Special Issue "Therapeutic Potential of Traditional Medicinal Plants and their Bioactive Products"

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Capasso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultiral Science, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: pharmacology; natural products; neurotransmission; behavioral pharmacology; experimental pharmacology; preclinical pharmacology; CB1 receptor; PPARs; cannabinoids; endocannabinoids; CB2 receptor
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Md. Moshfekus Saleh-E-In
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Forest Resources, College of Forest and Environmental Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200-701, Korea
Interests: extraction, isolation, structure elucidation, identification and quantification of secondary metabolites by GC/MS, LC/MS/MS, HPLC and NMR techniques, biological activities, in-silico prediction.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Md. Adnan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
Interests: natural product chemistry (In vitro and In vivo); In silico (molecular docking and network pharmacology) analysis; Pharmacology (Mechanism of actions and signaling pathways) and drug discovery; cancer research; and nanotechnology (metal nanoparticles synthesis and drug delivery)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Traditional medicinal plants are a major source of bioactive natural products that produce new chemical entities with potential therapeutic applications. Traditional knowledge leads to the discovery of new bioactive products that are achieved through the bioassay-guided screening of extracts through in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-silico assays. These techniques scaffold the way for new drug candidates with diverse pharmacological activities for human health. On the other hand, plant secondary metabolites are the pivotal components in the plant body that are biosynthesized through various metabolic pathways in the plant, and act as defense components against plant physiological disorders. Hence, these metabolites can have as a vital role in the treatment of numerous human diseases through systematic investigations. Valorization of the biological properties of extracts and/or isolated compounds, along with the toxicological effects of traditional medicinal plants, have the potential for developming new possible pharmaceutical synthetic and semi-synthetic products. Biotechnology techniques in the modification and production of secondary metabolites from traditional medicinal plants are also important for drug discovery.

Therefore, this Special Issue of Life is dedicated to original research, short communication, and review articles on traditional medicinal plants, covering new challenges in the extraction, identification, isolation, and structure elucidation of the secondary metabolites with pharmacological evaluation by in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-silico assays, as well as their possible mechanisms of action. Studies aimed at the evaluation of extracts and phytochemicals deriving from traditional medicinal plants, as well as their biotechnological products (i.e., tissue culture, micro-propagation, and/or genetically modified plant), are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Capasso
Dr. Md. Moshfekus Saleh-E-In
Dr. Md. Adnan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • medicinal pants
  • extraction, isolation and structure elucidation
  • GC-MS, HPLC, NMR, LC/MS-MS
  • chemical composition
  • biological activities
  • biotechnology

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Antithrombotic Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGE 232)
Life 2021, 11(9), 939; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11090939 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke, are the most common causes of death in developed countries. Ischemic stroke accounts for 85% of the total cases and is caused by abnormal thrombus formation in the vessels, causing deficient blood and oxygen supply to the brain. [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke, are the most common causes of death in developed countries. Ischemic stroke accounts for 85% of the total cases and is caused by abnormal thrombus formation in the vessels, causing deficient blood and oxygen supply to the brain. Prophylactic treatments include the prevention of thrombus formation, of which the most used is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA); however, it is associated with a high incidence of side effects. Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) is a natural herb used to improve blood circulation via anti-platelet aggregation, one of the key processes involved in thrombus formation. We examined the antithrombotic effects of AGE 232, the ethanol extract of A. gigas Nakai. AGE 232 showed a significant reduction in death or paralysis in mice caused by collagen/epinephrine-induced thromboembolism in a dose-dependent manner and inhibition of collagen-induced human platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, AGE 232-treated mice did not show severe bleeding in the gut compared to ASA-treated mice. AGE 232 resulted in a decrease in the number of neutrophils attached to the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and lower inhibition of COX-1 in response to bleeding and damage to blood vessels, a major side effect of ASA. Therefore, AGE 232 can prevent thrombus formation and stroke. Full article
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Article
Stipa tenacissima L.: A New Promising Source of Bioactive Compounds with Antioxidant and Anticancer Potentials
Life 2021, 11(8), 757; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11080757 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Background: Stipa tenacissima L. (S. tenacissima), called Esparto grass, is a cultivated species used for industrial purposes, including textile production. This species has never been studied for its medical potential before, nor has it been used in traditional medicines. It is [...] Read more.
