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Special Issue "Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Andrea Petrella
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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Edile, del Territorio e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Via E. Orabona, 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Interests: use of recycling organic and inorganic materials in the building trade and/or in the removal of heavy metals present in wastewater; photocatalytic materials for the degradation of bio-persistent pollutants in water and wastewater; nanocomposites for energy conversion and for novel optical devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Danilo Spasiano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Bari, via E. Orabona, 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Interests: nanomaterials; wastewater treatment; adsorption; solid waste management; soil remediation; photodegradation; degradation; wastewater reuse
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recovery of solid wastes for the preparation of innovative composite materials not only represents an economic advantage, but also offers an ecological opportunity for the utilization of by-products which would otherwise be landfilled. Specifically, the reuse and recycling of waste leads to important savings of raw materials and energy, since these by-products, generally deriving from agricultural or industrial activities, are abundant in nature. Moreover, a reduction of the environmental and related sanitary impacts can be also achieved.

For this reason, a recycling operation is fundamental for the improvement of the environmental sustainability because these secondary raw materials become a resource that can be easily reused without modification of the peculiar characteristics in order to obtain new and performing composites with a low specific weight, high durability, and long life cycle. To this end, it is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Andrea Petrella
Prof. Marco Race
Prof. Danilo Spasiano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2571; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13112571 - 05 Jun 2020
Viewed by 625
Abstract
The recycling and reuse of solid wastes can be considered important challenges for civil and environmental applications in the frame of a more sustainable model of development and the consumption of new resources and energy [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)

Research

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Article
Wheat Straw Biochar as a Specific Sorbent of Cobalt in Soil
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2462; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13112462 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
There is an urgent need to search for new sorbents of pollutants presently delivered to the environment. Recently biochar has received much attention as a low-cost, highly effective heavy metal adsorbent. Biochar has been identified as an efficient material for cobalt (Co) immobilization [...] Read more.
There is an urgent need to search for new sorbents of pollutants presently delivered to the environment. Recently biochar has received much attention as a low-cost, highly effective heavy metal adsorbent. Biochar has been identified as an efficient material for cobalt (Co) immobilization from waters; however, little is known about the role of Co immobilization in soil. Hence, in this study, a batch experiment and a long-term incubation experiment with biochar application to multi-contaminated soil with distinct properties (sand, loam) were conducted to provide a brief explanation of the potential mechanisms of Co (II) sorption on wheat straw biochar and to describe additional processes that modify material efficiency for metal sorption in soil. The soil treatments with 5% (v/w) wheat straw biochar proved to be efficient in reducing Co mobility and bioavailability. The mechanism of these processes could be related to direct and indirect effects of biochar incorporation into soil. The FT-IR analysis confirmed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups present on the biochar surface played a dominant role in Co (II) surface complexation. The combined effect of pH, metal complexation capacity, and the presence of Fe and Mn oxides added to wheat straw biochar resulted in an effective reduction of soluble Co (II), showing high efficiency of this material for cobalt sorption in contaminated soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Composite Properties of Non-Cement Blended Fiber Composites without Alkali Activator
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061443 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
The vigorous promotion of reuse and recycling activities in Taiwan has solved a number of problems associated with the treatment of industrial waste. Considerable advances have been made in the conversion of waste materials into usable resources, thereby reducing the space required for [...] Read more.
The vigorous promotion of reuse and recycling activities in Taiwan has solved a number of problems associated with the treatment of industrial waste. Considerable advances have been made in the conversion of waste materials into usable resources, thereby reducing the space required for waste storage and helping to conserve natural resources. This study examined the use of non-alkali activators to create bonded materials. Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (S) and circulating fluidized bed co-fired fly ash (F) as non-cement binding materials and determine the optimal mix proportions (including embedded fibers) with the aim of achieving high dimensional stability and good mechanical properties. Under a fixed water/binder ratio of 0.55, we combined S and F to replace 100% of the cement at S:F ratios of 4:6, 5:5, 6:4. Polypropylene fibers (L/d = 375) were also included in the mix at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% of the volume of all bonded materials. Samples were characterized in terms of flowability, compressive strength, tensile strength, water absorption, shrinkage, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Specimens made with an S:F ratio of 6:4 achieved compressive strength of roughly 30 MPa (at 28 days), which is the 80% the strength of conventional cement-based materials (control specimens). The inclusion of 0.2% fibers in the mix further increased compressive strength to 35 MPa and enhanced composite properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Egg By-Products as a Tool to Remove Direct Blue 78 Dye from Wastewater: Kinetic, Equilibrium Modeling, Thermodynamics and Desorption Properties
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1262; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13061262 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Eggshell, a waste material from food manufacturing, can be used as a potential ecofriendly adsorbent for the elimination of textile dyes from water solutions. The adsorption process was evaluated varying factors such as initial dye load, contact time, pH, quantity of adsorbent, and [...] Read more.
