ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Virus Replication"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kamalendra Singh
Website
Guest Editor
Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Interests: HIV; virus replication; DNA polymerase; RNA polymerase; DNA replication; drug-design
Dr. Margaret Lange-Osborn
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Interests: aptamers; host-virus interactions; pattern recognition receptors; RNA-protein interactions; innate immunity and signal transduction; HIV
Dr. Kyle J. Hill

Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Interests: virology; enzymology; drug resistance; protein-protein/substrate interactions; virus-host interactions; drug discovery/design; protein structure prediction/determination; HIV; neurodegenerative diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Viruses are among the most tenacious representatives of natural evolution as they adopt and streamline their lifecycles to propagate in nearly every environment and organism. Viruses are obligate parasites equipped with the minimal tools to replicate themselves. Hence, they circumvent and appropriate every possible resource available to them from the host. Viruses have evolved to infect every kingdom of life. In terms of genome composition, viruses have every configuration of RNA and DNA: single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds), positive (+), and negative sense. Viral replication naturally encompasses more than mere genome copying. The entire repertoire of viral proteins, such as polymerases, integrases, capsid, and viral factors, contributes to a singular goal of “viral replication”. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS, IF 4.183) is devoted to “Virus Replication”. We are soliciting research and review articles with emphasis on biochemistry of replication machinery, virus/host interaction, and viral inhibition.

Prof. Dr. Kamalendra Singh
Dr. Margaret Lange-Osborn
Dr. Kyle J. Hill
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Virus replication
  • Antivirals
  • Viral replication
  • Host/virus interaction
  • Pathogenesis
  • Assembly
  • RNA and DNA synthesis

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Heat Shock Protein 90 Chaperones E1A Early Protein of Adenovirus 5 and Is Essential for Replication of the Virus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2020; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042020 - 18 Feb 2021
Abstract
Adenovirus infections tend to be mild, but they may pose a serious threat for young and immunocompromised individuals. The treatment is complicated because there are no approved safe and specific drugs for adenovirus infections. Here, we present evidence that 17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor [...] Read more.
Adenovirus infections tend to be mild, but they may pose a serious threat for young and immunocompromised individuals. The treatment is complicated because there are no approved safe and specific drugs for adenovirus infections. Here, we present evidence that 17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of Hsp90 chaperone, decreases the rate of human adenovirus 5 (HAdV-5) replication in cell cultures by 95%. 17-AAG inhibited the transcription of early and late genes of HAdV-5, replication of viral DNA, and expression of viral proteins. 6 h after infection, Hsp90 inhibition results in a 6.3-fold reduction of the newly synthesized E1A protein level without a decrease in the E1A mRNA level. However, the Hsp90 inhibition does not increase the decay rate of the E1A protein that was constitutively expressed in the cell before exposure to the inhibitor. The co-immunoprecipitation proved that E1A protein interacted with Hsp90. Altogether, the presented results show, for the first time. that Hsp90 chaperones newly synthesized, but not mature, E1A protein. Because E1A serves as a transcriptional co-activator of adenovirus early genes, the anti-adenoviral activity of the Hsp90 inhibitor might be explained by the decreased E1A level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Replication)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Discovery of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Human Adenovirus Capable of Preventing Escape from the Endosome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1617; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041617 - 05 Feb 2021
Abstract
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) display a wide range of tissue tropism and can cause an array of symptoms from mild respiratory illnesses to disseminated and life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. However, no antiviral drug has been approved specifically for the treatment of HAdV infections. [...] Read more.
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) display a wide range of tissue tropism and can cause an array of symptoms from mild respiratory illnesses to disseminated and life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. However, no antiviral drug has been approved specifically for the treatment of HAdV infections. Herein, we report our continued efforts to optimize salicylamide derivatives and discover compound 16 (JMX0493) as a potent inhibitor of HAdV infection. Compound 16 displays submicromolar IC50 values, a higher selectivity index (SI > 100) and 2.5-fold virus yield reduction compared to our hit compound niclosamide. Moreover, unlike niclosamide, our mechanistic studies suggest that the antiviral activity of compound 16 against HAdV is achieved through the inhibition of viral particle escape from the endosome, which bars subsequent uncoating and the presentation of lytic protein VI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Replication)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Antiviral Activity of Gemcitabine with 2′-Fluoro-2′-Deoxycytidine and Combination Therapy with Remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041581 - 04 Feb 2021
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The virus still spreads globally through human-to-human transmission. Nevertheless, there are no specific treatments clinically approved. This study aimed to compare antiviral activity of gemcitabine [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The virus still spreads globally through human-to-human transmission. Nevertheless, there are no specific treatments clinically approved. This study aimed to compare antiviral activity of gemcitabine and its analogue 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (2FdC) against SARS-CoV-2 as well as cytotoxicity in vitro. Fluorescent image-based antiviral assays revealed that gemcitabine was highly potent, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1.2 μM, more active than the well-known nucleoside monophosphate remdesivir (EC50 = 35.4 μM). In contrast, 2FdC was marginally active (EC50 = 175.2 μM). For all three compounds, the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were over 300 μM toward Vero CCL-81 cells. Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses verified that gemcitabine blocked viral protein expression in virus-infected cells, not only Vero CCL-81 cells but also Calu-3 human lung epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was found that gemcitabine has a synergistic effect when combined with remdesivir. This report suggests that the difluoro group of gemcitabine is critical for the antiviral activity and that its combination with other evaluated antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, could be a desirable option to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Replication)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification of Important N-Linked Glycosylation Sites in the Hemagglutinin Protein and Their Functional Impact on DC-SIGN Mediated Avian Influenza H5N1 Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 743; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020743 - 13 Jan 2021
Abstract
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin mainly expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), has been reported to mediate several viral infections. We previously reported that DC-SIGN mediated H5N1 influenza A virus (AIVs) infection, however, the important DC-SIGN interaction with N-glycosylation sites remain unknown. This study aims [...] Read more.
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin mainly expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), has been reported to mediate several viral infections. We previously reported that DC-SIGN mediated H5N1 influenza A virus (AIVs) infection, however, the important DC-SIGN interaction with N-glycosylation sites remain unknown. This study aims to identify the optimal DC-SIGN interacting N-glycosylation sites in HA proteins of H5N1-AIVs. Results from NetNGlyc program analyzed the H5 hemagglutinin sequences of isolates during 2004–2020, revealing that seven and two conserved N-glycosylation sites were detected in HA1 and HA2 domain, respectively. A lentivirus pseudotyped A/Vietnam/1203/04 H5N1 envelope (H5N1-PVs) was generated which displayed an abundance of HA5 proteins on the virions via immuno-electron microscope observation. Further, H5N1-PVs or reverse-genetics (H5N1-RG) strains carrying a serial N-glycosylated mutation was generated by site-directed mutagenesis assay. Human recombinant DC-SIGN (rDC-SIGN) coated ELISA showed that H5N1-PVs bound to DC-SIGN, however, mutation on the N27Q, N39Q, and N181Q significantly reduced this binding (p < 0.05). Infectivity and capture assay demonstrated that N27Q and N39Q mutations significantly ameliorated DC-SIGN mediated H5N1 infection. Furthermore, combined mutations (N27Q&N39Q) significantly waned the interaction on either H5N1-PVs or -RG infection in cis and in trans (p < 0.01). This study concludes that N27 and N39 are two essential N-glycosylation contributing to DC-SIGN mediating H5N1 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Replication)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Extended Interactions between HIV-1 Viral RNA and tRNALys3 Are Important to Maintain Viral RNA Integrity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010058 - 23 Dec 2020
Abstract
The reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) initiates upon annealing of the 3′-18-nt of tRNALys3 onto the primer binding site (PBS) in viral RNA (vRNA). Additional intermolecular interactions between tRNALys3 and vRNA have been reported, but their functions [...] Read more.
The reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) initiates upon annealing of the 3′-18-nt of tRNALys3 onto the primer binding site (PBS) in viral RNA (vRNA). Additional intermolecular interactions between tRNALys3 and vRNA have been reported, but their functions remain unclear. Here, we show that abolishing one potential interaction, the A-rich loop: tRNALys3 anticodon interaction in the HIV-1 MAL strain, led to a decrease in viral infectivity and reduced the synthesis of reverse transcription products in newly infected cells. In vitro biophysical and functional experiments revealed that disruption of the extended interaction resulted in an increased affinity for reverse transcriptase (RT) and enhanced primer extension efficiency. In the absence of deoxyribose nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), vRNA was degraded by the RNaseH activity of RT, and the degradation rate was slower in the complex with the extended interaction. Consistently, the loss of vRNA integrity was detected in virions containing A-rich loop mutations. Similar results were observed in the HIV-1 NL4.3 strain, and we show that the nucleocapsid (NC) protein is necessary to promote the extended vRNA: tRNALys3 interactions in vitro. In summary, our data revealed that the additional intermolecular interaction between tRNALys3 and vRNA is likely a conserved mechanism among various HIV-1 strains and protects the vRNA from RNaseH degradation in mature virions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Replication)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Amino Acid Deletions in p6Gag Domain of HIV-1 CRF07_BC Ameliorate Galectin-3 Mediated Enhancement in Viral Budding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2910; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21082910 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
HIV-1 CRF07_BC is a recombinant virus with amino acid (a.a.) deletions in p6Gag, which are overlapped with the Alix-binding domain. Galectin-3 (Gal3), a β-galactose binding lectin, has been reported to interact with Alix and regulate HIV-1 subtype B budding. This study [...] Read more.
HIV-1 CRF07_BC is a recombinant virus with amino acid (a.a.) deletions in p6Gag, which are overlapped with the Alix-binding domain. Galectin-3 (Gal3), a β-galactose binding lectin, has been reported to interact with Alix and regulate HIV-1 subtype B budding. This study aims to evaluate the role of Gal3 in HIV-1 CRF07_BC infection and the potential effect of a.a. deletions on Gal3-mediated regulation. A total of 38 HIV-1+ injecting drug users (IDUs) were enrolled in the study. Viral characterization and correlation of Gal3 were validated. CRF07_BC containing 7 a.a. deletions and wild-type in the p6Gag (CRF07_BC-7d and -wt) were isolated and infectious clones were generated. Viral growth kinetic and budding assays using Jurkat-CCR5/Jurkat-CCR5-Gal3 cells infected with CRF07_BC were performed. Results indicate that 69.4% (25/38) of the recruited patients were identified as CRF07_BC, and CRF07_BC-7d was predominant. Slow disease progression and significantly higher plasma Gal3 were noted in CRF07_BC patients (p < 0.01). Results revealed that CRF07_BC infection resulted in Gal3 expression, which was induced by Tat. Growth dynamic and budding assays indicated that Gal3 expression in Jurkat-CCR5 cells significantly enhanced CRF07_BC-wt replication and budding (p < 0.05), while the promoting effect was ameliorated in CRF07_BC-7d. Co-immunoprecipitation found that deletions in the p6Gag reduced Gal-3-mediated enhancement of the Alix–Gag interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Replication)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop