Special Issue "Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Land–Climate Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Heiko Balzter
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
NERC National Centre for Earth Observation, Leicester Institute for Space and Earth Observation, School of Geography, Geology and Environment, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Interests: landscape and climate research; land surface modelling; terrestrial remote sensing; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); light detection and ranging (LIDAR); forest monitoring, carbon cycle and climate change
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue: “Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section” welcomes contributions concerning the interactions between land and climate processes. These include energy fluxes, carbon and other biogeochemical cycles, and hydrological processes. The focus of contributions should be on the interface between the land surface and the climate system, and consider the latest insights from global climate science. Contributions can be local, regional, or global in scale. Manuscripts can be theoretical, applied, or review articles. Interdisciplinary manuscripts are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Heiko Balzter
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Land Use Increases the Correlation between Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon Stocks in the Global Tropics
Land 2021, 10(11), 1217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land10111217 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Tree cover (TC) and biomass carbon stocks (CS) are key parameters for characterizing vegetation and are indispensable for assessing the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global climate system. Land use, through land cover change and land management, affects both parameters. In this [...] Read more.
Tree cover (TC) and biomass carbon stocks (CS) are key parameters for characterizing vegetation and are indispensable for assessing the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global climate system. Land use, through land cover change and land management, affects both parameters. In this study, we quantify the empirical relationship between TC and CS and demonstrate the impacts of land use by combining spatially explicit estimates of TC and CS in actual and potential vegetation (i.e., in the hypothetical absence of land use) across the global tropics (~23.4° N to 23.4° S). We find that land use strongly alters both TC and CS, with stronger effects on CS than on TC across tropical biomes, especially in tropical moist forests. In comparison to the TC-CS correlation observed in the potential vegetation (biome-level R based on tropical ecozones = 0.56–0.90), land use strongly increases this correlation (biome-level R based on tropical ecozones = 0.87–0.94) in the actual vegetation. Increased correlations are not only the effects of land cover change. We additionally identify land management impacts in closed forests, which cause CS reductions. Our large-scale assessment of the TC-CS relationship can inform upcoming remote sensing efforts to map ecosystem structure in high spatio-temporal detail and highlights the need for an explicit focus on land management impacts in the tropics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section)
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Article
The Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Forcing on Water and Energy Balance and on Photosynthesis
Land 2021, 10(11), 1151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land10111151 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Land surface processes are rarely studied in Detection and Attribution Model Inter-comparison Project (DAMIP) experiments on climate change. We analyzed a CMIP6 DAMIP historical experiment by using multi-linear regression (MLRM) and analysis of variance methods. We focused on energy and water budgets, including [...] Read more.
Land surface processes are rarely studied in Detection and Attribution Model Inter-comparison Project (DAMIP) experiments on climate change. We analyzed a CMIP6 DAMIP historical experiment by using multi-linear regression (MLRM) and analysis of variance methods. We focused on energy and water budgets, including gross primary productivity (GPP). In MLRM, we estimated each forcing’s contribution and identified the role of natural forcing, which is usually ignored. Contributions of the forcing factors varied by region, and high-ranked variables such as net radiation could receive multiple influences. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accelerated energy and water cycles over the global land surface, including evapotranspiration, runoff, GPP, and water-use efficiency. Aerosol (AER) forcing displayed the opposite characteristics, and natural forcing accounted for short-term changes. A long-term analysis of total soil moisture and water budget indicated that as the AER increases, the available water on the global land increases continuously. In the recent past, an increase in net radiation (i.e., a lowered AER) reduced surface moisture and hastened surface water cycle (GHG effect). The results imply that aerosol emission and its counterbalance to GHG are essential to most land surface processes. The exception to this is GPP, which was overdominated by GHG effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section)
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Article
Observed Methane Uptake and Emissions at the Ecosystem Scale and Environmental Controls in a Subtropical Forest
Land 2021, 10(9), 975; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land10090975 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Methane (CH4) is one of the three most important greenhouse gases. To date, observations of ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) fluxes in forests are currently lacking in the global CH4 budget. The environmental factors controlling CH4 flux dynamics remain [...] Read more.
