Materials 2021, 14(5), 1270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14051270 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
In this paper, we propose hot-wire plasma welding, a combination of the plasma welding (PAW) process and the hot-wire process in the additive manufacturing (AM) process. Generally, in plasma welding for AM processes, the deposit grain size increases, and the hardness decreases as [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose hot-wire plasma welding, a combination of the plasma welding (PAW) process and the hot-wire process in the additive manufacturing (AM) process. Generally, in plasma welding for AM processes, the deposit grain size increases, and the hardness decreases as the wall height increases. The coarse microstructure, along with the large grain size, corresponds to an increase in deposit temperature, which leads to poorer mechanical properties. At the same time, the hot-wire laser process seems to contain an overly high interstitial amount of oxygen and nitrogen. With an increasing emphasis on sustainability, the hot-wire plasma welding process offers significant advantages: deeper and narrow penetration than the cold-wire plasma welding, improved design flexibility, large deposition rates, and low dilution percentages. Thus, the hot-wire plasma welding process was investigated in this work. The wire used in the welding process was a titanium American Welding Society (AMS) 4951F (Grade 2) welding wire (diameter 1.6 mm), in which the welding was recorded in real time with a charge-coupled device camera (CCD camera). We studied three parameters of the hot-wire plasma welding process: (1) the welding speed, (2) wire current, and (3) wire feeding speed. The mechanical and physical properties (porosity, Vickers hardness, microstructure, and tensile strength) were examined. It was found that the number of layers, the length and width of the molten pool, and the width of the deposited bead increased, while the height of the layer increased, and the hot-wire current played an important role in the deposition. In addition, these results were benchmarked against specimens created by a hot-wire plasma welding/wire-based additive manufacturing process with an intention to develop the hot-wire PAW process as a potential alternative in the additive manufacturing industry. Full article