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Special Issue "Molecular Research on Urology 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 February 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jack A. Schalken
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Director Urology, Dept. of Urology, University Hospital Nijmegen, Box 9101, Nijmegen NL-6500 HB, The Netherlands
Interests: molecular and cellbiology of oncological diseases; cadherine mediated interactions and signal transductions; molecular diagnostics; urogenital oncology; veterinary oncology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Molecular technology platforms have exponentially developed to a status where individual patient-acquired pathologies can be profiled at various levels. Where does the technology meet unmet clinical needs?

In this Special Issue, we invite you to submit manuscripts that illustrate the clinical utility and impact of molecular research into clinical urological practice. We invite both oncological, as well as non-oncological papers. Topics to be considered include, but are not limited to, precision medicine in GU oncology, new molecular therapeutical targets, biomarkers for non-oncological bladder disease, and advances in molecular tissue engineering.

Prof. Dr. Jack A. Schalken
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Precision medicine in GU oncology
  • New molecular therapeutical targets
  • Biomarkers for non-oncological bladder disease
  • Advances in molecular tissue engineering

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
NLRP3 Inflammasome: A New Pharmacological Target for Reducing Testicular Damage Associated with Varicocele
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1319; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031319 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Many bioactive natural compounds are being increasingly used for therapeutics and nutraceutical applications to counteract male infertility, particularly varicocele. The roles of selenium and Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) were investigated in an experimental model of varicocele, with particular regard to the role of NLRP3 inflammasome. [...] Read more.
Many bioactive natural compounds are being increasingly used for therapeutics and nutraceutical applications to counteract male infertility, particularly varicocele. The roles of selenium and Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) were investigated in an experimental model of varicocele, with particular regard to the role of NLRP3 inflammasome. Male rats underwent sham operation and were daily administered with vehicle, seleno-L-methionine (Se), PDRN, and with the association Se-PDRN. Another group of rats were operated for varicocele. After twenty-eight days, sham and varicocele rats were sacrificed and both testes were weighted and analyzed. All the other rats were challenged for one month with the same compounds. In varicocele animals, lower testosterone levels, testes weight, NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β and caspase-1 increased gene expression were demonstrated. TUNEL assay showed an increased number of apoptotic cells. Structural and ultrastructural damage to testes was also shown. PDRN alone significantly improved all considered parameters more than Se. The Se-PDRN association significantly improved all morphological parameters, significantly increased testosterone levels, and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome, caspase-1 and IL-1β expression and TUNEL-positive cell numbers. Our results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome can be considered an interesting target in varicocele and that Se-PDRN may be a new medical approach in support to surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Urology 2.0)
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Article
Many Different LINE-1 Retroelements Are Activated in Bladder Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249433 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Human genomes contain about 100,000 LINE-1 (L1) retroelements, of which more than 100 are intact. L1s are normally tightly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms, which often fail in cancer. In bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC), particularly, L1s become DNA-hypomethylated, expressed and contribute to genomic instability [...] Read more.
Human genomes contain about 100,000 LINE-1 (L1) retroelements, of which more than 100 are intact. L1s are normally tightly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms, which often fail in cancer. In bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC), particularly, L1s become DNA-hypomethylated, expressed and contribute to genomic instability and tumor growth. It is, however, unknown which individual L1s are activated. Following RNA-immunoprecipitation with a L1-specific antibody, third generation nanopore sequencing detected transcripts of 90 individual elements in the VM-Cub-1 UC line with high overall L1 expression. In total, 10 L1s accounted for >60% of the reads. Analysis of five specific L1s by RT-qPCR revealed generally increased expression in UC tissues and cell lines over normal controls, but variable expression among tumor cell lines from bladder, prostate and testicular cancer. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated active histone marks at L1 sequences with increased expression in VM-Cub-1, but not in a different UC cell line with low L1 expression. We conclude that many L1 elements are epigenetically activated in bladder cancer in a varied pattern. Our findings indicate that expression of individual L1s is highly heterogeneous between and among cancer types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Urology 2.0)
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Article
Role of Nuclear Claudin-4 in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218340 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Claudin-4 (CLDN4) is a tight junction protein to maintain the cancer microenvironment. We recently reported the role of the CLDN4 not forming tight junction in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we investigated the role of CLDN4 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), [...] Read more.
Claudin-4 (CLDN4) is a tight junction protein to maintain the cancer microenvironment. We recently reported the role of the CLDN4 not forming tight junction in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we investigated the role of CLDN4 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), focusing on CLDN4. CLDN4 expression in 202 RCCs was examined by immunostaining. CLDN4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization were examined using high metastatic human RCC SN12L1 and low metastatic SN12C cell lines. In 202 RCC cases, the CLDN4 expression decreased in the cell membrane and had no correlation with clinicopathological factors. However, CLDN4 was localized in the nucleus in 5 cases (2%), all of which were pT3. Contrastingly, only 6 of 198 nuclear CLDN4-negative cases were pT3. CLDN4 was found in the nuclear fraction of a highly metastatic human RCC cell line, SN12L1, but not in the low metastatic SN12C cells. In SN12L1 cells, phosphorylation of tyrosine and serine residues was observed in cytoplasmic CLDN4, but not in membranous CLDN4. In contrast, phosphorylation of serine residues was observed in nuclear CLDN4. In SN12L1 cells, CLDN4 tyrosine phosphorylation by EphA2/Ephrin A1 resulted in the release of CLDN4 from tight junction and cytoplasmic translocation. Furthermore, protein kinase C (PKC)-ε phosphorylated the CLDN4 serine residue, resulting in nuclear import. Contrarily, in SN12C cells that showed decreased expression of EphA2/Ephrin A1 and PKCε, the activation of EphA2/EphrinA1 and PKCε induced cytoplasmic and nuclear translocation of CLDN4, respectively. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation of CLDN4 promoted the nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) bound to CLDN4, which induced the EMT phenotype. These findings suggest that the release of CLDN4 by impaired tight junction might be a mechanism underlying the malignant properties of RCC. These findings suggest that the release of CLDN4 by impaired tight junction might be one of the mechanisms of malignant properties of RCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Urology 2.0)
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