Special Issue "Beyond Hydrogen Storage—Metal Hydrides as Multifunctional Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion"

A special issue of Inorganics (ISSN 2304-6740). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Michael Heere
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Applied Materials - Energy Storage Systems (IAM-ESS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein, Germany
Interests: energy storage; metal hydrides; neutron powder diffraction; operando techniques
Dr. Arndt Remhof
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Interests: energy conversion; batteries; solid ionic conductors
Dr. Anna-Lisa Sargent (formerly Chaudhary)
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Helmut Schmidt University, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043 Hamburg, Germany
Interests: energy storage; metal hydrides; high-pressure gas–solid interactions
Dr. Kasper T. Møller
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Fuels and Energy Technology Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Interests: thermal energy storage; solid-state electrolytes; hydrogen storage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Following the E-MRS symposium L ‘‘Beyond Hydrogen Storage—Metal Hydrides as Multifunctional Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion’’ (Beyond Hydrogen Storage—Metal Hydrides as Multifunctional Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion), we kindly invite you to submit a research paper to this Special Issue of Inorganics concerning metal hydrides and their application in next-generation battery technology, thermal energy storage, and hydrogen storage, as well as basic chemical insight into reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and relations between crystal structure and properties. We encourage everyone within the research field to submit an article to get a comprehensive Issue that may inspire future research directions.

Dr. Michael Heere
Dr. Arndt Remhof
Dr. Anna-Lisa Sargent (formerly Chaudhary)
Dr. Kasper T. Møller
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inorganics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydrogen storage
  • Solid-state electrolytes
  • Next-generation batteries
  • Energy conversion
  • Batteries
  • Energy storage
  • Thermal energy storage
  • Reaction kinetics and thermodynamics
  • Gas sensors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Beyond Hydrogen Storage—Metal Hydrides as Multifunctional Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion
Inorganics 2020, 8(11), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8110058 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 957
Abstract
Following the E-MRS (European Materials Research Society) fall meeting 2019, Symposium L, this Special Issue of Inorganics, entitled “Beyond Hydrogen Storage—Metal Hydrides as Multifunctional Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion”, is dedicated to the wide range of emerging energy-related inorganic hydrogen-containing materials [...] Read more.
Following the E-MRS (European Materials Research Society) fall meeting 2019, Symposium L, this Special Issue of Inorganics, entitled “Beyond Hydrogen Storage—Metal Hydrides as Multifunctional Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion”, is dedicated to the wide range of emerging energy-related inorganic hydrogen-containing materials [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Thermal Properties of Ammine Barium Borohydrides
Inorganics 2020, 8(10), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8100057 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Ammine metal borohydrides show large compositional and structural diversity, and have been proposed as candidates for solid-state ammonia and hydrogen storage as well as fast cationic conductors. Here, we report the synthesis method of ammine barium borohydrides, Ba(BH4)2·x [...] Read more.
Ammine metal borohydrides show large compositional and structural diversity, and have been proposed as candidates for solid-state ammonia and hydrogen storage as well as fast cationic conductors. Here, we report the synthesis method of ammine barium borohydrides, Ba(BH4)2·xNH3 (x = 1, 2). The two new compounds were investigated with time-resolved temperature-varied in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and photographic analysis. The compound Ba(BH4)2·2NH3 crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with space group symmetry Pnc2, and is isostructural to Sr(BH4)2·2NH3, forming octahedral [Ba(NH3)2(BH4)4] complexes, which are connected into a two-dimensional layered structure, where the layers are interconnected by dihydrogen bonds, N–Hδ+−δH–B. A new structure type is observed for Ba(BH4)2·NH3, which crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with space group symmetry P212121, forming a three-dimensional framework structure of [Ba(NH3)(BH4)6] complexes. The structure is built from distorted hexagonal chains, where NH3 groups form dihydrogen bonds to the nearby BH4-groups within the chain. Ba(BH4)2·2NH3 is unstable at room temperature and releases NH3 in two subsequent endothermic reactions with maxima at 49 and 117 °C, eventually reforming Ba(BH4)2. We demonstrate that the thermal stability and composition of the gas release for the ammine alkaline earth metal borohydrides can be correlated to the charge density of the metal cation, but are also influenced by other effects. Full article
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Article
Behavior of Compacted Magnesium-Based Powders for Energy-Storage Applications
Inorganics 2020, 8(10), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8100054 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
Energy storage is one of the main challenges to address in the near future—in particular due to the intermittent energy produced by extensive renewable energy production plants. The use of hydrides for this type of energy storage has many positive aspects. Hydride-based systems [...] Read more.
