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Special Issue "Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 January 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nikolas Nikolaidis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Science, Center for Applied Biotechnology Studies, and Center for Computational and Applied Mathematics, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834-6850, USA
Interests: heat-shock response; membrane-associated heat-shock proteins; protein–lipid interactions
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Molecular chaperones and in particular the 70 and 90kDa heat-shock proteins (Hsp70s and Hsp90s) play critical roles in cellular and organismal response to stress and survival. At the cellular lever these proteins work in concert with several other helper molecules to form chaperone machines that regulate proteostasis, apoptosis, and cell signaling. This special issue aims to augment our knowledge on the plethora of functional attributes of these molecular machines, their evolution between and within species, as well as how they affect the process of evolution at the cellular and organismal levels.

Prof. Dr. Nikolas Nikolaidis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Heat-shock proteins
  • Molecular chaperones
  • Co-chaperones
  • Proteostasis
  • Cell signaling
  • Stress response
  • Adaptation
  • Disease

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Expression Patterns of the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Gene Suggest Its Possible Involvement in Maintaining the Dormancy of Dinoflagellate Resting Cysts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11054; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222011054 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone functioning in cellular structural folding and conformational integrity maintenance and thus plays vital roles in a variety of biological processes. However, many aspects of these functions and processes remain to be fully [...] Read more.
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone functioning in cellular structural folding and conformational integrity maintenance and thus plays vital roles in a variety of biological processes. However, many aspects of these functions and processes remain to be fully elucidated, particularly for non-model organisms. Dinoflagellates are a group of eukaryotes that are exceedingly important in primary production and are responsible for the most harmful algal blooms (HABs) in aquatic ecosystems. The success of dinoflagellates in dominating the plankton community is undoubtedly pertinent to their remarkable adaptive strategies, characteristic of resting cyst production and broad tolerance to stresses of temperature and others. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the putative roles of Hsp90 in the acclimation to temperature stress and life stage alterations of dinoflagellates. Firstly, we isolated the full-length cDNA of an Hsp90 gene (StHsp90) via RACE from the cosmopolitan HAB species Scrippsiella trochoidea and tracked its transcriptions in response to varied scenarios via real-time qPCR. The results indicated that StHsp90 displayed significant mRNA augment patterns, escalating during 180-min treatments, when the cells were exposed to elevated and lowered temperatures. Secondly, we observed prominently elevated StHsp90 transcriptions in the cysts that were stored at the cold and dark conditions compared to those in newly formed resting cysts and vegetative cells. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we identified 29 entries of Hsp90-encoding genes with complete coding regions from a dinoflagellate-specific environmental cDNA library generated from marine sediment assemblages. The observed active transcription of these genes in sediment-buried resting cysts was fully supported by the qPCR results for the cold-stored resting cysts of S. trochoidea. Hsp90s expressions in both laboratory-raised and field-collected cysts collectively highlighted the possible involvement and engagement of Hsp90 chaperones in the resting stage persistence of dinoflagellates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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Article
Prevention of High Glucose-Mediated EMT by Inhibition of Hsp70 Chaperone
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6902; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136902 - 27 Jun 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Hyperglycemia may contribute to the progression of carcinomas by triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Some proteostasis systems are involved in metastasis; in this paper, we sought to explore the mechanism of Hsp70 chaperone in EMT. We showed that knockdown of Hsp70 reduced cell migration [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia may contribute to the progression of carcinomas by triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Some proteostasis systems are involved in metastasis; in this paper, we sought to explore the mechanism of Hsp70 chaperone in EMT. We showed that knockdown of Hsp70 reduced cell migration capacity concomitantly with levels of mRNA of the Slug, Snail, and Twist markers of EMT, in colon cancer cells incubated in high glucose medium. Conversely, treatment of cells with Hsp70 inducer U-133 were found to elevate cell motility, along with the other EMT markers. To prove that inhibiting Hsp70 may reduce EMT efficiency, we treated cells with a CL-43 inhibitor of the HSF1 transcription factor, which lowered Hsp70 and HSF1 content in the control and induced EMT in carcinoma cells. Importantly, CL-43 reduced migration capacity, EMT-linked transcription factors, and increased content of epithelial marker E-cadherin in colon cancer cells of three lines, including one derived from a clinical sample. To prove that Hsp70 chaperone should be targeted when inhibiting the EMT pathway, we treated cancer cells with 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) and demonstrated that the compound inhibited substrate-binding capacity of Hsp70. Furthermore, PES suppressed EMT features, cell motility, and expression of specific transcription factors. In conclusion, the Hsp70 chaperone machine efficiently protects mechanisms of the EMT, and the safe inhibitors of the chaperone are needed to hamper metastasis at its initial stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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Article
Regulation of ClC-2 Chloride Channel Proteostasis by Molecular Chaperones: Correction of Leukodystrophy-Associated Defect
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5859; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115859 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
The ClC-2 channel plays a critical role in maintaining ion homeostasis in the brain and the testis. Loss-of-function mutations in the ClC-2-encoding human CLCN2 gene are linked to the white matter disease leukodystrophy. Clcn2-deficient mice display neuronal myelin vacuolation and testicular degeneration. [...] Read more.
