Special Issue "Heavy Metals in Mushrooms"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2022 | Viewed by 3399

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Miha Humar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Biotehnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: wood protection; wood modification; wood preservation; wood durability; wood degradation; service life
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ivan Širić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: food toxicology; mushrooms; trace elements; heavy metals and radionuclides; ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a wealth of scientific research focusing on improving and protecting the environment. One of the first steps of resolving pollution problems is to research and monitor the presence and concentration of hazardous substances, especially heavy metals. Emissions of heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have been constantly increasing in recent decades. Heavy metals are persistent in the environment and, due to their ability to accumulate, threaten living organisms. Mushrooms are a distinct group of living organisms of considerable nutritional, pharmaceutical, and ecological value. They play a vital role in the majority of ecosystems in the biosphere because of their ability to biodegrade the substrate on which they grow. Mushrooms are known to accumulate high concentrations of toxic metallic elements, metaloids, and radionuclides, which vary more or less depending on factors such as species, habitats, morphological parts, substrate,  and element biochemistry. The increasing concentrations of heavy metals in mushrooms also increase the importance of fungi as biological indicators of environmental pollution. However, extremely high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in mushrooms can have negative effects on human health. On the other hand, processing and preservation of edible and medicinal mushrooms may change their chemical composition. This Special Issue will present the latest findings on heavy metals in mushrooms and collate works through an open call to all researchers working in this field who would like to present their work in this issue.

Prof. Dr. Miha Humar
Prof. Dr. Ivan Širić
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • mushrooms and human health
  • bioconcentration
  • element biochemistry edible and medicinal mushrooms

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Comparative Copper Resistance Strategies of Rhodonia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a Copper/Azole-Treated Wood Microcosm
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 706; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jof8070706 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 67
Abstract
Copper-based formulations of wood preservatives are widely used in industry to protect wood materials from degradation caused by fungi. Wood treated with preservatives generate toxic waste that currently cannot be properly recycled. Despite copper being very efficient as an antifungal agent against most [...] Read more.
Copper-based formulations of wood preservatives are widely used in industry to protect wood materials from degradation caused by fungi. Wood treated with preservatives generate toxic waste that currently cannot be properly recycled. Despite copper being very efficient as an antifungal agent against most fungi, some species are able to cope with these high metal concentrations. This is the case for the brown-rot fungus Rhodonia placenta and the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which are able to grow efficiently in pine wood treated with Tanalith E3474. Here, we aimed to test the abilities of the two fungi to cope with copper in this toxic environment and to decontaminate Tanalith E-treated wood. A microcosm allowing the growth of the fungi on industrially treated pine wood was designed, and the distribution of copper between mycelium and wood was analysed within the embedded hyphae and wood particles using coupled X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)/Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrate the copper biosorption capacities of P. chrysosporium and the production of copper-oxalate crystals by R. placenta. These data coupled to genomic analysis suggest the involvement of additional mechanisms for copper tolerance in these rot fungi that are likely related to copper transport (import, export, or vacuolar sequestration). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Mushrooms)
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Article
Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment of Cadmium Accumulation in Three Tricholoma Mushroom Species Collected from Wild Habitats of Central and Coastal Croatia
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jof8070685 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 205
Abstract
This study deals with the biomonitoring of cadmium (Cd) heavy metal in the three selected Tricholoma mushroom species collected from wild habitats of central and coastal Croatia. For this, mushroom (T. columbetta: n = 38, T. portentosum: n = 35, [...] Read more.
This study deals with the biomonitoring of cadmium (Cd) heavy metal in the three selected Tricholoma mushroom species collected from wild habitats of central and coastal Croatia. For this, mushroom (T. columbetta: n = 38, T. portentosum: n = 35, and T. terreum: n = 34) and surface soil samples were collected from nine forest localities of Croatia and analyzed for Cd concentration using inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES) through the acid digestion method. The findings revealed that Cd was present in Tricholoma spp. and surface soil. However, the maximum mean Cd concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was recorded in T. portentosum (cap: 0.98; stipe: 0.72), followed by T. columbetta (cap: 0.96; stipe: 0.73) and T. terreum (cap: 0.81; stipe: 0.63). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) value (>1) revealed that the selected Tricholoma spp. had the potential for Cd accumulation. Moreover, the principal component (PC) and hierarchical cluster (HC) analyses were used to derive the interactions and similarities between Cd levels Tricholoma spp. and sampling localities. The multivariate analysis suggested that central sampling localities had higher Cd levels as compared to coastal localities. However, the daily intake of metals (DIM < 0.426) and health risk index (HRI < 1) showed that there was no potential health risk associated with the consumption of selected Tricholoma spp. The findings of this study are helpful to understand the Cd accumulation behavior of wild edible Tricholoma spp. collected from Croatia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Mushrooms)
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Article
Fungus–Fungus Association of Boletus griseus and Hypomyces chrysospermus and Cadmium Resistance Characteristics of Symbiotic Fungus Hypomyces chrysospermus
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jof8060578 - 27 May 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Fungi bioaccumulation of heavy metals is a promising approach to remediate polluted soil and water. Boletus griseus could accumulate high amounts of Cd, even in a natural habitat with low Cd contents. This study found a symbiotic association of B. griseus with a [...] Read more.
Fungi bioaccumulation of heavy metals is a promising approach to remediate polluted soil and water. Boletus griseus could accumulate high amounts of Cd, even in a natural habitat with low Cd contents. This study found a symbiotic association of B. griseus with a fungus. The symbiotic fungus was isolated and identified as Hypomyces chrysospermus. The isolated strain had a strong ability to tolerate Cd. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cd of fungal growth was 200 mg·L1. The Cd bioaccumulation capacity of the fungus reached 10.03 mg·g−1. The biomass production of the fungus was promoted by 20 mg·L−1 Cd. However, high concentrations of Cd suppressed fungal growth and significantly altered the morphology and fine texture of fungal hyphae and chlamydospores. The immobilization effects of the cell wall and acid compounds and antioxidant enzymes were employed by the fungus to alleviate the toxic effects of Cd. The results not only demonstrate a new insight into the Cd bioconcentration mechanisms of B. griseus but also provide a potential bioremediation fungus for Cd contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Mushrooms)
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Article
Exposure to Essential and Toxic Elements via Consumption of Agaricaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, and Russulaceae Mushrooms from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 545; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jof8050545 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
The demand and interest in mushrooms, both cultivated and wild, has increased among consumers in recent years due to a better understanding of the benefits of this food. However, the ability of wild edible mushrooms to accumulate essential and toxic elements is well [...] Read more.
The demand and interest in mushrooms, both cultivated and wild, has increased among consumers in recent years due to a better understanding of the benefits of this food. However, the ability of wild edible mushrooms to accumulate essential and toxic elements is well documented. In this study, a total of eight metallic elements and metalloids (chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se)) were determined by ICP-MS in five wild edible mushroom species (Agaricus silvicola, Amanita caesarea, Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, and Russula cyanoxantha) collected in southern Spain and northern Morocco. Overall, Zn was found to be the predominant element among the studied species, followed by Cu and Se. The multivariate analysis suggested that considerable differences exist in the uptake of the essential and toxic elements determined, linked to species-intrinsic factors. Furthermore, the highest Estimated Daily Intake of Metals (EDIM) values obtained were observed for Zn. The Health Risk Index (HRI) assessment for all the mushroom species studied showed a Hg-related cause of concern due to the frequent consumption of around 300 g of fresh mushrooms per day during the mushrooming season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Mushrooms)
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Article
Spatial Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) Concentration in Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Collected from Local Vegetable Markets of Uttarakhand State, India
J. Fungi 2022, 8(5), 452; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jof8050452 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 531
Abstract
This study presents a spatial assessment of eight potentially toxic elements (PTE: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Zn) in white button (Agaricus bisporus J.E. Lange) mushroom samples collected from the local vegetable markets of Uttarakhand State, India. Fresh A. [...] Read more.
This study presents a spatial assessment of eight potentially toxic elements (PTE: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Zn) in white button (Agaricus bisporus J.E. Lange) mushroom samples collected from the local vegetable markets of Uttarakhand State, India. Fresh A. bisporus samples were collected from thirteen districts and fifteen sampling locations (M1-M15) and analyzed for the concentration of these PTE using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results revealed that A. bisporus contained all eight selected PTE in all sampling locations. Based on the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation, principal component (PC), and hierarchical cluster (HC) analyses, the areas with a plane geographical distribution showed the highest PTE concentrations in the A. bisporus samples as compared to those in hilly areas. Overall, the decreasing order of PTE concentration in A. bisporus was recognized as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd > Pb. The Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA tests displayed a highly significant (p < 0.05) difference among the sampling locations. However, the concentration of PTE was below permissible limits, indicating no potential hazard in consuming the A. bisporus. Similarly, the health risk assessment studies using the target hazard quotient (THQ) also showed no significant health risk associated with the consumption of A. bisporus being sold in the local mushroom markets of Uttarakhand, India. This study is the first report on state-level monitoring of PTE in A. bisporus mushrooms, which provides crucial information regarding the monitoring and occurrence of potentially toxic metallic elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Mushrooms)
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Article
Sustainable Use of Sewage Sludge as a Casing Material for Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Cultivation: Experimental and Prediction Modeling Studies for Uptake of Metal Elements
J. Fungi 2022, 8(2), 112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jof8020112 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The present study focused on the use of sewage sludge (SS) as a casing material amendment and the potential uptake of metal elements by the cultivated white button (Agaricus bisporus: MS-39) mushroom. Laboratory experiments were performed under controlled environmental conditions to [...] Read more.
The present study focused on the use of sewage sludge (SS) as a casing material amendment and the potential uptake of metal elements by the cultivated white button (Agaricus bisporus: MS-39) mushroom. Laboratory experiments were performed under controlled environmental conditions to grow A. bisporus on the composted wheat straw substrate for 50 days. Different treatments (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 g/kg) of casing material were prepared by mixing garden and dried SS and applied on the mushroom substrate after proper sterilization. The results revealed that SS application was significant (p < 0.05) in accelerating mushroom yield with a biological efficiency of 65.02% for the mixing rate of 200 g/kg. Moreover, the maximum bioaccumulation of selected metal elements (Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn, and Zn) was observed using the same treatment. Additionally, the multiple regression models constructed for the uptake prediction of metal elements showed an acceptable coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.9900), high model efficiency (ME > 0.98), and low root mean square error (RMSE < 0.410) values, respectively. The findings of this study represent sustainable use of SS for the formulation of mushroom casing material contributing toward synergistic agro-economy generation and waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Mushrooms)
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