiphinema index

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Crop protection
  • Plant diseases
  • Systemic acquired immunity
  • Defence metabolism
  • Secondary metabolites

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Molecular Insights into the Role of Cysteine-Rich Peptides in Induced Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum Infection in Tomato Based on Transcriptome Profiling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5741; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115741 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) play an important role in plant physiology. However, their role in resistance induced by biogenic elicitors remains poorly understood. Using whole-genome transcriptome sequencing and our CRP search algorithm, we analyzed the repertoire of CRPs in tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. in [...] Read more.
Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) play an important role in plant physiology. However, their role in resistance induced by biogenic elicitors remains poorly understood. Using whole-genome transcriptome sequencing and our CRP search algorithm, we analyzed the repertoire of CRPs in tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. in response to Fusarium oxysporum infection and elicitors from F. sambucinum. We revealed 106 putative CRP transcripts belonging to different families of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), signaling peptides (RALFs), and peptides with non-defense functions (Major pollen allergen of Olea europaea (Ole e 1 and 6), Maternally Expressed Gene (MEG), Epidermal Patterning Factor (EPF)), as well as pathogenesis-related proteins of families 1 and 4 (PR-1 and 4). We discovered a novel type of 10-Cys-containing hevein-like AMPs named SlHev1, which was up-regulated both by infection and elicitors. Transcript profiling showed that F. oxysporum infection and F. sambucinum elicitors changed the expression levels of different overlapping sets of CRP genes, suggesting the diversification of functions in CRP families. We showed that non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) and snakins mostly contribute to the response of tomato plants to the infection and the elicitors. The involvement of CRPs with non-defense function in stress reactions was also demonstrated. The results obtained shed light on the mode of action of F. sambucinum elicitors and the role of CRP families in the immune response in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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Article
Photoperiod Following Inoculation of Arabidopsis with Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae) Influences on the Plant–Pathogen Interaction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 5004; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22095004 - 08 May 2021
Viewed by 504
Abstract
In plant–pathogen interactions, a proper light environment affects the establishment of defense responses in plants. In our previous experiments, we found that nonhost resistance (NHR) to Pyricularia oryzae Cav. in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis), in diurnal conditions, varies with the inoculation time. [...] Read more.
In plant–pathogen interactions, a proper light environment affects the establishment of defense responses in plants. In our previous experiments, we found that nonhost resistance (NHR) to Pyricularia oryzae Cav. in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis), in diurnal conditions, varies with the inoculation time. Moreover, we indicated that the circadian clock plays an important role in regulating time-of-day differences in NHR to P. oryzae in Arabidopsis. However, the involvement of photoperiod in regulating NHR was still not understood. To determine the photoperiod role, we performed the experiments in continuous light and darkness during the early Arabidopsis–P. oryzae interaction. We found that the light period after the inoculation in the evening enhanced the resistance to penetration. However, the dark period after the inoculation in the morning suppressed the penetration resistance. Furthermore, the genetic analysis indicated that jasmonic acid, reactive oxygen species, and tryptophan-derived metabolite(s) contribute to the photoperiod regulation of NHR in Arabidopsis. The present results denote that photoperiod plays an important role in regulating time-of-day differences in NHR to P. oryzae in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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Article
Effectors of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Suppressing the Pathogenic-Associated Molecular Pattern-Triggered Immune Response Were Screened by Transient Expression of Wheat Protoplasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4985; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094985 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an important pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stripe rust, and the effector protein secreted by haustoria is a very important component involved in the pathogenic process. Although the candidate effector proteins secreted [...] Read more.
