Special Issue "Microbiome-Gut-Brain Interactions in Health and Neurological Disorders"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Silvia Di Angelantonio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
Interests: microglia; neuronal development; microglia neuron crosstalk; Alzheimer's disease; astrocytes synaptic modulation; retinal organoids; cortical organoids; iPSC derived neurons; retinal biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders; 3D bioprinting; FragileX syndrome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gut microbiota, as first speculated in 1885 by Louis Pasteur, plays a crucial role in human health and disease. The alterations in the composition of gut microbiota may cause the onset and the course of a number of human pathologies such as colorectal cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, type 2 diabetes, and heart failure (Daliri et al., 2018). In the recent years, a growing number of evidence points to the relationship between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system, as the intestine and the brain can interact with each other through the nervous system or chemical substances crossing the blood-brain barrier. Indeed, the gut-brain interaction not only relies on the connection between intestinal neurons and the central nervous system mediated by the vagus nerve (Collins et al., 2012), but also on the action of substances produced by gut microbiota, immunological, neuroendocrine, and direct neural mechanisms that can influence brain activity, with possible repercussions on glial and neuronal function (Erny et al., 2015;  Wekerle et al., 2016; Dinan et al., 2017; Johnson et al., 2018; Gareau et al., 2010). 

Moreover, the emerging body of evidence indicates that both the onset and the progression of neurodevelopmental (Sherwin et al., 2016) and neurodegenerative disorders can be linked to gut dysbiosis (Quigley et al., 2017; Jiang et al., 2017; Barichella et al., 2018)

In light of the rapid expansion of the microbiome-brain interaction field, we propose this Special Issue to bring increased awareness to the diverse effect of the gut microbiome on brain homeostasis and disease. The objective of this Special Issue is to collate a series of reviews, commentaries, and research articles on the effect of the gut microbiome in various brain functions settings including, but not limited to, synaptic functions, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases.

Dr. Silvia Di Angelantonio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Synaptic functions;
  • Glia-neuron interactions;
  • Neurodegeneration;
  • Neurodevelopment;
  • Microbiota-gut-brain axis;
  • Alzheimer’s Disease;
  • Organoids

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Review
The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Alzheimer Disease. From Dysbiosis to Neurodegeneration: Focus on the Central Nervous System Glial Cells
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2358; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10112358 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
The microbiota–gut system can be thought of as a single unit that interacts with the brain via the “two-way” microbiota–gut–brain axis. Through this axis, a constant interplay mediated by the several products originating from the microbiota guarantees the physiological development and shaping of [...] Read more.
The microbiota–gut system can be thought of as a single unit that interacts with the brain via the “two-way” microbiota–gut–brain axis. Through this axis, a constant interplay mediated by the several products originating from the microbiota guarantees the physiological development and shaping of the gut and the brain. In the present review will be described the modalities through which the microbiota and gut control each other, and the main microbiota products conditioning both local and brain homeostasis. Much evidence has accumulated over the past decade in favor of a significant association between dysbiosis, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Presently, the pathogenetic mechanisms triggered by molecules produced by the altered microbiota, also responsible for the onset and evolution of Alzheimer disease, will be described. Our attention will be focused on the role of astrocytes and microglia. Numerous studies have progressively demonstrated how these glial cells are important to ensure an adequate environment for neuronal activity in healthy conditions. Furthermore, it is becoming evident how both cell types can mediate the onset of neuroinflammation and lead to neurodegeneration when subjected to pathological stimuli. Based on this information, the role of the major microbiota products in shifting the activation profiles of astrocytes and microglia from a healthy to a diseased state will be discussed, focusing on Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. Full article
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Review
Gut Microbiota Interaction with the Central Nervous System throughout Life
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm10061299 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
During the last years, accumulating evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases via the gut–brain axis. Moreover, current research has helped to elucidate different communication pathways between the gut microbiota and [...] Read more.
During the last years, accumulating evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases via the gut–brain axis. Moreover, current research has helped to elucidate different communication pathways between the gut microbiota and neural tissues (e.g., the vagus nerve, tryptophan production, extrinsic enteric-associated neurons, and short chain fatty acids). On the other hand, altering the composition of gut microbiota promotes a state known as dysbiosis, where the balance between helpful and pathogenic bacteria is disrupted, usually stimulating the last ones. Herein, we summarize selected findings of the recent literature concerning the gut microbiome on the onset and progression of neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorders, and the strategies to modulate its composition in the search for therapeutical approaches, focusing mainly on animal models studies. Readers are advised that this is a young field, based on early studies, that is rapidly growing and being updated as the field advances. Full article
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