Eggshell, a waste material from food manufacturing, can be used as a potential ecofriendly adsorbent for the elimination of textile dyes from water solutions. The adsorption process was evaluated varying factors such as initial dye load, contact time, pH, quantity of adsorbent, and temperature. The initial dye load (Direct Blue 78) was in the range of 25–300 mg/L. The kinetics of adsorption were analyzed using different models, such as pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model. Also, the experimental data at equilibrium were studied using Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin isotherms. The kinetics followed pseudo-second-order, then pseudo-first-order, and finally the model of intraparticle diffusion. The results obtained for data at equilibrium follow the order: Freundlich > Langmuir > Temkin. The adsorption equilibrium showed a maximum capacity of adsorption (qmax) of 13 mg/g at pH 5, and using 0.5 g of eggshell. Dye adsorption was enhanced with increasing temperatures. The thermodynamic study revealed the spontaneity and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. The desorption study shows that the eggshell could be reused in different adsorption/desorption cycles. A novel advanced oxidation process could degrade more than 95% of the dye. The results show that eggshell is a waste material useful to remove hazardous dyes from wastewater, which may alleviate the environmental impact of dyeing industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Recycled Expanded Polystyrene as Lightweight Aggregate for Environmentally Sustainable Cement Conglomerates
Materials 2020, 13(4), 988; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13040988 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
In the present work the rheological, thermo-mechanical, microstructural, and wetting characteristics of cement mortars with recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) were analyzed. The samples were prepared after partial/total replacement of the conventional sand aggregate with EPS having different grain size and size distribution. Lightness [...] Read more.
In the present work the rheological, thermo-mechanical, microstructural, and wetting characteristics of cement mortars with recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) were analyzed. The samples were prepared after partial/total replacement of the conventional sand aggregate with EPS having different grain size and size distribution. Lightness and thermal insulation were relevant features for all the bare EPS composites, despite the mechanical strengths. Specifically, EPS based mortars were characterized by higher thermal insulation with respect to the sand reference due to the lower specific mass of the specimens mainly associated with the low density of the aggregates and also to the spaces at the EPS/cement paste interfaces. Interesting results in terms of low thermal conductivity and high mechanical resistances were obtained in the case of sand-EPS mixtures although characterized by only 50% in volume of the organic aggregate. Moreover, sand-based mortars showed hydrophilicity (low WCA) and high water penetration, whereas the presence of EPS in the cement composites led to a reduction of the absorption of water especially on the bulk of the composites. Specifically, mortars with EPS in the 2–4 mm and 4–6 mm bead size range showed the best results in term of hydrophobicity (high WCA) and no water penetration in the inner surface, due to low surface energy of the organic aggregate together with a good particle distribution. This was indicative of cohesion between the ligand and the polystyrene as observed in the microstructural detections. Such a property is likely to be correlated to the observed good workability of this type of mortar and to its low tendency to segregation compared to the other EPS containing specimens. These lightweight thermo-insulating composites can be considered environmentally sustainable materials because they are prepared with no pre-treated secondary raw materials and can be used for indoor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Chitosan Biopolymer from Crab Shell as Recyclable Film to Remove/Recover in Batch Ketoprofen from Water: Understanding the Factors Affecting the Adsorption Process
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12233810 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
Seafood, a delight for many people, is sold in the market as a wide variety of products. However, seafood industries produce many by-products; for example, during the processing, the heads and shells of shellfish are generated as waste. This results in the generation [...] Read more.
Seafood, a delight for many people, is sold in the market as a wide variety of products. However, seafood industries produce many by-products; for example, during the processing, the heads and shells of shellfish are generated as waste. This results in the generation of a large amount of shell waste that is accumulated over time, inducing a major environmental concern. Effective solutions for recycling shell waste should be taken into consideration, and the extraction of commercially useful substances like chitin and its derivates, such as chitosan, could be a valid solution for reducing the seafood waste’s environmental impact. Thus, during this work, we propose the use of chitosan as biowaste, to induce the formation of solid films useful for decontaminating water from emerging pollutants. In particular, ketoprofen was used as a model contaminant, and a high percentage of removal, at least 90%, was obtained in a short time under our experimental conditions. Thus, a comprehensive investigation into the adsorption of ketoprofen onto chitosan film was performed, detailing the nature of the adsorption by studying the effects of pH, temperature changes, and electrolyte presence in the solutions containing the pollutant. The process was found to be pH-dependent, involving meanly electrostatic interactions between the pollutant molecules and chitosan. The endothermic character of the adsorption was inferred. The kinetics of the process was investigated, showing that the pseudo second-order kinetic model best fit the experimental data. A recycling process of the adsorbent was proposed; therefore, the adsorbed pollutant can be recovered by reusing the same adsorbent material for further consecutive cycles of adsorption without affecting the efficiency for ketoprofen removal from water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Rendering Mortars Reinforced with Natural Sheep’s Wool Fibers
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3648; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12223648 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
The susceptibility of rendering mortars to cracking is a complex phenomenon. Fibers have been incorporated in mortars to ensure the durability of the render and can improve the flexural strength, fracture toughness, and impact resistance of the mortars. Aside from the better cracking [...] Read more.
The susceptibility of rendering mortars to cracking is a complex phenomenon. Fibers have been incorporated in mortars to ensure the durability of the render and can improve the flexural strength, fracture toughness, and impact resistance of the mortars. Aside from the better cracking performance of fiber reinforced mortars, natural fibers have been a path to reducing the environmental impacts of construction materials. Recycling has high sustainability-related potential as it can both mitigate the amount of waste being inadequately disposed and reduce the consumption of natural raw materials. Studies on the incorporation of waste in civil engineering materials have been growing, and recycled fibers may be feasible to incorporate in mortars. Natural fibers are considered as a viable replacement for synthetic ones. Several studies have investigated vegetal fibers in cementitious composites. However, only a few have focused on the incorporation of waste animal-based fiber. The aim of this work is to analyze the feasibility of the use of natural sheep’s wool fibers on the reinforcement of mortars and in particular to improve their cracking behavior. For this purpose, two different binders were used: cement and cement-lime mortars were produced. The incorporation of 10% and 20% (in volume) of 1.5 cm and 3.0 cm wool fibers was analyzed. The results show that the incorporation of wool fibers increased the ductility of the mortars and improved their mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Environmentally Sustainable Cement Composites Based on End-of-Life Tyre Rubber and Recycled Waste Porous Glass
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12203289 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
In this paper, environmentally sustainable cement mortars were prepared with end-of-life tyre rubber (TR) and recycled waste porous glass (PG) as aggregates in order to obtain lightweight products characterized by renewable and not-pretreated materials specifically for indoor applications. The secondary raw materials were [...] Read more.
In this paper, environmentally sustainable cement mortars were prepared with end-of-life tyre rubber (TR) and recycled waste porous glass (PG) as aggregates in order to obtain lightweight products characterized by renewable and not-pretreated materials specifically for indoor applications. The secondary raw materials were added as partial and/or total replacement of the conventional sand aggregate. The resulting lightweight specimens were characterized by rheological, mechanical, thermal, microstructural and wettability tests. Fine tyre rubber aggregates affected the cohesiveness of the composites, as opposite to coarse tyre rubber and porous glass. The flexural and the compressive strengths of the porous glass samples were higher than the tyre rubber samples because of the higher stiffness and good adhesion of the glass to the cement paste as observed by microstructural observations. On the contrary, an unfavorable adhesion of the tyre aggregates to the cement paste was observed, together with discrete cracks after failure without separation of the two parts of the specimens. The latter result can explain the best results obtained by tyre rubber mortars in the case of impact compression tests where the super-elastic properties of the elastomeric material were evidenced by a deep groove before complete failure. Moreover, the thermal conductivity decrease of the lightweight porous TR and PG composites was in the range of ~80–90% with respect to the sand-based samples, which suggests that they can be used as plasters and masonries, and, in the case of tyre rubber specimens, outside applications are not excluded as observed from the wettability tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Nanosilica Extracted from Hexafluorosilicic Acid of Waste Fertilizer as Reinforcement Material for Natural Rubber: Preparation and Mechanical Characteristics
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2707; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12172707 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Nanosilica particles are extracted from waste water containing a hexafluorosilicic acid discharged from Vietnamese fertilizer plants as an effective way not only to reduce waste water pollution but also to enhance the value of their waste water. Amorphous nanosilica particles are produced with [...] Read more.
