Special Issue "Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Orthopedics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Denaro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-medico University, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Rome, Italy
Interests: spine surgery; bone pathology; replacement; orthopaedic surgery
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Scientific evidence has shown the crucial role of rehabilitation in orthopaedic diseases. Such diseases include disorders of joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments. In particular, recent progress in surgical techniques has also implied an increasing demand for more personalized, efficient and effective postoperative rehabilitation. Much of the disabilities derived from orthopaedic diseases cause important functional limitations in everyday life conditions. In this scenario, prevention and optimal postoperative treatments are needed. Which rehabilitation protocol is the best for orthopaedic diseases is still widely discussed. This Special Issue discusses current rehabilitation procedures in orthopaedic diseases, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses and providing new intervention strategies.

Prof. Dr. Umile Giuseppe Longo
Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Denaro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Rehabilitation
  • Postoperative rehabilitation
  • Orthopaedic rehabilitation
  • Orthopaedic diseases
  • Personalized medicine

Published Papers (20 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Unimanual Intensive Therapy with or without Unaffected Hand Containment in Children with Hemiplegia. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2992; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9092992 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
Children with hemiplegia have lower spontaneous use and quality of movement in the affected upper limb. The modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) is applied to improve the affected upper limb function. The objective of this study was to study the efficacy of unaffected [...] Read more.
Children with hemiplegia have lower spontaneous use and quality of movement in the affected upper limb. The modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) is applied to improve the affected upper limb function. The objective of this study was to study the efficacy of unaffected hand containment to obtain changes in the function of the affected upper limb after applying two unimanual therapies. A randomized controlled pilot study was performed with 16 children diagnosed with congenital infantile hemiplegia, with eight children randomized in each group (average age: 5.54 years; SD: 1.55). mCIMT and unimanual therapy without containment (UTWC) were applied, with a total of 50 h distributed in five weeks (two h/per day). Two assessments were performed (pre- and post-treatment) to evaluate the affected upper limb spontaneous use, measured with the Shiners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE), and the quality of movement, measured with the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST scale). The progression of the variables was different in both groups. The results are expressed in the median of the improvement percent and interquartile range (IQR). The spontaneous use analysis showed an improvement percent of 31.65 (IQR: 2.33, 110.42) in the mCIMT group with respect to 0.00 (IQR: 0.00, 0.00) in the UTWC group. The quality of movement increased in the mCIMT and UTWC groups, 24.21 (IQR: 13.44, 50.39), 1.34 (IQR: 0.00, 4.75), respectively and the greatest increase was obtained in the grasp variable for both groups. The use of unaffected hand containment in mCIMT would produce improvements in the affected upper limb functionality in children with hemiplegia (4–8 years old) compared to the same protocol without containment (UTWC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Robot-Assisted Gait Training in Patients with Burn Injury on Lower Extremity: A Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2813; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9092813 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) on gait function in burn patients. Briefly, 40 burn patients were randomly divided into an RAGT group or a conventional training (CON) group. SUBAR® (Cretem, Korea) is a wearable robot with a [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) on gait function in burn patients. Briefly, 40 burn patients were randomly divided into an RAGT group or a conventional training (CON) group. SUBAR® (Cretem, Korea) is a wearable robot with a footplate that simulates normal gait cycles. The RAGT group underwent 30 min of robot-assisted training using SUBAR® with 30 min of conventional physiotherapy once a day, 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Patients in the CON group received 30 min of overground gait training and range-of-motion (ROM) exercises twice a day for 5 days a week for 12 weeks. The RAGT group and the CON group underwent 60 min of training per day. The intervention frequency and duration did not differ between the RAGT group and the CON group. The main outcomes were functional ambulatory category (FAC); 6-min walking test (6MWT); visual analogue scale (VAS) during gait movement; ROM; and isometric forces of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle muscles before and after 12 weeks of training. The results of the VAS, FAC, and 6MWT (8.06 ± 0.66, 1.76 ± 0.56, and 204.41 ± 85.60) before training in the RAGT group improved significantly (4.41 ± 1.18, 4.18 ± 0.39, and 298.53 ± 47.75) after training (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). The results of the VAS, FAC, and 6MWT (8.00 ± 1.21, 1.75 ± 0.58, and 220.94 ± 116.88) before training in the CON group improved significantly (5.00 ± 1.03, 3.81 ± 1.05, and 272.19 ± 110.14) after training (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.05). There were differences in the improvement of results of the VAS, FAC, and 6MWT between groups after training, but they were not statistically significant (p = 0.23, p = 0.14, and p = 0.05). The isometric strengths of the right hip extensor (p = 0.02), bilateral knee flexor (p = 0.04 in the right, and p = 0.001 in the left), bilateral knee