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an important pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stripe rust, and the effector protein secreted by haustoria is a very important component involved in the pathogenic process. Although the candidate effector proteins secreted by Pst haustoria have been predicted to be abundant, few have been functionally validated. Our study confirmed that chitin and flg22 could be used as elicitors of the pathogenic-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune (PTI) reaction in wheat leaves and that TaPr-1-14 could be used as a marker gene to detect the PTI reaction. In addition, the experimental results were consistent in wheat protoplasts. A rapid and efficient method for screening and identifying the effector proteins of Pst was established by using the wheat protoplast transient expression system. Thirty-nine Pst haustorial effector genes were successfully cloned and screened for expression in the protoplast. We identified three haustorial effector proteins, PSEC2, PSEC17, and PSEC45, that may inhibit the response of wheat to PTI. These proteins are localized in the somatic cytoplasm and nucleus of wheat protoplasts and are highly expressed during the infection and parasitism of wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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Article
A Truncated TIR-NBS Protein TN10 Pairs with Two Clustered TIR-NBS-LRR Immune Receptors and Contributes to Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4004; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084004 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The encoding genes of plant intracellular nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain receptors (NLRs) often exist in the form of a gene cluster. Several recent studies demonstrated that the truncated Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-NBS (TIR-NBS) proteins play important roles in immunity. In this [...] Read more.
The encoding genes of plant intracellular nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain receptors (NLRs) often exist in the form of a gene cluster. Several recent studies demonstrated that the truncated Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-NBS (TIR-NBS) proteins play important roles in immunity. In this study, we identified a large TN gene cluster on Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0 chromosome 1, which included nine TN genes, TN4 to TN12. Interestingly, this cluster also contained two typical TIR-NBS-LRR genes: At1g72840 and At1g72860 (hereinafter referred to as TNL40 and TNL60, respectively), which formed head-to-head genomic arrangement with TN4 to TN12. However, the functions of these TN and TNL genes in this cluster are still unknown. Here, we showed that the TIR domains of both TNL40 and TNL60 associated with TN10 specifically. Furthermore, both TNL40TIR and TNL60TIR induced cell death in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Subcellular localization showed that TNL40 mainly localized in the cytoplasm, whereas TNL60 and TN10 localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Additionally, the expression of TNL40, TNL60, and TN10 were co-regulated after inoculated with bacterial pathogens. Taken together, our study indicates that the truncated TIR-NBS protein TN10 associates with two clustered TNL immune receptors, and may work together in plant disease resistance Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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Article
The Resistance of Narrow-Leafed Lupin to Diaporthe toxica Is Based on the Rapid Activation of Defense Response Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020574 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a grain legume crop that is advantageous in animal nutrition due to its high protein content; however, livestock grazing on stubble may develop a lupinosis disease that is related to toxins produced by a pathogenic fungus, [...] Read more.
Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a grain legume crop that is advantageous in animal nutrition due to its high protein content; however, livestock grazing on stubble may develop a lupinosis disease that is related to toxins produced by a pathogenic fungus, Diaporthe toxica. Two major unlinked alleles, Phr1 and PhtjR, confer L. angustifolius resistance to this fungus. Besides the introduction of these alleles into modern cultivars, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance remained unsolved. In this study, resistant and susceptible lines were subjected to differential gene expression profiling in response to D. toxica inoculation, spanning the progress of the infection from the early to latent phases. High-throughput sequencing of stem transcriptome and PCR quantification of selected genes were performed. Gene Ontology term analysis revealed that an early (24 h) response in the resistant germplasm encompassed activation of genes controlling reactive oxygen species and oxylipin biosynthesis, whereas in the susceptible germplasm, it comprised induction of xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases. During the first five days of the infection, the number of genes with significantly altered expressions was about 2.6 times higher in resistant lines than in the susceptible line. Global transcriptome reprogramming involving the activation of defense response genes occurred in lines conferring Phr1 and PhtjR resistance alleles about 4–8 days earlier than in the susceptible germplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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Article
Structural Diversity and Highly Specific Host-Pathogen Transcriptional Regulation of Defensin Genes Is Revealed in Tomato
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249380 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
Defensins are small and rather ubiquitous cysteine-rich anti-microbial peptides. These proteins may act against pathogenic microorganisms either directly (by binding and disrupting membranes) or indirectly (as signaling molecules that participate in the organization of the cellular defense). Even though defensins are widespread across [...] Read more.