Nanosilica particles are extracted from waste water containing a hexafluorosilicic acid discharged from Vietnamese fertilizer plants as an effective way not only to reduce waste water pollution but also to enhance the value of their waste water. Amorphous nanosilica particles are produced with diameters ranging from 40 to 60 nm and then adopted as a reinforcing additive for natural rubber (NR) composites. Morphological, mechanical, rheological, and thermal behaviors of the nanosilica-added NR composites are examined. Especially, mechanical behaviors of nanosilica-filled NR composites reach the optimum with 3 phr of nanosilica, at which its tensile strength, hardness, and decomposition temperature are improved by 20.6%, 7.1%, and 2.5%, respectively, compared with the pristine vulcanized NR. The improved mechanical properties can be explained by the tensile fractured surface morphology, which shows that the silica-filled NR is rougher than the pristine natural rubber sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Micron-Size White Bamboo Fibril-Based Silane Cellulose Aerogel: Fabrication and Oil Absorbent Characteristics
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12091407 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Micron-size white bamboo fibrils were fabricated from white bamboo and used as a source for the production of highly porous and very lightweight cellulose aerogels for use as a potential oil absorbent. The aerogels were fabricated through gelation from an aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea [...] Read more.
Micron-size white bamboo fibrils were fabricated from white bamboo and used as a source for the production of highly porous and very lightweight cellulose aerogels for use as a potential oil absorbent. The aerogels were fabricated through gelation from an aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solution, followed by a conventional freeze-drying process. The morphology and physical properties of the aerogels were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, respectively. Successful silanization of the cellulose aerogel was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. The fabricated silane cellulose aerogel exhibited excellent absorption performance for various oil and organic solvents with typical weight gains ranging from 400% to 1200% of their own dry weight, making them promising versatile absorbents for a range of applications, including water purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Study of the Suitability of Different Types of Slag and Its Influence on the Quality of Green Grouts Obtained by Partial Replacement of Cement
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12071166 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
This paper is part of a research line focused on the reduction of the use of cement in the industry. In this work, the study of work methodologies for the manufacture of green cementitious grout mixtures is studied. Grout is widely used in [...] Read more.
This paper is part of a research line focused on the reduction of the use of cement in the industry. In this work, the study of work methodologies for the manufacture of green cementitious grout mixtures is studied. Grout is widely used in construction and it requires an important use of raw materials. On the other hand, the steel industry faces the problem of the growing generation of slag wastes due to the increase in steel manufacturing. The green grout aims to achieve the dual objective of reducing the demand for cement and improve the slag waste valorization. Slag is not introduced as an aggregate but through the direct replacement of cement and no additives. The research seeks a product where we can use steel slag intensively, guaranteeing minimum resistance and workability. Results with substitutions between a 25% to 50% and water/cement ratio of 1 are presented. In particular, the suitability of different slags (two Ladle Furnace Slag (LFS) and one Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS)) in the quality of the final product are analyzed. The feasibility of replacing cement with slag and the importance of the origin and pretreatment are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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Article
Rapid Immobilization of Simulated Radioactive Soil Waste Using Self-Propagating Synthesized Gd2Ti2O7 Pyrochlore Matrix
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12071163 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
A rapid and effective method is necessary in the disposal of severely radioactive contaminated soil waste. Simulated Ce-bearing radioactive soil waste was immobilized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) within 5 min in this study. The main work includes the rapid synthesis of soil [...] Read more.
A rapid and effective method is necessary in the disposal of severely radioactive contaminated soil waste. Simulated Ce-bearing radioactive soil waste was immobilized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) within 5 min in this study. The main work includes the rapid synthesis of soil waste forms, the analysis of phase composition, microstructure and chemical durability. These results show that the simulated nuclide Ce was successfully immobilized into the pyrochlore-rich waste matrice, whose main phases are SiO2, pyrochlore (Gd2Ti2O7) and Cu. The normalized leaching rates of Si and Na on the 42nd day are 1.86 × 10−3 and 1.63 × 10−2 g·m−2·d−1, respectively. And the normalized leaching rate of Ce also remains at low level (10−5–10−6 g·m−2·d−1) within 42 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bioderived Composites from Wastes)
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