Special Issue "Personalizing Medicine by Sex, Gender and Hormonal Status: Progress, Opportunities and Challenges"

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanisms of Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Anat Biegon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Radiology, Director, Center on Gender, Hormones and Health, Stony Brook University, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2565, USA
Prof. Dr. Mary V. Seeman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
Interests: schizophrenia; women's mental health; antipsychotic medication
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biological sex, gender, and gonadal hormone status have a substantial influence on the incidence, prevalence, presentation, treatment response, and outcome of diverse disorders and pathologies across all medical fields. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of these variables, demographic data collected from patients and participants in clinical trials do not routinely include information on gonadal hormone status (e.g., puberty, stage of menstrual cycle, menopause, or andropause). In this Special Issue, practitioners and investigators in diverse fields of medicine summarize their experience and outline opportunities and challenges in the use of sex, gender, and gonadal hormone status to personalize and improve the diagnosis and treatment of conditions including diabetes, breast cancer, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and brain injury.

Prof. Anat Biegon
Prof. Dr. Mary V. Seeman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sex differences
  • personalized medicine
  • gonadal hormone modulation
  • brain function
  • ovarian/endometrial cancer
  • drug addiction

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
What Can We Learn from Sex Differences in MS?
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(10), 1006; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm11101006 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major acquired central nervous system disease of young adults. It is a female predominant disease. Multiple aspects of MS are influenced by sex-based differences. This has become an important area of research and study. It teaches us how [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major acquired central nervous system disease of young adults. It is a female predominant disease. Multiple aspects of MS are influenced by sex-based differences. This has become an important area of research and study. It teaches us how the impact of sex on a disease can lead to new insights, guidelines, management, and treatments. Full article
Article
Sex as a Prognostic Factor in Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Lessons Learned
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(6), 441; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm11060441 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Sex is a common baseline factor collected in studies that has the potential to be a prognostic factor (PF) in several clinical areas. In recent years, research on sex as a PF has increased; however, this influx of new studies frequently shows conflicting [...] Read more.
Sex is a common baseline factor collected in studies that has the potential to be a prognostic factor (PF) in several clinical areas. In recent years, research on sex as a PF has increased; however, this influx of new studies frequently shows conflicting results across the same treatment or disease state. Thus, systematic reviews (SRs) addressing sex as a PF may help us to better understand diseases and further personalize healthcare. We wrote this article to offer insights into the challenges we encountered when conducting SRs on sex as a PF and suggestions on how to overcome these obstacles, regardless of the clinical domain. When carrying out a PF SR with sex as the index factor, it is important to keep in mind the modifications that must be made in various SR stages, such as modifying the PF section of CHARMS-PF, adjusting certain sections of QUIPS and extracting data on the sex and gender terms used throughout the studies. In this paper, we provide an overview of the lessons learned from carrying out our reviews on sex as a PF in different disciplines and now call on researchers, funding agencies and journals to realize the importance of studying sex as a PF. Full article

Review

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Review
Stratification by Sex and Hormone Level When Contrasting Men and Women in Schizophrenia Trials Will Improve Personalized Treatment
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 929; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm11090929 - 18 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Background: Sex and gender differences have been reported in the prevalence, expression, treatment response, and outcome of schizophrenia, but most reports are based on relatively small samples that have not been stratified for the impact of sex hormone levels. This literature review aims [...] Read more.
Background: Sex and gender differences have been reported in the prevalence, expression, treatment response, and outcome of schizophrenia, but most reports are based on relatively small samples that have not been stratified for the impact of sex hormone levels. This literature review aims to show how women’s hormone levels can impact the results of male/female comparisons. Methods: This is a narrative review of data from publications of the last decade. Results: Epidemiologic evidence, reports of the impact of hormones on cognition, results of sexually dimorphic responses to treatment, and male/female trajectories of illness over time all suggest that female hormone fluctuations exert major effects on male/female differences in schizophrenia. Conclusions: Information on hormonal status in women participants is rarely available in clinical studies in schizophrenia, which makes male/female comparisons largely uninterpretable. These are the current challenges. Opportunities for individualized treatment are growing, however, and will undoubtedly result in improved outcomes for both women and men in the future. Full article
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Review
Peri- and Post-Menopausal Women with Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Are a Population with Specific Needs: A Narrative Review of Current Theories
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 849; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jpm11090849 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Background: While gender differences in antipsychotic response have been recognized, the potential role of menopause in changing drug efficacy and clinical outcome in schizophrenia related disorders has been understudied. We aimed to review the relevant literature to test whether optimizing menopausal and post-menopausal [...] Read more.
Background: While gender differences in antipsychotic response have been recognized, the potential role of menopause in changing drug efficacy and clinical outcome in schizophrenia related disorders has been understudied. We aimed to review the relevant literature to test whether optimizing menopausal and post-menopausal treatment and addressing specific health needs of this stage in life will improve outcome. Methods: Non-systematic narrative review using the PubMed database (1900–July 2021) focusing on randomized controlled trial results addressing our question. Forty-nine studies met our criteria. Results: Premenopausal women show significantly better antipsychotic response than postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapies (HRT) should be used in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia with caution. Raloxifene, combined with antipsychotics, is effective for psychotic and cognitive symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia and related disorders. Medical comorbidities increase after menopause, but the influence of comorbidities on clinical outcomes has been poorly investigated. Preventive strategies include weighing risks and benefits of treatment, preventing medical comorbidities, and enhancing psychosocial support. Ideal treatment settings for this population warrant investigation. Conclusions: Antipsychotic dose adjustment at menopause is recommended for schizophrenia. Raloxifene may play an important role in permitting dose reduction and lessening adverse effects. Prevention of comorbidities will help to reduce the mortality rate. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1.Title:Sex-specific Effects of progesterone-induced ALLOPREGNANOLONE on Cognitive Performance in Cocaine use disorder: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

Abstract: Background: Cognitive deficits have been observed in cocaine use disorder (CUD), and may play an important role in the progression, maintenance and risk for relapse of the disease. Therefore, interventions that improve cognition may prove clinically relevant in treatment seeking individuals with CUD. Here, we tested the role of the progesterone-derived neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) on cognitive performance in CUD men and CUD women who were all in the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Methods: Twenty-seven individuals (8F/19M) with CUD received progesterone (400mg) vs. placebo for 7 days in early abstinence from cocaine. On day 5, levels of ALLO were measured and cognitive tasks completed. Participants were grouped by high or low ALLO and cognitive performance was compared between ALLO groups. Results: Women in the high ALLO group displayed significantly higher verbal fluency than low ALLO women, increased emotional reactivity in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), and reduced errors in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) compared to women in the low ALLO group and men overall. Conclusions: Findings highlight the combined role of gender and gonadal hormones on salient relapse-related treatment targets in CUD populations. It further emphasizes the need for well-tailored, personalized medications in addiction.

2.Sex, gender and gonadal hormones differences in diabetes and obesity

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