extensor (p = 0.003 in the right, and p = 0.002 in the left), bilateral ankle dorsiflexor (p = 0.04 in the right, and p = 0.02 in the left), and bilateral ankle plantarflexor (p = 0.001 in the right, and p = 0.008 in the left) after training were significantly improved compared with those before training in the RAGT group. The ROMs of the right knee extension (p = 0.03) and bilateral ankle plantarflexion (p = 0.008 in the right, and p = 0.03 in the left) were significantly improved compared with measurements before training in the RAGT. There were no significant differences of the isometric strengths and ROMs of the bilateral hip, knee, and ankle muscles after training in the CON group. There were significant improvements in the isometric strengths of the left knee flexor (p = 0.01), left ankle dorsiflexor (p = 0.01), and left ankle plantarflexor (p = 0.003) between the two groups. The results suggested that RAGT is effective to facilitate early recovery of muscles strength after a burn injury. This is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of RAGT in patients with burns compared with those receiving conventional training. The absence of complications in burn patients provides an opportunity to enlarge the application area of RAGT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prevalence of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Mild to Moderate Painful Knee Osteoarthritis: A Secondary Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9082561 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and the correlation between the number of MTrPs and pain and function in patients presenting knee pain osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study. The prevalence [...] Read more.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and the correlation between the number of MTrPs and pain and function in patients presenting knee pain osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MTrPs located in tensor fasciae latae, hip adductors, hamstrings, quadriceps, gastrocnemius, and popliteus muscles was studied in 114 patients (71 men and 43 women) with knee OA. Pain and functionality were assessed with a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), the Western Ontario, McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, the Barthel Index, and the timed up and go test. Results: The prevalence of latent MTrPs was detected via palpation and was estimated to be 50%, 35%, 25%, 29%, 33%, and 12% for tensor fasciae latae, hip adductors, hamstrings, quadriceps, gastrocnemius, and popliteus muscles, respectively. The prevalence of active MTrPs was estimated to be 11%, 17%, 30%, 18%, 25%, and 17% for tensor fasciae latae, hip adductors, hamstrings, quadriceps, gastrocnemius, and popliteus muscles, respectively. Pain was measured with the NPRS scale and was poorly correlated with the prevalence of latent MTrPs (r = 0.2; p = 0.03) and active MTrPs (r = 0.23; p = 0.01) in the hamstrings. Disability was moderately correlated with the number of latent MTrPs in the tensor fasciae latae muscle (Barthel, r = 0.26; p = 0.01 and WOMAC, r = 0.19; p = 0.04). Conclusions: This secondary analysis found that the prevalence of the MTrPs varied from 11% to 50% in different muscles of patients with mild to moderate painful knee osteoarthritis. Pain was correlated poorly with the prevalence of latent and active MTrPs in the hamstring muscles, and disability correlated moderately with the number of latent MTrPs in tensor fasciae latae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Article
Sociodemographic Inequalities in Outcomes of a Swedish Nationwide Self-Management Program for Osteoarthritis: Results from 22,741 Patients between Years 2008–2017
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2294; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9072294 - 19 Jul 2020
Viewed by 940
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate if there are educational level and birthplace related differences in joint-related pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), willingness to undergo joint surgery, walking difficulties, physical activity level, fear-avoidance behavior before, as well as three and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate if there are educational level and birthplace related differences in joint-related pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), willingness to undergo joint surgery, walking difficulties, physical activity level, fear-avoidance behavior before, as well as three and 12 months after participation in a structured self-management program for hip and knee osteoarthritis. Differences in adherence to and use of knowledge from the program were also investigated. An observational national register-based study was performed with a prospective longitudinal design using patient and physiotherapist-reported data on 22,741 complete cases from the National Quality Register for better management of patients with osteoarthritis (BOA) during years 2008–2017. At baseline and after three and 12 months follow-up, higher educational level and being domestic-born was associated with less joint-related pain, better HRQoL, lower willingness to undergo joint surgery, fewer walking difficulties, higher physical activity level, and less fear-avoidance behavior. Foreign born individuals demonstrated higher adherence to exercise and reported better use of the self-management program. The BOA self-management program may require further pedagogical refinement to suit participants of different sociodemographic backgrounds and health literacy. A more patient-centered delivery, sensitive to educational, ethnic, and cultural differences may potentially reduce inequalities in future outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quantitative Evaluation of Meniscal Healing Process of Degenerative Meniscus Lesions Treated with Hyaluronic Acid: A Clinical and MRI Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9072280 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate clinical efficacy and healing effects of conservative management of degenerative meniscus lesions (DMLs) with a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel. Methods: Patients were subjected to two HA injections two weeks apart. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) [...] Read more.