Defensins are small and rather ubiquitous cysteine-rich anti-microbial peptides. These proteins may act against pathogenic microorganisms either directly (by binding and disrupting membranes) or indirectly (as signaling molecules that participate in the organization of the cellular defense). Even though defensins are widespread across eukaryotes, still, extensive nucleotide and amino acid dissimilarities hamper the elucidation of their response to stimuli and mode of function. In the current study, we screened the Solanum lycopersicum genome for the identification of defensin genes, predicted the relating protein structures, and further studied their transcriptional responses to biotic (Verticillium dahliae, Meloidogyne javanica, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, and Potato Virus Y infections) and abiotic (cold stress) stimuli. Tomato defensin sequences were classified into two groups (C8 and C12). Our data indicate that the transcription of defensin coding genes primarily depends on the specific pathogen recognition patterns of V. dahliae and M. javanica. The immunodetection of plant defensin 1 protein was achieved only in the roots of plants inoculated with V. dahliae. In contrast, the almost null effects of viral infections and cold stress, and the failure to substantially induce the gene transcription suggest that these factors are probably not primarily targeted by the tomato defensin network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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Article
Genome-Wide Identification of the Tify Gene Family and Their Expression Profiles in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8316; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218316 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
The TIFY family is a plant-specific gene family that is involved in regulating a variety of plant processes, including developmental and defense responses. The chromosome-level genome of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) has recently been released, but a comprehensive view of [...] Read more.
The TIFY family is a plant-specific gene family that is involved in regulating a variety of plant processes, including developmental and defense responses. The chromosome-level genome of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) has recently been released, but a comprehensive view of the TIFY family in C. sinensis (the CsTIFY genes) is lacking. The current study performed an extensive genome-wide identification of CsTIFY genes. The phylogenetics, chromosome location, exon/intron structure, and conserved domains of these genes were analyzed to characterize the members of the CsTIFY family. The expression profiles of the CsTIFY genes in four organs were analyzed, and they showed different spatial expression patterns. All CsJAZ genes were observed to be induced by jasmonate acid (JA) and exhibited different responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Six of seven CsJAZ genes (CsJAZ1, CsJAZ2, CsJAZ3, CsJAZ4, CsJAZ7, and CsJAZ8) were upregulated by mechanical wounding and infestation with the tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua), while infection with tea anthracnose (Colletotrichum camelliae) primarily upregulated the expression levels of CsJAZ1 and CsJAZ10. In addition, CsJAZs were observed to interact with CsMYC2 and AtMYC2. Therefore, the results of this study may contribute to the functional characterization of the CsTIFY genes, especially the members of the JAZ subfamily, as regulators of the JA-mediated defense response in tea plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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Article
Expression of Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin Reductase System Genes in Aphid-Challenged Maize Seedlings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176296 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Thioredoxins (Trxs) and thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) encompass a highly complex network involved in sustaining thiol-based redox homeostasis in plant tissues. The purpose of the study was to gain a new insight into transcriptional reprogramming of the several genes involved in functioning of Trx/TrxR [...] Read more.
Thioredoxins (Trxs) and thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) encompass a highly complex network involved in sustaining thiol-based redox homeostasis in plant tissues. The purpose of the study was to gain a new insight into transcriptional reprogramming of the several genes involved in functioning of Trx/TrxR system in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings, exposed to the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or the rose-grass aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walk.) infestation. The biotests were performed on two maize genotypes (susceptible Złota Karłowa and relatively resistant Waza). The application of real-time qRT-PCR technique allowed to identify a molecular mechanism triggered in more resistant maize plants, linked to upregulation of thioredoxins-encoding genes (Trx-f, Trx-h, Trx-m, Trx-x) and thioredoxin reductase genes (Ftr1, Trxr2). Significant enhancement of TrxR activity in aphid-infested Waza seedlings was also demonstrated. Furthermore, we used an electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings of M. dirhodum stylet activities in seedlings of the two studied maize varieties. Duration of phloem phase (E1 and E2 models) of rose-grass aphids was about three times longer while feeding in Waza plants, compared to Złota Karłowa cv. The role of activation of Trx/TrxR system in maintaining redox balance and counteracting oxidative-induced damages of macromolecules in aphid-stressed maize plants is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 4.0)
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