Special Issue "Clinical Studies on Bioavailability, Biotransformation, Biokinetics and Bioeffects of Phytochemicals"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Milan, Italy
Interests: environmental pollution; agrochemicals; mycotoxins; biomonitoring
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The health-promoting effects of phytochemicals strictly depend on their oral bioavailability, which, in turn, relies on i) the individual biotransformation systems; ii) the chemical structure and properties of each compound; and iii) the complexity of the plant matrix consisting of seeds, leaves, roots, stems, flowers, and other plant tissues and organs. After intake, bioactive compounds have to be absorbed, distributed, and metabolized before reaching the target tissues and cells; finally, the metabolites of native compounds are excreted in urine and feces, mainly as water-soluble conjugates (methyl, glucuronide, and sulfate derivatives). The gastrointestinal tract, the systemic circulation, and the urinary system are involved in these complex and coordinated biotransformation processes including enterohepatic circulation, and Phase I (oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis) and Phase II (conjugation) metabolisms in enterocytes and hepatocytes. Finally, phytochemicals not absorbed in the small intestine reach the large intestine where they are biotransformed by the colonic microbiota. Indeed, though phytochemicals are commonly considered “natural” products, i.e., safe and healthy, it is not actually always so: Plant metabolites are recognized as xenobiotics by the human organism, and therefore, they are extensively metabolized.

In this very wide context, we invite investigators to submit both original research and review articles that explore all these aspects.

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nutraceuticals
  • functional foods
  • phytotherapeutics
  • gut microbiota
  • metabolomics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Development of p-Coumaric Acid Analysis in Human Plasma and Its Clinical Application to PK/PD Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10010108 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
It has been recognized that p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) has protective effects as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent. A sensitive and efficient Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) method for maximum determination of p-CA in human plasma has been established using Ultra-performance liquid [...] Read more.
It has been recognized that p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) has protective effects as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent. A sensitive and efficient Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) method for maximum determination of p-CA in human plasma has been established using Ultra-performance liquid Chromatography-tandem mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This study provides the developed analysis of p-CA extracted from Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (BC) to examine the improvement of the treatment p-CA, IGF-1 and Osteocalcin level in human children which are important factors on the growth of children’s height through Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model. p-CA and internal standard in a plasma sample were detected by the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) scan mode with positive ion detection. The sample participating in the study was made of 34 subjects (placebo = 18, treatment = 16). The subjects were enrolled to be randomized to the control group and BC group. Randomized subjects took tested treatment twice a day, three capsules with oral administration (258 mg/capsule) each time after a meal. Standard calibration curves (reproducibility) were constructed and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for p-CA was found to be 0.2 ng/mL on injection of the sample into the UPLC-MS/MS system. Accuracy and precision were evaluated and the intra-accuracy was 99.2–103.8% with precision of 1.0–5.6% and inter-accuracy was 99.6–108.4% and precision of 1.3–6.4% for p-CA. The method has been successfully applied to PK/PD studies of p-CA in human plasma. The p-CA, BC in Taeniam extract increased the level of IGF-1 and Osteocalcin, and changed the height from baseline, which suggested that the p-CA could play an important role in longitudinal bone growth. Therefore, the p-CA extracted from BC in Taeniam might be a good alternative medicine to growth hormone (GH) therapy. Full article
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Article
Efficacy and Safety of Combined Extracts of Cornus officinalis and Ribes fasciculatum for Body Fat Reduction in Overweight Women
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3629; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9113629 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 423
Abstract
Obesity is a medical condition that presents excessive fat accumulation with high risk of serious chronic diseases. The aim of this clinical trial is to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Cornus officinalis (CO) and Ribes fasciculatum (RF) on body fat reduction in Korean [...] Read more.
Obesity is a medical condition that presents excessive fat accumulation with high risk of serious chronic diseases. The aim of this clinical trial is to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Cornus officinalis (CO) and Ribes fasciculatum (RF) on body fat reduction in Korean overweight women. A total of 147 overweight female participants enrolled in double-blinded clinical trial for 12 weeks and 76 participants completed the clinical study. Participants were treated with four CO and RF mixture (COEC; 400 mg per tablet) or four placebo tablets once a day. Obesity associated parameters (body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat percentage and body fat mass) and safety assessment were analyzed. After 12 weeks of COEC treatment, primary outcomes such as body fat percentage (0.76% vs. 0.01%; p = 0.022) and mass (1.1 kg vs. 0.5 kg; p = 0.049) were significantly decreased. In addition, the results were statistically significant between the COEC and placebo groups, strongly indicated that COEC had anti-obesity effects on overweight women. Secondary outcomes—including body weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index and computed tomography measurement of visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, total abdominal fat area and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio—were reduced in COEC-treated group, but no statistical differences were found between the COEC and placebo groups. The safety assessment did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that treatment of COEC extract reduces body fat percentage and mass in Korean overweight women, indicating it as a protective functional agent for obesity. Full article
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Article
Polyphenol Bioavailability and Plasma Antiradical Capacity in Healthy Subjects after Acute Intake of Pigmented Rice: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9103209 - 05 Oct 2020
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Health-promoting effects of plant foods have been emphasized in the last few decades and ascribed to the bioactive phytochemicals present therein—in particular, phenylpropanoids. The latter have been investigated for a number of preclinical biological activities, including their antioxidant power. Due to the paucity [...] Read more.
Health-promoting effects of plant foods have been emphasized in the last few decades and ascribed to the bioactive phytochemicals present therein—in particular, phenylpropanoids. The latter have been investigated for a number of preclinical biological activities, including their antioxidant power. Due to the paucity of human studies, in this randomized intervention trial, we investigated whether the acute intake of pigmented rice could increase the plasma bioactive levels and antiradical power in twenty healthy subjects. A crossover randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 19 volunteers. Artemide and Venere black rice cultivars were tested, while brown rice Carnaroli was used as a control. Each patient received randomly one serving (100 g) of rice on three different experimental days, separated by a 7-day washout period. After baseline blood withdrawal, time-course changes of plasma polyphenols, flavonoids and radical-scavenging capacity were determined at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min post rice intake. Compared to Carnaroli rice, the two black rice cultivars significantly increased the plasma levels of polyphenols and flavonoids at 60 and 120 min and, correspondingly, the plasma antiradical power at 60 min after consumption. Pigmented rice consumption can contribute to diet-related health benefits in humans. Full article
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