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate clinical efficacy and healing effects of conservative management of degenerative meniscus lesions (DMLs) with a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel. Methods: Patients were subjected to two HA injections two weeks apart. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Patient’s Global Assessment (PtGA) and Clinical Observer Global Assessment (CoGA) of the disease were assessed at baseline, 30, and 60 days after treatment. Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) was assessed at baseline and 60 days after treatment. One year after treatment, patients were called to know whether any of them had undergone arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM). All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner (Siemens Aera), which included a T2 mapping pulse sequence with multiple echoes at baseline and 60 days after treatment. Results: 40 patients were enrolled. WOMAC score, physical function subscale, PtGA and CoGA, and SF-36 showed a statistically significant difference between baseline and follow-up. One year after treatment, only one patient had undergone APM. A decrease in the T2 measurement was detected in the posterior horn medial meniscus in 39% of cases in both the red and red–white zone, and in 60% of cases in the white zone; in the posterior horn lateral meniscus in 55% of cases in both the red and white zones, and in 65% of cases in the red–white zone. Only for the latter, there was a statistically significant difference between baseline and posttreatment T2 measurements. Conclusion: This study supports the use of HA in the conservative management of DML as it is clinically effective and enhances meniscus healing as demonstrated by T2 measurements. Moreover, it reduces the need for APM at 1-year follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Elastic Resistance Exercise on Postoperative Outcomes Linked to the ICF Core Sets for Osteoarthritis after Total Knee Replacement in Overweight and Obese Older Women with Sarcopenia Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9072194 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
(1) Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and aging are associated with high sarcopenia risk; sarcopenia may further affect outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR). Elastic resistance exercise training (RET) limits muscle attenuation in older adults. We aimed to identify the effects of post-TKR elastic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and aging are associated with high sarcopenia risk; sarcopenia may further affect outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR). Elastic resistance exercise training (RET) limits muscle attenuation in older adults. We aimed to identify the effects of post-TKR elastic RET on lean mass (LM) and functional outcomes in overweight and obese older women with KOA by using the brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for osteoarthritis (Brief-ICF-OA). (2) Methods: Eligible women aged ≥60 years who had received unilateral primary TKR were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG), which received postoperative RET twice weekly for 12 weeks, and a control group (CG), which received standard care. The primary and secondary outcome measures were LM and physical capacity, respectively, and were linked to the Brief-ICF-OA. The assessment time points were 2 weeks prior to surgery (T0) and postoperative at 1 month (T1; before RET) and 4 months (T2; upon completion of RET) of follow-up. An independent t test with an intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to determine the between-group differences in changes of outcome measures at T1 and T2 from T0. (3) Results: Forty patients (age: 70.9 ± 7.3 years) were randomly assigned to the EG (n = 20) or CG (n = 20). At T2, the EG exhibited significantly greater improvements in leg LM (mean difference (MD) = 0.86 kg, p = 0.004) and gait speed (MD = 0.26 m/s, p = 0.005) compared with the CG. Furthermore, the EG generally obtained significantly higher odds ratios than the CG for treatment success for most Brief-ICF-OA categories (all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Early intervention of elastic RET after TKR yielded positive postoperative outcomes based on the Brief-ICF-OA. The findings of this study may facilitate clinical decision-making regarding the optimal post-TKR rehabilitation strategy for older women with KOA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Tenotomy of the Long Head of Biceps Tendon in Patients with Symptomatic Complete Rotator Cuff Tear: In Vivo Non-contRolled Prospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9072114 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Background: We prospectively tested technical feasibility and clinical outcome of percutaneous ultrasound-guided tenotomy of long head of biceps tendon (LHBT). Methods: We included 11 patients (6 women; age: 73 ± 8.6 years) with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tear and intact LHBT, in whom [...] Read more.