Background: Stipa tenacissima L. (S. tenacissima), called Esparto grass, is a cultivated species used for industrial purposes, including textile production. This species has never been studied for its medical potential before, nor has it been used in traditional medicines. It is thus fitting that the present study aimed to investigate the pharmacological potential of S. tenacissima. To achieve this goal, this work was conducted to study the chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative effects of S. tenacissima against cancerous cell lines, including the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-231). Fractionation and characterization of S. tenacissima extract showed the presence of promising bioactive fractions. The fractions obtained from S. tenacissima extract exhibited interesting antioxidant properties, with IC50 values ranging from 1.26 to 1.85 mg/mL. All fractions, such as F1, F2, F3, and F4, induced an important antiproliferative effect on the cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, scoring IC50 values ranging from 63.58 ± 3.14 to 99.880 ± 0.061 µg/mL. These fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4) also exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect versus HT-29 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 71.50 ± 4.97 to 87.500 ± 1.799 µg/mL. Therefore, S. tenacissima could constitute a new natural source of bioactive compounds that can be used for therapeutic purposes to fight cancer and free radical damage. Full article
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Article
Phytochemical Investigation, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Acer cappadocicum Gled
Life 2021, 11(7), 656; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11070656 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
The appearance of novel microbial resistance, diverse cancer ailment and several other morbidities such as appetite loss, hair loss, anemia, cell damage, etc., are among most critical situation that keeps the phytochemical quest on. Thus, this study characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer [...] Read more.
The appearance of novel microbial resistance, diverse cancer ailment and several other morbidities such as appetite loss, hair loss, anemia, cell damage, etc., are among most critical situation that keeps the phytochemical quest on. Thus, this study characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer potentials of a rarely accessed Acer cappadocicum gled (AC) population thriving in a remote Palas Valley in northern Pakistan. Leaf extracts of the plant were prepared in organic solvents with different polarities through maceration. Extracts were subjected to antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities using agar well, DPPH and cell viability assays. A. cappadocicum methanolic extract (ACM) significantly inhibited bacterial growth, followed by n-butanolic extract (ACB) with the second-highest bacterial inhibition. Similar activity was observed against mycelial growth inhibition in plant-fungal pathogen by ACM and ACB. However, human pathogenic fungi did not affect much by extracts. In antioxidant assessment, the chloroform extract (ACC) showed strong scavenging activity and in cytotoxic evaluation, extracts restricted growth proliferation in cancer cells. The inhibitory evidence of extracts, potent scavenging ability, and low cell viability of human-derived cell lines supports the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancerous potential of A. cappadocicum. It advances our quest for natural product research. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Cannabis sativa L. Extract on Oxidative Stress Markers In Vivo
Life 2021, 11(7), 647; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11070647 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 953
Abstract
In recent decades, a lot of attention has been paid to Cannabis sativa L. due to its useful applications, including in fibers, oil, food for humans and animals, and therapeutics. The present study aimed to determine antioxidant activity of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa [...] Read more.
In recent decades, a lot of attention has been paid to Cannabis sativa L. due to its useful applications, including in fibers, oil, food for humans and animals, and therapeutics. The present study aimed to determine antioxidant activity of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. in vivo, evaluating the possible antioxidative effect of Cannabis sativa L. extract (CE) on malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations as well as on catalase (CAT) activity in BALB/c mice. In total, 40 mice were divided into five equal groups: the aluminum group (7.5 mg AlCl3/kg/d (0.15 LD50), the saline group, the 10% ethanol group (an appropriate amount of the solution for mouse weight), the CE group (1.6 mg CE/g/day), and the aluminum-CE group (7.5 mg AlCl3 plus 1.6 mg CE/g/day). The results of the study showed that CE significantly decreased (by 26.81%, p < 0.05) the concentration of GSH in blood of the mice and the concentration of MDA in the brain (by 82.12%) and liver (by 53.5%) of the mice compared to the respective concentrations in the AlCl3 group. CE significantly (p < 0.05) increased CAT activity in the brain (by 64.79%) and liver (by 72.37%) of the mice after the AlCl3-induced prooxidant effect. The results showed the antioxidant activity of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in vitro. The findings in vivo indicate that Cannabis sativa L. is a good source of natural antioxidants and can be used in the management of oxidative stress. Full article
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Article
Transcriptome-Wide Analysis for Ginsenoside Rb3 Synthesis-Related Genes and Study on the Expression of Methyl Jasmonate Treatment in Panax ginseng
Life 2021, 11(5), 387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11050387 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a kind of renascent herb that belongs to the genus Panax in the family Araliaceae. It is a traditional Chinese precious herbal medicine with a long history of medicinal use. Ginsenoside Rb3 is one of the [...] Read more.