The ClC-2 channel plays a critical role in maintaining ion homeostasis in the brain and the testis. Loss-of-function mutations in the ClC-2-encoding human CLCN2 gene are linked to the white matter disease leukodystrophy. Clcn2-deficient mice display neuronal myelin vacuolation and testicular degeneration. Leukodystrophy-causing ClC-2 mutant channels are associated with anomalous proteostasis manifesting enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation. The molecular nature of the ER quality control system for ClC-2 protein remains elusive. In mouse testicular tissues and Leydig cells, we demonstrated that endogenous ClC-2 co-existed in the same protein complex with the molecular chaperones heat shock protein 90β (Hsp90β) and heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70), as well as the associated co-chaperones Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (HOP), activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), and FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8). Further biochemical analyses revealed that the Hsp90β-Hsc70 chaperone/co-chaperone system promoted mouse and human ClC-2 protein biogenesis. FKBP8 additionally facilitated membrane trafficking of ClC-2 channels. Interestingly, treatment with the Hsp90-targeting small molecule 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) substantially boosted ClC-2 protein expression. Also, 17-AAG effectively increased both total and cell surface protein levels of leukodystrophy-causing loss-of-function ClC-2 mutant channels. Our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of 17-AAG in correcting anomalous ClC-2 proteostasis associated with leukodystrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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Article
Pseudomonas aeruginosa DnaK Stimulates the Production of Pentraxin 3 via TLR4-Dependent NF-κB and ERK Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4652; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094652 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Microbe-derived factors trigger innate immune responses through the production of inflammatory mediators, including pentraxin 3 (PTX3). PTX3 is a soluble pattern recognition molecule that stimulates the clearance of clinically important bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the P. aeruginosa factors responsible [...] Read more.
Microbe-derived factors trigger innate immune responses through the production of inflammatory mediators, including pentraxin 3 (PTX3). PTX3 is a soluble pattern recognition molecule that stimulates the clearance of clinically important bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the P. aeruginosa factors responsible for the production of PTX3 have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that P. aeruginosa DnaK, a homolog of heat shock protein 70, induced PTX3 production. Induction was mediated by intracellular signals transmitted through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Following receptor engagement, the stimulatory signals were relayed initially through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and subsequently by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which are mitogen-activated protein kinases. However, ERK activation was negatively controlled by NF-κB, implying the existence of negative crosstalk between the NF-κB and the ERK pathways. These data suggest that P. aeruginosa DnaK acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern to trigger modulation of host defense responses via production of PTX3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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Article
Identification of Predictive Biomarkers of Response to HSP90 Inhibitors in Lung Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052538 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays an essential role in lung adenocarcinoma, acting as a key chaperone involved in the correct functioning of numerous highly relevant protein drivers of this disease. To this end, HSP90 inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutic strategies, even [...] Read more.
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays an essential role in lung adenocarcinoma, acting as a key chaperone involved in the correct functioning of numerous highly relevant protein drivers of this disease. To this end, HSP90 inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutic strategies, even though responses to them have been limited to date. Given the need to maximize treatment efficacy, the objective of this study was to use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques to identify proteins in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines whose basal abundances were correlated with response to HSP90 inhibitors (geldanamycin and radicicol derivatives). From the protein profiles identified according to response, the relationship between lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) and DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) with respect to sensitivity and resistance, respectively, to geldanamycin derivatives is noteworthy. Likewise, rhotekin (RTKN) and decaprenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (PDSS2) were correlated with sensitivity and resistance to radicicol derivatives. We also identified a relationship between resistance to HSP90 inhibition and the p53 pathway by glucose deprivation. In contrast, arginine biosynthesis was correlated with sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitors. Further study of these outcomes could enable the development of strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of HSP90 inhibition in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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Article
Disruption of the Complex between GAPDH and Hsp70 Sensitizes C6 Glioblastoma Cells to Hypoxic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1520; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041520 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Hypoxia, which commonly accompanies tumor growth, depending on its strength may cause the enhancement of tumorigenicity of cancer cells or their death. One of the proteins targeted by hypoxia is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and we demonstrated here that hypoxia mimicked by treating C6 [...] Read more.