Background: We prospectively tested technical feasibility and clinical outcome of percutaneous ultrasound-guided tenotomy of long head of biceps tendon (LHBT). Methods: We included 11 patients (6 women; age: 73 ± 8.6 years) with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tear and intact LHBT, in whom surgical repair was not possible/refused. After ultrasound-guided injection of local anesthetic, the LHBT was cut with a scalpel under continuous ultrasound monitoring until it became no longer visible. Pain was recorded before and at least six months after procedure. An eight-item questionnaire was administered to patients at follow-up. Results: A median of 4 tendon cuts were needed to ensure complete tenotomy. Mean procedure duration was 65 ± 5.7 s. Mean length of skin incision was 5.8 ± 0.6 mm. Pre-tenotomy VAS score was 8.2 ± 0.7, post-tenotomy VAS was 2.8 ± 0.6 (p < 0.001). At follow-up, 5/11 patients were very satisfied, 5/11 satisfied and 1/11 neutral. One patient experienced cramping and very minimal pain in the biceps. Six patients had still moderate shoulder pain, 1/11 minimal pain, 2/11 very minimal pain, while 2/11 had no pain. No patients had weakness in elbow flexion nor limits of daily activities due to LHBT. One patient showed Popeye deformity. All patients would undergo ultrasound-guided tenotomy again. Conclusion: ultrasound-guided percutaneous LHBT tenotomy is technically feasible and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
AMIC—Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis Technique in Patellar Cartilage Defects Treatment: A Retrospective Study with a Mid-Term Follow-Up
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9041184 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
Background: Knee cartilage defects can be retrieved in 60% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, especially in the patellofemoral joint. Different techniques have been proposed to treat patellar defects, although most of them are associated with short-term results. In this study Autologous Matrix Induced [...] Read more.
Background: Knee cartilage defects can be retrieved in 60% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, especially in the patellofemoral joint. Different techniques have been proposed to treat patellar defects, although most of them are associated with short-term results. In this study Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC), combining subchondral microfractures with a collagen membrane (type I and III collagen), was used in the treatment of isolated patellar cartilage defects. Methods: Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. Subjective-International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS), and Kujala score were collected at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, whereas the Tegner Activity Level Scale was determined preoperatively and at final follow-up (final-FU). The same postoperative management and rehabilitation protocol was adopted for all the patients. Results: Fourteen patients met the inclusion–exclusion criteria and were evaluated at a mean final-FU of 68.2 months (range 25.4–111.2). At 12 months, Kujala, IKDC, and VAS scores significantly increased in comparison to the preoperative assessment, whereas no statistically significant differences were reported between 12 months and final follow-up. Conclusion: This study demonstrated very good results throughout the follow-up, also in sports patients. The AMIC technique, together with an adequate rehabilitation protocol, can be considered as a reliable one-step alternative for the treatment of large isolated patellar cartilage defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Outcome Analysis of the Effects of Helmet Therapy in Infants with Brachycephaly
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9041171 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Brachycephaly has several potential deleterious effects, including malocclusion, sleep apnea, and abnormal posture. Nevertheless, the research regarding helmet therapy as a treatment strategy for brachycephaly is limited. Herein, we aimed to analyze the factors influencing the effects of helmet therapy in infants with [...] Read more.
Brachycephaly has several potential deleterious effects, including malocclusion, sleep apnea, and abnormal posture. Nevertheless, the research regarding helmet therapy as a treatment strategy for brachycephaly is limited. Herein, we aimed to analyze the factors influencing the effects of helmet therapy in infants with brachycephaly. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 207 infants aged 3–14 months with a cranial index (CI) >90% who received helmet therapy between May 2016 and October 2019 and complied with the treatment protocol well. We used a multiple regression analysis to determine which factors affected the duration of therapy and a Jonckheere–Terpstra test to establish differences in the duration of helmet therapy according to age and severity. We identified brachycephaly severity (p < 0.001), asymmetry (p < 0.001), and age (p < 0.001) as factors affecting the duration of therapy. Helmet therapy might be effective for infants with moderate to severe brachycephaly, assuming good protocol compliance. In addition, younger treatment initiation age and less severe and less asymmetric brachycephaly significantly shorten the treatment duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Surgical Treatment on Subungual Osteochondromas in Paediatric Feet: A Case Series Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9041122 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Subungual osteochondroma (SO) is an infrequent and non-malignant bone tumour of the distal phalanx, especially prominent in paediatric populations. The aim of this research was to describe a case series of paediatric feet with SO which received surgical treatments. The secondary purpose was [...] Read more.