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a kind of renascent herb that belongs to the genus Panax in the family Araliaceae. It is a traditional Chinese precious herbal medicine with a long history of medicinal use. Ginsenoside Rb3 is one of the important active ingredients in ginseng and has important physiological activity in the treatment of many diseases. In this study, we screened and systematically analyzed the candidate genes related to ginsenoside Rb3 synthesis through bioinformatics methods; discussed the functions, expression patterns, and interactions of the genes related to ginsenoside Rb3 synthesis; and finally, selected seven genes, mainly PgRb3, that directly contribute to the synthesis of ginsenoside Rb3. This study provides a reference for revealing the expression rules of ginsenoside Rb3 synthesis-related genes and elucidating the regulatory mechanism of methyl jasmonate, lays a theoretical foundation for the research of ginsenoside Rb3 synthesis, and provides theoretical and technical support for the factory production of ginsenoside monomer saponins. Full article
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Article
Hexane Extract of Chloranthus japonicus Increases Adipocyte Differentiation by Acting on Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
Life 2021, 11(3), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11030241 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Chloranthus japonicus has been heavily investigated for the treatment of various diseases. This paper attempts to show that Chloranthus japonicus can modulate adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes. To establish this, we investigated the effects of Chloranthus japonicus extract in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) [...] Read more.
Chloranthus japonicus has been heavily investigated for the treatment of various diseases. This paper attempts to show that Chloranthus japonicus can modulate adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes. To establish this, we investigated the effects of Chloranthus japonicus extract in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression, adipogenesis, and the underlying molecular mechanisms in C3H10T1/2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Our data showed that Chloranthus japonicus methanol extract increased lipid accumulation and promoted adipocyte differentiation. Further studies on the fractionation with various solvents led to the identification of Chloranthus japonicus hexane extract (CJHE) as the most potent inducer of adipocyte differentiation. CJHE consistently increased lipid accumulation and adipocyte marker expression including Pparγ and it acted during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that CJHE and a Wnt inhibitor similarly stimulated adipogenesis and were active in Wnt-selective reporter assays. The effects of CJHE were inhibited by Wnt3a protein treatment and were significantly blunted in β-catenin-silenced cells, further suggesting that CJHE acted on Wnt pathways to promote adipogenesis. We also showed that Chloranthus japonicus extracts generated from different plant parts similarly promoted adipocyte differentiation. These results identified Chloranthus japonicus as a pro-adipogenic natural product and suggest its potential use in metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Article
An Insight into the Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Proprieties of Carum carvi L. and Their Association with Its Antioxidant Activity
Life 2021, 11(3), 207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11030207 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
Depression and anxiety are widespread illnesses whose consequences on patients’ social and professional lives are becoming ever more dangerous and severe. The study’s objective is to explore the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic activity of the polyphenolic extract of Carum carvi L. as well as [...] Read more.
Depression and anxiety are widespread illnesses whose consequences on patients’ social and professional lives are becoming ever more dangerous and severe. The study’s objective is to explore the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic activity of the polyphenolic extract of Carum carvi L. as well as its antioxidant power as they were recently associated. The predictive antidepressant activity was evaluated using the forced swimming and tail suspension test in mice, a preclinical behavioral model widely used to determine the efficacy of antidepressant drugs. As for anxiolytic-like activity, two models were used, namely the light/dark chamber test to measure the animal’s degree of anxiety and the open field test to evaluate both anxiolytic and locomotor activity. The tests results indicate a remarkable antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect after oral administration of the polyphenolic fraction of C. carvi and interesting antioxidant property. In the extract it has been confirmed the presence of 6 molecules belonging to polyphenols, identified with HPLC analysis. This study confirms and encourages the traditional use of the extract and appeals to further studies to understand its action mechanism. Full article
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Article
Investigation of the Pharmacological Properties of Lepidagathis hyalina Nees through Experimental Approaches
Life 2021, 11(3), 180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11030180 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Lepidagathis hyalina Nees is used locally in Ayurvedic medicine to treat coughs and cardiovascular diseases. This study explored its pharmacological potential through in vivo and in vitro approaches for the metabolites extracted (methanolic) from the stems of L. hyalina. A qualitative phytochemical [...] Read more.