Hypoxia, which commonly accompanies tumor growth, depending on its strength may cause the enhancement of tumorigenicity of cancer cells or their death. One of the proteins targeted by hypoxia is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and we demonstrated here that hypoxia mimicked by treating C6 rat glioblastoma cells with cobalt chloride caused an up-regulation of the enzyme expression, while further elevation of hypoxic stress caused the enzyme aggregation concomitantly with cell death. Reduction or elevation of GAPDH performed with the aid of specific shRNAs resulted in the augmentation of the tumorigenicity of C6 cells or their sensitization to hypoxic stress. Another hypoxia-regulated protein, Hsp70 chaperone, was shown to prevent the aggregation of oxidized GAPDH and to reduce hypoxia-mediated cell death. In order to release the enzyme molecules from the chaperone, we employed its inhibitor, derivative of colchicine. The compound was found to substantially increase aggregation of GAPDH and to sensitize C6 cells to hypoxia both in vitro and in animals bearing tumors with distinct levels of the enzyme expression. In conclusion, blocking the chaperonic activity of Hsp70 and its interaction with GAPDH may become a promising strategy to overcome tumor resistance to multiple environmental stresses and enhance existing therapeutic tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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Article
HSP70-Homolog DnaK of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Increases the Production of IL-27 through Expression of EBI3 via TLR4-Dependent NF-κB and TLR4-Independent Akt Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239194 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
IL-27, a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the p28 subunit and Epstein–Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), acts as a potent immunosuppressant and thus limits pathogenic inflammatory responses. IL-27 is upregulated upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in septic mice, increasing susceptibility to the infection and decreasing [...] Read more.
IL-27, a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the p28 subunit and Epstein–Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), acts as a potent immunosuppressant and thus limits pathogenic inflammatory responses. IL-27 is upregulated upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in septic mice, increasing susceptibility to the infection and decreasing clearance of the pathogen. However, it remains unclear which P. aeruginosa-derived molecules promote production of IL-27. In this study, we explored the mechanism by which P. aeruginosa DnaK, a heat shock protein 70-like protein, induces EBI3 expression, thereby promoting production of IL-27. Upregulation of EBI3 expression did not lead to an increase in IL-35, which consists of the p35 subunit and EBI3. The IL-27 production in response to DnaK was biologically active, as reflected by stimulation of IL-10 production. DnaK-mediated expression of EBI3 was driven by two distinct signaling pathways, NF-κB and Akt. However, NF-κB is linked to TLR4-associated signaling pathways, whereas Akt is not. Taken together, our results reveal that P. aeruginosa DnaK potently upregulates EBI3 expression, which in turn drives production of the prominent anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-27, as a consequence of TLR4-dependent activation of NF-κB and TLR4-independent activation of the Akt signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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Review

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Review
Role of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP70 and HSP90) in Viral Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179366 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 648
Abstract
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large group of chaperones found in most eukaryotes and bacteria. They are responsible for the correct protein folding, protection of the cell against stressors, presenting immune and inflammatory cytokines; furthermore, they are important factors in regulating cell [...] Read more.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large group of chaperones found in most eukaryotes and bacteria. They are responsible for the correct protein folding, protection of the cell against stressors, presenting immune and inflammatory cytokines; furthermore, they are important factors in regulating cell differentiation, survival and death. Although the biological function of HSPs is to maintain cell homeostasis, some of them can be used by viruses both to fold their proteins and increase the chances of survival in unfavorable host conditions. Folding viral proteins as well as replicating many different viruses are carried out by, among others, proteins from the HSP70 and HSP90 families. In some cases, the HSP70 family proteins directly interact with viral polymerase to enhance viral replication or they can facilitate the formation of a viral replication complex and/or maintain the stability of complex proteins. It is known that HSP90 is important for the expression of viral genes at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. Both of these HSPs can form a complex with HSP90 and, consequently, facilitate the entry of the virus into the cell. Current studies have shown the biological significance of HSPs in the course of infection SARS-CoV-2. A comprehensive understanding of chaperone use during viral infection will provide new insight into viral replication mechanisms and therapeutic potential. The aim of this study is to describe the molecular basis of HSP70 and HSP90 participation in some viral infections and the potential use of these proteins in antiviral therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Function of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Machineries)
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