Subungual osteochondroma (SO) is an infrequent and non-malignant bone tumour of the distal phalanx, especially prominent in paediatric populations. The aim of this research was to describe a case series of paediatric feet with SO which received surgical treatments. The secondary purpose was to compare these descriptive data by sex distribution. Methods: Twenty-three paediatric feet with SO confirmed by clinical or radiological features received surgical treatment. Socio-demographic (age, sex, height, weight and BMI) and clinical features (side, location, tumour or pain presence, and nail lift before surgery, as well as recurrence and adverse effects at one month after intervention) were reported. Results: Regarding clinical features before intervention, the most frequent locations of SO were the first toe (86.8%) and the right lower limb (56.5%). In addition, the presence of the tumour, pain and nail lift showed a prevalence of 91.3%, 69.5% and 47% of the study sample, respectively. Considering clinical features at one month after intervention, the most frequent adverse effect was the pain presence (69.5%). In addition, one case (4.4%) presented ulceration. Only one patient (4.4%) suffered from recurrence with a new tumour. There were not statistically significant differences by sex distribution (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This novel study showed that surgery treatment for SO in paediatric populations presented a very low recurrence degree with minor adverse effects and without differences by sex distribution. Thus, further randomized clinical trials should be carried out in order to determine the effectiveness of this intervention in this special population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
En-Bloc Resection of Metastases of the Proximal Femur and Reconstruction by Modular Arthroplasty is Not Only Justified in Patients with a Curative Treatment Option—An Observational Study of a Consecutive Series of 45 Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 758; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9030758 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
Background: There is little conformity regarding the surgical treatment of metastasis of the proximal femur, especially in palliative patients with limited life expectancy. Patients and Methods: En-bloc resection of secondary bone malignancies of the proximal femur and reconstruction by modular arthroplasty was performed [...] Read more.
Background: There is little conformity regarding the surgical treatment of metastasis of the proximal femur, especially in palliative patients with limited life expectancy. Patients and Methods: En-bloc resection of secondary bone malignancies of the proximal femur and reconstruction by modular arthroplasty was performed in a consecutive series of 45 patients. The mean follow-up period was 16.4 months (0.6–74.7). Results: The survival rate of all patients was 6.6% (95% CI: 0–14.9) at 74.7 months. There was no significant difference in patients with a solitary or disseminated disease at index operation (log-rank p = 0.1214). Recurrent dislocation was the most frequent local complication (n = 6) necessitating an open reduction in four cases. The use of a Trevira tube showed a higher risk of dislocation compared to the simple bonding of remaining soft tissue (6 out of 28 vs. 0 out of 17; Fisher test: p = 0.0463). The worst-case survival rate with the removal of the arthroplasty for any cause and/or loss to follow-up was 80.0% (95% CI: 44.9–100) at 74.7 months (n = 1 due to low-grade infection). Conclusions: En-bloc resection of metastases and reconstruction by modular arthroplasty is reliable even in patients with very limited life expectancy. Local complications due to tumor growth or instability after intralesional surgery could be managed successfully but recurrent dislocation as the most frequent complication has to be taken into account. The simple bonding of remaining soft tissue around the prosthesis without the use of an attachment tube may reduce the dislocation rate and reoperation risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Relationship between Forward Head Posture and Tissue Mechanosensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 634; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9030634 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
The relationship between forward head posture (FHP) and neck pain is not clear. FHP could possibly increase the mechanosensitivity of cervical tissues, which could lead to the development of pain depending on the adaptation capability of the central nervous system. The purpose of [...] Read more.