Lepidagathis hyalina Nees is used locally in Ayurvedic medicine to treat coughs and cardiovascular diseases. This study explored its pharmacological potential through in vivo and in vitro approaches for the metabolites extracted (methanolic) from the stems of L. hyalina. A qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of numerous secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of L. hyalina stems (MELHS) showed a strong antioxidative activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assays, and in the quantitative (phenolic and flavonoid) assay. Clot lysis and brine shrimp lethality bioassays were applied to investigate the thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities, respectively. MELHS exhibited an expressive percentage of clot lysis (33.98%) with a moderately toxic (115.11 μg/mL) effect. The in vivo anxiolytic activity was studied by an elevated plus maze test, whereas the antidepressant activity was examined by a tail suspension test and forced swimming test. During the anxiolytic evaluation, MELHS exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of anxiety, in which the 400 mg/kg dose of the extract showed 78.77 ± 4.42% time spent in the open arm in the elevated plus maze test. In addition, MELHS demonstrated dose-dependent and significant activities in the tail suspension test and forced swimming test, whereas the 400 mg/kg dose of the extract showed 87.67 ± 6.40% and 83.33 ± 6.39% inhibition of immobile time, respectively. Therefore, the current study suggests that L. hyalina could be a potential source of anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant agents. Further study is needed to determine the mechanism behind the bioactivities. Full article
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Article
Therapeutic Potentials of Syzygium fruticosum Fruit (Seed) Reflected into an Array of Pharmacological Assays and Prospective Receptors-Mediated Pathways
Life 2021, 11(2), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11020155 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Syzygium fruticosum (SF), a valuable Bangladeshi fruit, is considered an alternative therapeutic agent. Mainly, seeds are used as nutritional phytotherapy to ease physical and mental status by preventing chronic diseases. Here, we scrutinized the S. fruticosum seed’s fundamental importance in traditional medicine by [...] Read more.
Syzygium fruticosum (SF), a valuable Bangladeshi fruit, is considered an alternative therapeutic agent. Mainly, seeds are used as nutritional phytotherapy to ease physical and mental status by preventing chronic diseases. Here, we scrutinized the S. fruticosum seed’s fundamental importance in traditional medicine by following an integrated approach combining in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies. The SF was fractionated with different solvents, and the ethyl acetate fraction of SF (EaF-SF) was further studied. Mice treated with EaF-SF (200 and 400 mg/kg) manifested anxiolysis evidenced by higher exploration in elevated plus maze and hole board tests. Similarly, a dose-dependent drop of immobility time in a forced swimming test ensured significant anti-depressant activity. Moreover, higher dose treatment exposed reduced exploratory behaviour resembling decreased movement and prolonged sleeping latency with a quick onset of sleep during the open field and thiopental-induced sleeping tests, respectively. In parallel, EaF-SF significantly (p < 0.001) and dose-dependently suppressed acetic acid and formalin-induced pain in mice. Also, a noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity and a substantial (p < 0.01) clot lysis activity (thrombolytic) was observed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis resulted in 49 bioactive compounds. Among them, 12 bioactive compounds with Lipinski’s rule and safety confirmation showed strong binding affinity (molecular docking) against the receptors of each model used. To conclude, the S. fruticosum seed is a prospective source of health-promoting effects that can be an excellent candidate for preventing degenerative diseases. Full article
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Article
Cardioprotective Effect of Linalool against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction
Life 2021, 11(2), 120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11020120 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI), a life-threatening disorder, arises from the imbalance between oxygen supply and myocardial demand. Linalool is a naturally occurring monoterpenes with proved numerous pharmacological actions. This study investigated the cardioprotective effect of Linalool on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI in rat models [...] Read more.
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI), a life-threatening disorder, arises from the imbalance between oxygen supply and myocardial demand. Linalool is a naturally occurring monoterpenes with proved numerous pharmacological actions. This study investigated the cardioprotective effect of Linalool on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI in rat models and explored part of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Rats were divided into five groups; groups I and II served as normal and linalool control groups, Group III administered ISO alone; groups V and VI received two different doses of Linalool and were challenged by ISO. Different biochemical parameters were determined, including hemodynamic, infarction size, cardiac enzymes, apoptotic markers, and inflammatory mediators. Results: Linalool limited the infarcted area size and diminished the elevated cardiac enzymes. Linalool escalated HO-1 and Nrf2, both nuclear and cytosol fractions, and reduced Keap 1. Linalool enhanced cardiac antioxidant activities, reduced inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κ-B (NF-κB), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6)), apoptotic markers (Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Bax), and elevated Bcl2. Conclusion: Linalool could act as an effective cardioprotective agent in the MI model through improving the oxidative condition, probably via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and by abolishing both apoptotic and inflammatory responses. Full article
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Article
UPLC-MS-Based Metabolomics Profiling for α-Glucosidase Inhibiting Property of Parkia speciosa Pods
Life 2021, 11(2), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11020078 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
Parkia speciosa is a food plant that grows indigenously in Southeast Asia. A great deal of interest has been paid to this plant due to its traditional uses in the treatment of several diseases. The pods contain many beneficial secondary metabolites with potential [...] Read more.