Energy storage is one of the main challenges to address in the near future—in particular due to the intermittent energy produced by extensive renewable energy production plants. The use of hydrides for this type of energy storage has many positive aspects. Hydride-based systems consist of absorption and desorption reactions that are strongly exothermic and endothermic, respectively. Heat management in the design of hydrogen storage tanks is an important issue, in order to ensure high-level performance in terms of the kinetics for hydrogen release/uptake and reasonable storage capacity. When loose powder is used, material in the form of pellets should be considered in order to avoid detrimental effects including decreased cycling performance. Moreover, sustainable materials in large-scale hydrogen reactors could be recovered and reused to improve any life cycle analysis of such systems. For these reasons, magnesium hydride was used in this study, as it is particularly suitable for hydrogen storage due to its high H2 storage capacity, reversibility and the low costs. Magnesium hydride was ball-milled in presence of 5 wt % Fe as a catalyst, then compacted with an uniaxial press after the addition of expanded natural graphite (ENG). The materials underwent 45 cycles in a Sievert’s type apparatus at 310 °C and eight bar, in order to study the kinetics and cycling stability. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate microstructural properties and failure phenomena. Together with Rietveld analysis, X-ray diffraction was performed for phase identification and structural information. The pellets demonstrated suitable cycling stability in terms of total hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. Full article
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Article
Techno-Economic Assessment of Destabilized Li Hydride Systems for High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage
Inorganics 2020, 8(5), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8050030 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of destabilized Li hydrides, used as thermal energy storage systems in concentrating solar power plants, is presented and discussed. Two systems, operating at temperatures on the order of 550–650 °C, are selected as thermal energy storage units for steam [...] Read more.
A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of destabilized Li hydrides, used as thermal energy storage systems in concentrating solar power plants, is presented and discussed. Two systems, operating at temperatures on the order of 550–650 °C, are selected as thermal energy storage units for steam power plants, namely the Si-destabilized Li hydride (LiSi) and the Al-destabilized Li hydride (LiAl). Two thermal energy storage systems, operating at temperatures on the order of 700–750 °C, are selected for integration in supercritical CO2 power plants, namely the Si-destabilized Li hydride (LiSi) and the Sn-destabilized Li hydride (LiSn). Each storage system demonstrates excellent volumetric capacity, achieving values between 100 and 250 kWhth/m3. The LiSi-based thermal energy storage systems can be integrated with steam and supercritical CO2 plants at a specific cost between 107 US$/kWhth and 109 US$/kWhth, with potential to achieve costs on the order of 74 US$/kWhth under enhanced configurations and scenarios. The LiAl-based storage system has the highest potential for large scale applications. The specific cost of the LiAl system, integrated in solar steam power plants, is equal to approximately 74 US$/kWhth, with potential to reach values on the order of 51 US$/kWhth under enhanced performance configurations and scenarios. Full article
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Article
Investigation of Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of MgH2 Based Materials with Addition of Ni and Activated Carbon
Inorganics 2020, 8(2), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8020012 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Magnesium-based materials are promising as hydrogen storage media due to their high theoretical hydrogen absorption capacity, abundance and low price. The subject of this study are the hydrogen sorption characteristics of the composites 80 wt % MgH2-15 wt % Ni-5 wt [...] Read more.
Magnesium-based materials are promising as hydrogen storage media due to their high theoretical hydrogen absorption capacity, abundance and low price. The subject of this study are the hydrogen sorption characteristics of the composites 80 wt % MgH2-15 wt % Ni-5 wt % activated carbon (synthesized from polyolefin wax, a waste product of polyethylene production at low pressure which will be denoted further in the text as POW) and 90 wt % MgH2-5 wt % Ni-5 wt % POW, prepared by ball milling under argon atmosphere. Structure, phase and surface composition of the samples before and after hydrogenation are determined by XRD and TEM. The maximum absorption capacity value of the composites at a temperature 573 K and after 60 min. of hydrogenation are 5.3 wt % H2 for the material with higher Ni content and 5.5 wt % H2 for the other sample. The presence of both additives—nickel and activated carbon derived from POW—has a positive impact on hydrogenation kinetics and the capacity achieved. The results from TEM characterization, e.g., the polycrystalline SAED (selected area electron diffraction) show the presence of graphite, Mg and monoclinic Mg2NiH4. Full article
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Review

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Review
A Review of the MSCA ITN ECOSTORE—Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Efficient and Compact Storage of Renewable Energy as Hydrogen and Electricity
Inorganics 2020, 8(3), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8030017 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3168
Abstract
Hydrogen as an energy carrier is very versatile in energy storage applications. Developments in novel, sustainable technologies towards a CO2-free society are needed and the exploration of all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) as well as solid-state hydrogen storage applications based on metal hydrides [...] Read more.
Hydrogen as an energy carrier is very versatile in energy storage applications. Developments in novel, sustainable technologies towards a CO2-free society are needed and the exploration of all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) as well as solid-state hydrogen storage applications based on metal hydrides can provide solutions for such technologies. However, there are still many technical challenges for both hydrogen storage material and ASSBs related to designing low-cost materials with low-environmental impact. The current materials considered for all-solid-state batteries should have high conductivities for Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, while Al3+-based compounds are often marginalised due to the lack of suitable electrode and electrolyte materials. In hydrogen storage materials, the sluggish kinetic behaviour of solid-state hydride materials is one of the key constraints that limit their practical uses. Therefore, it is necessary to overcome the kinetic issues of hydride materials before discussing and considering them on the system level. This review summarizes the achievements of the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA) innovative training network (ITN) ECOSTORE, the aim of which was the investigation of different aspects of (complex) metal hydride materials. Advances in battery and hydrogen storage materials for the efficient and compact storage of renewable energy production are discussed. Full article
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Review
Metal Hydride Compressors with Gas-Gap Heat Switches: Concept, Development, Testing, and Space Flight Operation for the Planck Sorption Cryocoolers
Inorganics 2019, 7(12), 139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics7120139 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Two closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators were used to generate temperatures of ~18 K via evaporation of liquid hydrogen at the interfaces with radiofrequency and infrared sensors on an Earth-orbiting spacecraft that measured the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) during the European Space [...] Read more.
Two closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators were used to generate temperatures of ~18 K via evaporation of liquid hydrogen at the interfaces with radiofrequency and infrared sensors on an Earth-orbiting spacecraft that measured the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) during the European Space Agency (ESA) Planck Mission from June 2009 until October 2013. The liquid hydrogen phase was continuously generated in each Planck Sorption Cryocooler (PSC) by coupling a Joule–Thomson (J–T) expander to hydrogen gas initially pressurized to nominally 3000 kPa (i.e., ~30 bar) and subsequently discharged at pressure of 30 kPa (i.e., ~0.3 bar) by desorption and absorption using LaNi4.78Sn0.22Hx contained in six individual sorbent beds. The pressures were varied by alternately heating and cooling this hydride that included temperature modulation with an integrated Gas-Gap Heat Switch (GGHS). The novel GGHS used the low-pressure hydride ZrNiHx to vary thermal conductance between the bed containing the LaNi4.78Sn0.22Hx sorbent and the rest of the compressor system. The design features and development of these hydride components are described along with details of fabrication and assembly. The results obtained during extended laboratory testing are also summarized. The predictions from this preflight testing are compared to the performance observed while operating in orbit during the Planck Mission. This review ends with a summary of lessons learned and recommendations for improved systems. Full article
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Other

Erratum
Erratum: Hadjixenophontos, E.; et al. A Review of the MSCA ITN ECOSTORE—Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Efficient and Compact Storage of Renewable Energy as Hydrogen and Electricity. Inorganics 2020, 8, 17
Inorganics 2020, 8(11), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inorganics8110063 - 18 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
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