The relationship between forward head posture (FHP) and neck pain is not clear. FHP could possibly increase the mechanosensitivity of cervical tissues, which could lead to the development of pain depending on the adaptation capability of the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of FHP in the mechanosensitivity of articular, muscular, and neural tissues related to the cervical spine. The pressure pain threshold was bilaterally measured in different muscles and nerves and the second cervical vertebrae. The cervical spine’s range of movement was also examined. The measurements were obtained from people with (n = 32) and without (n = 64) FHP. The analyses included a 2-by-2 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA), pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction, and point-biserial correlation coefficients. Subjects with FHP showed a less pressure pain threshold (PPT) in all locations except for the upper trapezius and scalenus medius muscles. They also showed less extension and right-rotation range of motion. There was no association between FHP, neck pain, disability, and headache. Nevertheless, more research is needed to evaluate the relationship between FHP, tissue mechanosensitivity, and neck pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Functional Outcome at Short and Middle Term of the Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Treatment in Lateral Epicondylitis: A Case-Series Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 633; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9030633 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Lateral epicondylitis (LE) of the humerus is a chronic degeneration of wrist extensor tendons at their attachments to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. There is not a common consensus on a specific therapeutic algorithm, but Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT) is widely used. [...] Read more.
Lateral epicondylitis (LE) of the humerus is a chronic degeneration of wrist extensor tendons at their attachments to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. There is not a common consensus on a specific therapeutic algorithm, but Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT) is widely used. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical benefits of low dose ESWT in LE-affected patients in short and medium follow-up. Between January 2015 and December 2017, 60 patients (38 male, mean age 52.2 ± 10.1 years, the duration of the disease was 3.6 ± 1.3 months) were clinically evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Test (PRTEE-I) scores before treatment, at one, three, six and 12 months after treatment. According to the VAS and PRTEE-I scoring systems, all patients achieved an improvement of pain and functional outcome comparing the baseline results with one, six and 12 months values. Low dose ESWT is a safe and effective treatment of LE in the short and middle term. In elderly subjects, patients with a long disease history, or those with occupational and sportive risk factors, a longer persistence of the symptomatology could be observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Article
Effect of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Pain Intensity, Functional Efficiency, and Postural Control Parameters in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 568; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9020568 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide, placing a significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) is useful in the rehabilitation of orthopedic diseases; however, there is still limited evidence for patients with LBP. [...] Read more.
Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide, placing a significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) is useful in the rehabilitation of orthopedic diseases; however, there is still limited evidence for patients with LBP. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rESWT on pain level, functional efficiency, and parameters of postural control in patients with LBP. Participants were randomized into group A (n = 20) treated with rESWT and group B (n = 20) treated with sham rESWT (placebo). Both groups received conventional physiotherapy, including core stability exercises. The following tests were performed: the Laitinen Pain Scale (LPS), the Roland–Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), the original Schober Test (OST), and a stabilometric platform for the assessment of postural sway, including total sway path (TSP). We found that the analgesic effect was higher after rESWT, especially in the follow-up’s (p < 0.05). Similar results were found for functional efficiency and range of motion (p < 0.05). The improved posture stability in placebo group B was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The stabilometric parameters in group A were still gradually improved and statistically significant, even in follow-ups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the rESWT had a significant effect on the reduction of pain and the improvement of functional condition compared to a conventional physiotherapy program. Also, rESWT with core stability exercises led to significant improvements in postural sway compared with conventional physiotherapy in patients with LBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Muscle Activity of the Latissimus Dorsi after Tendon Transfer in Patients with Rotator Cuff Tears
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9020433 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Background: Massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears may result in the loss of external rotation. Most of the patients with posterosuperior rotator cuff tears suffer from a restriction in their daily life actions. Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) is a method to [...] Read more.