Methane (CH4) is one of the three most important greenhouse gases. To date, observations of ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) fluxes in forests are currently lacking in the global CH4 budget. The environmental factors controlling CH4 flux dynamics remain poorly understood at the ecosystem scale. In this study, we used a state-of-the-art eddy covariance technique to continuously measure the CH4 flux from 2016 to 2018 in a subtropical forest of Zhejiang Province in China, quantify the annual CH4 budget and investigate its control factors. We found that the total annual CH4 budget was 1.15 ± 0.28~4.79 ± 0.49 g CH4 m−2 year−1 for 2017–2018. The daily CH4 flux reached an emission peak of 0.145 g m−2 d−1 during winter and an uptake peak of −0.142 g m−2 d−1 in summer. During the whole study period, the studied forest region acted as a CH4 source (78.65%) during winter and a sink (21.35%) in summer. Soil temperature had a negative relationship (p < 0.01; R2 = 0.344) with CH4 flux but had a positive relationship with soil moisture (p < 0.01; R2 = 0.348). Our results showed that soil temperature and moisture were the most important factors controlling the ecosystem-scale CH4 flux dynamics of subtropical forests in the Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province, China. Subtropical forest ecosystems in China acted as a net source of methane emissions from 2016 to 2018, providing positive feedback to global climate warming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section)
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Article
Stream Temperature and Environment Relationships in a Semiarid Riparian Corridor
Land 2021, 10(5), 519; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land10050519 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between stream temperature and environmental variables in a semiarid riparian corridor in northcentral Oregon, USA. The relationships between riparian vegetation cover, subsurface flow temperature, and stream temperature were characterized along an 800 m reach. Multiple stream temperature sensors [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between stream temperature and environmental variables in a semiarid riparian corridor in northcentral Oregon, USA. The relationships between riparian vegetation cover, subsurface flow temperature, and stream temperature were characterized along an 800 m reach. Multiple stream temperature sensors were located along the reach, in open and closed canopy areas, with riparian vegetation cover ranging from 4% to 95%. A support vector regression (SVR) model was developed to assess the relationship between environmental characteristics and stream temperature at the larger valley scale. At the reach scale, results show that air temperature was highly correlated with stream temperature (Pearson’s r = 0.97), and no significant (p < 0.05) differences in stream temperature levels were found among sensor locations, irrespective of percent vegetation cover. Channel subsurface temperature levels from an intermittent flow tributary were generally cooler than those in the perennial stream in the summer and warmer during winter months, indicating that the tributary may have a localized moderating effect on stream temperature. At the valley scale, results from the SVR model showed that air temperature, followed by streamflow, was the strongest variable influencing stream temperature. Also, riparian area land cover showed little effect on stream temperature along the entire riparian corridor. This research indicates that air temperature, subsurface flow, and streamflow are important variables affecting the stream temperature variability observed in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section)
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Article
Vulnerability of the Permafrost Landscapes in the Eastern Chukotka Coastal Plains to Human Impact and Climate Change
Land 2021, 10(5), 445; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land10050445 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Permafrost landscapes are particularly susceptible to the observed climate change due to the presence of ice in the ground. This paper presents the results of the mapping and assessment of landscapes and their vulnerability to potential human impact and further climate change in [...] Read more.
Permafrost landscapes are particularly susceptible to the observed climate change due to the presence of ice in the ground. This paper presents the results of the mapping and assessment of landscapes and their vulnerability to potential human impact and further climate change in the remote region of Eastern Chukotka. The combination of field studies and remote sensing data analysis allowed us to identify the distribution of landscapes within the study polygon, reveal the factors determining their stability, and classify them by vulnerability to the external impacts using a hazard index, H. In total, 33 landscapes characterized by unique combinations of vegetation cover, soil type, relief, and ground composition were detected within the 172 km2 study polygon. The most stable landscapes of the study polygon occupy 31.7% of the polygon area; they are the slopes and tops of mountains covered with stony-lichen tundra, alpine meadows, and the leveled summit areas of the fourth glacial-marine terrace. The most unstable areas cover 19.2% of the study area and are represented by depressions, drainage hollows, waterlogged areas, and places of caterpillar vehicle passage within the terraces and water-glacial plain. The methods of assessment and mapping of the landscape vulnerability presented in this study are quite flexible and can be adapted to other permafrost regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section)
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Article
Urbanization Significantly Affects Pan-Evaporation Trends in Large River Basins of China Mainland
Land 2021, 10(4), 407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/land10040407 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The causes of the pan-evaporation decline have been debated, and few researches have been carried out on the possible effect of local land use and land cover change on the regional pan-observation data series. In this paper, the urbanization effect on the estimate [...] Read more.
The causes of the pan-evaporation decline have been debated, and few researches have been carried out on the possible effect of local land use and land cover change on the regional pan-observation data series. In this paper, the urbanization effect on the estimate of pan-evaporation trends over 1961–2017 was examined for the data series of 331 urban stations, applying a previously developed dataset of the reference stations, in seven large river basins of the China mainland. The trends of pan-evaporation difference series (transformed to anomaly percentage) between urban stations and reference stations were negative and statistically significant in all of the basins, indicating that urbanization significantly reduced the pan-evaporation. The urbanization-induced trend in the whole study region was −2.54%/decade for the urban stations. Except for the Yellow River Basin and the upper Yangtze River Basin, the urbanization effects in the other five large river basins of the country are all significant, with the mid and low reaches of the Yangtze River and the Songhua River registering the largest urbanization effects of −4.08%/decade and −4.06%/decade, respectively. Since the trends of regional average series for reference stations across half of the river basins are not statistically significant, the urbanization effect is a dominant factor for the observed decline in pan-evaporation. This finding would deepen our understanding of the regional and basin-wide change in pan-evaporation observed over the last decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Land–Climate Interactions Section)
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