Parkia speciosa is a food plant that grows indigenously in Southeast Asia. A great deal of interest has been paid to this plant due to its traditional uses in the treatment of several diseases. The pods contain many beneficial secondary metabolites with potential applications in medicine and cosmetics. However, studies on their phytochemical properties are still lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to profile the bioactive compounds of P. speciosa pods collected from six different regions of Malaysia through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. This study applied metabolomics to elucidate the differences between P. speciosa populations found naturally in the different locations and to characterize potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from P. speciosa pods. P. speciosa collected from different regions of Malaysia showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.45–0.76 μg/mL. The samples from the northern and northeastern parts of Peninsular Malaysia showed the highest activity. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis, 25 metabolites were identified in the pods of P. speciosa. The findings unveiled that the pods of P. speciosa collected from different locations exhibit different levels of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The pods are a natural source of potent antidiabetic bioactive compounds. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Lignans from Bursera fagaroides: Chemistry, Pharmacological Effects and Molecular Mechanism. A Current Review
Life 2021, 11(7), 685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11070685 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Bursera fagaroides is a medicinal tree endemic to México, it belongs to the Burseraceae family and has proven antitumor activity. Modern research, performed principally with the bark extracts, have indicated that lignans are the main active constituents of B. fagaroides, with a high [...] Read more.
Bursera fagaroides is a medicinal tree endemic to México, it belongs to the Burseraceae family and has proven antitumor activity. Modern research, performed principally with the bark extracts, have indicated that lignans are the main active constituents of B. fagaroides, with a high content of aryltetralin, aryldihydronaphtalene, dibenzylbutirolactone, and dibenzylbutane-type lignans as the constituents of the active extracts. In general, lignans from B. fagaroides exhibited potent anti-cancer activity, although antitumor, anti-bacterial, anti-protozoal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral properties have also been described. This review covers literature-reported lignans from B. fagaroides, chemical structures, nomenclature, chromatographic techniques of isolation, characterization strategies, and highlights the anti-cancer molecular mechanisms of lignans. Evaluation of the anticancer function of lignans has been extensively investigated since the cytotoxic in vitro results and in vivo assays in mice and zebrafish models to the tubulin molecular recognition by NMR. Also, we discuss the future direction for studying this important plant species and its lignan metabolites. Full article
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Review
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: An Updated Review of Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial Pharmacology, and Clinical Safety and Efficacy
Life 2021, 11(4), 348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11040348 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3978
Abstract
Infectious disease (ID) is one of the top-most serious threats to human health globally, further aggravated by antimicrobial resistance and lack of novel immunization options. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees and its metabolites have been long used to treat IDs. Andrographolide, [...] Read more.
Infectious disease (ID) is one of the top-most serious threats to human health globally, further aggravated by antimicrobial resistance and lack of novel immunization options. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees and its metabolites have been long used to treat IDs. Andrographolide, derived from A. paniculata, can inhibit invasive microbes virulence factors and regulate the host immunity. Controlled clinical trials revealed that A. paniculata treatment is safe and efficacious for acute respiratory tract infections like common cold and sinusitis. Hence, A. paniculata, mainly andrographolide, could be considered as an excellent candidate for antimicrobial drug development. Considering the importance, medicinal values, and significant role as antimicrobial agents, this study critically evaluated the antimicrobial therapeutic potency of A. paniculata and its metabolites, focusing on the mechanism of action in inhibiting invasive microbes and biofilm formation. A critical evaluation of the secondary metabolites with the aim of identifying pure compounds that possess antimicrobial functions has further added significant values to this study. Notwithstanding that A. paniculata is a promising source of antimicrobial agents and safe treatment for IDs, further empirical research is warranted. Full article
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Review
Bromelain a Potential Bioactive Compound: A Comprehensive Overview from a Pharmacological Perspective
Life 2021, 11(4), 317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/life11040317 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2968
Abstract
Bromelain is an effective chemoresponsive proteolytic enzyme derived from pineapple stems. It contains several thiol endopeptidases and is extracted and purified via several methods. It is most commonly used as an anti-inflammatory agent, though scientists have also discovered its potential as an anticancer [...] Read more.
Bromelain is an effective chemoresponsive proteolytic enzyme derived from pineapple stems. It contains several thiol endopeptidases and is extracted and purified via several methods. It is most commonly used as an anti-inflammatory agent, though scientists have also discovered its potential as an anticancer and antimicrobial agent. It has been reported as having positive effects on the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems, and potentially on the immune system. It is a natural remedy for easing arthritis symptoms, including joint pain and stiffness. This review details bromelain’s varied uses in healthcare, its low toxicity, and its relationship to nanoparticles. The door of infinite possibilities will be opened up if further extensive research is carried out on this pineapple-derived enzyme. Full article
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