Background: Massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears may result in the loss of external rotation. Most of the patients with posterosuperior rotator cuff tears suffer from a restriction in their daily life actions. Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) is a method to restore abduction and external rotation in these patients. However, the behavior of the LD after the transfer is not clear yet. Few studies have analyzed the activity of the LD after transfer. The goal of this study was to examine the function of the LD postoperatively in follow-up examinations during activities of daily life (ADLs) and during different movements evaluated by measuring the range of motion (ROM). Methods: We examined 12 patients 4.3 years (1–9 years) after LDTT, using simultaneous 3D motion analysis and surface Electromyography (sEMG) of 12 muscle parts; the opposite, nonaffected side was assessed as a control. The measurement protocol included two standardized movements (exorotation with an adducted arm and exorotation with 90° abduction) as well as two ADLs (combing hair and perineal care). Results: An average of 4.3 years (1–9 years) after LDTT, 9 of the 12 subjects showed EMG activity in the transferred LD during glenohumeral external rotation. During the endorotation phase, either little activity was registered or only the pectoralis major was active. During the ADLs, 6 out of 12 subjects showed EMG activity in the transferred LD while “combing hair”, whereas all subjects showed EMG activity during perineal care. Conclusion: The LD showed partial activity in its new role as an exorotator, but no clear difference was observed between some of the movements as well as in comparison with the healthy shoulder. Further studies will need to be conducted to better differentiate voluntary contractions and co-contractions as well as tension and extension in the muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Pain Trajectories in Knee Osteoarthritis—A Systematic Review and Best Evidence Synthesis on Pain Predictors
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2828; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9092828 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Different profiles of pain progression have been reported in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the determinants of this heterogeneity are still to be sought. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze all studies providing information about knee OA pain trajectories [...] Read more.
Different profiles of pain progression have been reported in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the determinants of this heterogeneity are still to be sought. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze all studies providing information about knee OA pain trajectories to delineate, according to patients’ characteristics, an evidence-based evolution pattern of this disabling disease, which is key for a more personalized and effective management of knee OA. A literature search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and grey literature databases. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias was used, and a best-evidence synthesis was performed to define the predictors of pain evolution. Seven articles on 7747 patients affected by knee OA (mainly early/moderate) were included. Daily knee OA pain trajectories were unstable in almost half of the patients. In the mid-term, knee OA had a steady pain trajectory in 85% of the patients, 8% experienced pain reduction, while 7% experienced pain worsening. Low education, comorbidities, and depression were patient-related predictors of severe/worsening knee OA pain. Conversely, age, alcohol, smoking, pain coping strategies, and medications were unrelated to pain evolution. Conflicting/no evidence was found for all joint-related factors, such as baseline radiographic severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Rehabilitation in Patients with Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2639; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9082639 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health problem leading to pain, limitation in physical function, a decrease in the quality of life and disability. OA affects 60–70% of the population above 65 years of age all over the world, and is associated with a [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health problem leading to pain, limitation in physical function, a decrease in the quality of life and disability. OA affects 60–70% of the population above 65 years of age all over the world, and is associated with a high cost of healthcare. The main method of treatment of OA, apart from pharmacotherapy and surgery, is comprehensive rehabilitation. Advances in medical technology have resulted in the possibility of using computer-assisted interventions in rehabilitation. The present narrative review is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) in the rehabilitation of elderly patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis, including patients after arthroplasty. This literature review based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was carried out in five databases: PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and PEDro. It includes ten randomized controlled trials focused on the application of games and biofeedback in the rehabilitation of patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis. There are no conclusive reports that interventions based on VR are more effective than standard physical therapy. Moreover, evidence regarding patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is very scarce. The effectiveness of VR-based rehabilitation is unclear, although interventions based on VR are promising in view of pain management, postural and proprioception training. However, this evidence is not sufficient to create clinical guidelines and further high-quality studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Gamification, and Telerehabilitation: Psychological Impact on Orthopedic Patients’ Rehabilitation
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2567; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9082567 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Background: Remote virtual rehabilitation aroused growing interest in the last decades, and its role has gained importance following the recent spread of COVID19 pandemic. The advantages of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), gamification, and telerehabilitation have been demonstrated in several medical fields. [...] Read more.
Background: Remote virtual rehabilitation aroused growing interest in the last decades, and its role has gained importance following the recent spread of COVID19 pandemic. The advantages of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), gamification, and telerehabilitation have been demonstrated in several medical fields. In this review, we searched the literature for studies using these technologies for orthopedic rehabilitation and analyzed studies’ quality, type and field of rehabilitation, patients’ characteristics, and outcomes to describe the state of the art of VR, AR, gamification, and telerehabilitation for orthopedic rehabilitation. Methods: A comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Embase databases was conducted. This review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies published between 2015 and 2020 about remote virtual rehabilitations for orthopedic patients were selected. The Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) and Cochrane Risk-of-Bias assessment tool were used for quality assessment. Results: 24 studies (9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 15 non-randomized studies) and 2472 patients were included. Studies mainly concern telerehabilitation (56%), and to a lesser extent VR (28%), AR (28%), and gamification (16%). Remote virtual technologies were used following knee and hip arthroplasty. The majority of included patients were between 40 and 60 years old and had a university degree. Remote virtual rehabilitation was not inferior to face-to-face therapy, and physical improvements were demonstrated by increased clinical scores. Orthopedic virtual remote rehabilitation decreased costs related to transports, hospitalizations, and readmissions. Conclusion: The heterogeneity of included studies prevented a meta-analysis of their results. Age and social context influence adaptability to technology, and this can modify compliance to treatment and outcomes. A good relationship between patient and physiotherapist is essential for treatment compliance and new technologies are useful to maintain clinical interactions remotely. Remote virtual technologies allow the delivery of high-quality care at reduced costs. This is a necessity given the growing demand for orthopedic rehabilitation and increasing costs related to it. Future studies need to develop specific and objective methods to evaluate the clinical quality of new technologies and definitively demonstrate advantages of VR, AR, gamification, and telerehabilitation compared to face-to face orthopedic rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Dual-Task Effects on Performance of Gait and Balance in People with Knee Pain: A Systematic Scoping Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9051554 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Dual-task paradigms have been increasingly used to assess the interaction between cognitive demands and the control of balance and gait. The interaction between functional and cognitive demands can alter movement patterns and increase knee instability in individuals with knee conditions, such as knee [...] Read more.
Dual-task paradigms have been increasingly used to assess the interaction between cognitive demands and the control of balance and gait. The interaction between functional and cognitive demands can alter movement patterns and increase knee instability in individuals with knee conditions, such as knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is no consensus on the effects of dual-task on gait mechanics and balance in those individuals. This systematic scoping review aims to examine the impact of dual-task gait and standing balance on motor and cognitive performance in individuals with knee OA or ACL injury. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE electronic databases up until December 2019 was carried out. Inclusion criteria was limited to include dual-task studies that combined cognitive tasks performed simultaneously with gait or standing balance in individuals with knee OA or ACL injuries. In total, fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria, nine articles examined dual-task effects on balance, and six articles reported the effects of dual-task on gait. The total number of individuals included was 230 individuals with ACL injuries, and 168 individuals with knee OA. A decline in gait and balance performance during dual-task testing is present among individuals with ACL injury and/or ACL reconstruction and knee OA. Further research is required, but dual taking assessment could potentially be used to identify individuals at risk of falling or further injury and could be used to develop targeted rehabilitation protocols. A variety of outcome measures have been used across the studies included, making comparisons difficult. The authors, therefore, recommend developing a standardized set of biomechanical balance variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Treatment in Upper Limb Diseases: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 453; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm9020453 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Background: Rotator cuff tendinopathy (RCT), subacromial impingement (SAIS), and medial (MEP) and lateral (LEP) epicondylitis are the most common causes of upper limb pain caused by microtrauma and degeneration. There are several therapeutic choices to manage these disorders: extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has [...] Read more.
Background: Rotator cuff tendinopathy (RCT), subacromial impingement (SAIS), and medial (MEP) and lateral (LEP) epicondylitis are the most common causes of upper limb pain caused by microtrauma and degeneration. There are several therapeutic choices to manage these disorders: extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has become a valuable option. Methods: A systematic review of two electronic medical databases was performed by two independent authors, using the following inclusion criteria: RCT, SAIS, MEP, and LEP, ESWT therapy without surgical treatment, with symptoms duration more than 2 months, and at least 6 months of follow-up. Studies of any level of evidence, reporting clinical results, and dealing with ESWT therapy and RCT, SAIS, MEP, and LEP were included. Results: A total of 822 articles were found. At the end of the first screening, following the previously described selection criteria, we selected 186 articles eligible for full-text reading. Ultimately, after full-text reading, and reference list check, we selected 26 articles following previously written criteria. Conclusions: ESWT is a safe and effective treatment of soft tissue diseases of the upper limbs. Even in the minority cases when unsatisfied results were recorded, high energy shockwaves were nevertheless suggested in prevision of surgical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Diseases and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop