Special Issue "Temperature Reduction Technologies Meet Asphalt Pavement: Green and Sustainability"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Markus Oeser
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chair and Institute of Highway Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Interests: application of numerical methods on pavement engineering; construction of constitutive models of pavement materials; design method of high-performance permeable pavement structure; development of polyurethane material; characterization of mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture at multiscale
Prof. Dr. Michael Wistuba
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Braunschweig Pavement Engineering Centre, Architecture, Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: sustainability of road infrastructures; the fundamental mechanisms that control behavior and durability of asphalt materials and pavement systems; technical testing to address performance properties; composition of asphalt mixtures considering various additives and re-using reclaimed asphalt; design of highway and airport pavements; development of road management concepts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Pengfei Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
RWTH Aachen University, Chair and Institute of Highway Engineering, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Interests: asphalt pavement design; numerical simulation on pavement materials; bearing capacity of asphalt pavement; meso-model of asphalt pavement considering its multiphase
Dr. Di Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Braunschweig Pavement Engineering Centre, Architecture, Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: asphalt pavement; low-temperature properties of bituminous materials; sustainability of road infrastructures; fatigue properties of asphalt mixtures; solid recycling materials used in asphalt pavement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Temperature reduction technologies have been used worldwide in the last two decades in asphalt pavement engineering. The aim of these technologies is to use lower temperature throughout production processes while without losing the performance properties of asphalt materials. Currently, different levels of temperature reduction technologies, includes warm mix asphalt, half-warm mix asphalt and cold mix asphalt, can be accomplished using varieties of organic/chemical additives and foaming/emulsion techniques. Significant economic and environmental benefits can be achieved, including but not restricted to energy, greenhouse gas and fume emissions reduction, and increased field workability. However, there are still several knowledge gaps to overcome. For example, the incomplete drying of aggregates caused by the lower production temperature may ultimately lead to serious rutting and moisture damage. These limitations hinder the mega-scale application of temperature reduction technologies in asphalt pavement constructions.

This Special Issue covers various subjects related to advanced temperature reduction technologies in bituminous materials. Research on the investigation and application of varieties of technologies is welcome. The assessment of influence on the in-service performance, economy, environment effect, and life-cycle assessment are all invited. Literature reviews are also highly appreciated.

Prof. Dr. Markus Oeser
Prof. Dr. Michael Wistuba
Dr. Pengfei Liu
Dr. Di Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • asphalt pavement
  • green materials
  • temperature reduction technology
  • half-warm mix asphalt
  • warm mix asphalt
  • cold mix asphalt
  • performance properties
  • greenhouse gas and fume emission
  • life-cycle assessment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Development of Water Retentive and Thermal Resistant Cement Concrete and Cooling Effects Evaluation
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206141 - 16 Oct 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The high pavement temperature plays an important role in the development of urban heat island (UHI) in summer. The objective of this study was to develop water retentive and thermal resistant cement concrete (WTCC) to enhance the pavement cooling effects. The WTCC was [...] Read more.
The high pavement temperature plays an important role in the development of urban heat island (UHI) in summer. The objective of this study was to develop water retentive and thermal resistant cement concrete (WTCC) to enhance the pavement cooling effects. The WTCC was prepared by combining a water retentive material and a high aluminum refractory aggregate (RA) with porous cement concrete (PCC). Water retention capacity test, fluidity test, and compressive strength test were used to determine the composition ratio of the water retentive material. Mechanical performance and cooling effects of WTCC were evaluated by compressive and flexural strength tests and temperature monitoring test. The mass ratios of fly ash, silica fume, cement, and water in the water retentive material were determined as 65:35:15:63.9. The compressive strength and the flexural strength of WTCC after 28 days curing were 30.4 MPa and 4.6 MPa, respectively. Compared with stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture, PCC, and water retentive cement concrete (WCC), surface temperature of WTCC decreased by 11.4 °C, 5.5 °C, and 4.1 °C, respectively, and the internal temperatures of WTCC decreased by 10.3 °C, 6.1 °C, and 4.6 °C, respectively. The water retentive material has benefits of strength improvements and temperature reduction for WTCC. Based on the results, WTCC proved to have superior cooling effects and the potential to efficiently mitigate the UHI effects and be used in medium traffic roads. Full article
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Article
Optimizing the Texturing Parameters of Concrete Pavement by Balancing Skid-Resistance Performance and Driving Stability
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14206137 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Curved texturing is an effective technique to improve the skid-resistance performance of concrete pavements, which relies on the suitable combination of the groove parameters. This study aims to optimize these parameters with the consideration of skid-resistance performance and driving stability. A pressure film [...] Read more.
Curved texturing is an effective technique to improve the skid-resistance performance of concrete pavements, which relies on the suitable combination of the groove parameters. This study aims to optimize these parameters with the consideration of skid-resistance performance and driving stability. A pressure film was adopted to obtain the contact stress distribution at the tire–pavement interface. The evaluated indicator of the stress concentration coefficient was established, and the calculation method for the stationary steering resistance torque was optimized based on actual tire–pavement contact characteristics. Test samples with various groove parameters were prepared use self-design molds to evaluate the influence degree of each groove parameter at different levels on the skid-resistance performance through orthogonal and abrasion resistance tests. The results showed that the groove depth and groove spacing had the most significant influence on the stress concentration coefficient and stationary steering resistance torque, respectively, with the groove depth having the most significant influence on the texture depth. Moreover, the driving stability and durability of the skid-resistance performance could be balanced by optimizing the width of the groove group. After analyzing and comprehensively comparing the influences of various parameters, it was found the parameter combination with width, depth, spacing, and the groove group width, respectively, in 8 mm, 3 mm, 15 mm, and 50 mm can balance the skid-resistance performance and driving stability. The actual engineering results showed that the R2 of the fitting between the stress concentration coefficient and SFC (measured at 60 km/h) was 0.871, which proved the effectiveness of the evaluation index proposed in this paper. Full article
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Article
Noise Reduction Characteristics of Macroporous Asphalt Pavement Based on A Weighted Sound Pressure Level Sensor
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4356; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14164356 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Based on the manual of macroporous noise-reducing asphalt pavement design, the indoor main drive pavement function accelerated loading test system was applied to investigate the impact of speed, loading conditions (dry and wet) and structural depth on the noise reduction of macroporous Open [...] Read more.
Based on the manual of macroporous noise-reducing asphalt pavement design, the indoor main drive pavement function accelerated loading test system was applied to investigate the impact of speed, loading conditions (dry and wet) and structural depth on the noise reduction of macroporous Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC) pavement, as well as its long-term noise reduction. Combined with the noise spectrum of the weighted sound pressure level, the main components and sensitive frequency bands of pavement noise under different factors were analyzed and compared. According to experimental results, the noise reduction effect of different asphalt pavements from strong to weak is as follows: OGFC-13 > SMA-13 > AC-13 > MS-III. The noise reduction effect of OGFC concentrates on the frequency of 1–4 kHz when high porosity effectively reduces the air pump effect. As the effect of wheels increases and the depth of the road structure decreases, the noise reduction effect of OGFC decreases. It indicates the noise reduction performance attenuates at a later stage, similar to the noise level of densely graded roads. Full article
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Article
A Study on Heat Storage and Dissipation Efficiency at Permeable Road Pavements
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3431; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14123431 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The main contributing factor of the urban heat island (UHI) effect is caused by daytime heating. Traditional pavements in cities aggravate the UHI effect due to their heat storage and volumetric heat capacity. In order to alleviate UHI, this study aims to understand [...] Read more.
The main contributing factor of the urban heat island (UHI) effect is caused by daytime heating. Traditional pavements in cities aggravate the UHI effect due to their heat storage and volumetric heat capacity. In order to alleviate UHI, this study aims to understand the heating and dissipating process of different types of permeable road pavements. The Ke Da Road in Pingtung County of Taiwan has a permeable pavement materials experiment zone with two different section configurations which were named as section I and section II for semi-permeable pavement and fully permeable pavement, respectively. The temperature sensors were installed during construction at the depths of the surface course (0 cm and 5 cm), base course (30 cm and 55 cm) and subgrade (70 cm) to monitor the temperature variations in the permeable road pavements. Hourly temperature and weather station data in January and June 2017 were collected for analysis. Based on these collected data, heat storage and dissipation efficiencies with respect to depth have been modelled by using multi regression for the two studied pavement types. It is found that the fully permeable pavement has higher heat storage and heat dissipation efficiencies than semi-permeable pavement in winter and summer monitoring period. By observing the regressed model, it is found that the slope of the model lines are almost flat after the depth of 30 cm. Thus, from the view point of UHI, one can conclude that the reasonable design depth of permeable road pavement could be 30 cm. Full article
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Article
Cold In-Place Recycling Asphalt Mixtures: Laboratory Performance and Preliminary M-E Design Analysis
Materials 2021, 14(8), 2036; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14082036 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Cold in-place recycling (CIR) asphalt mixtures are an attractive eco-friendly method for rehabilitating asphalt pavement. However, the on-site CIR asphalt mixture generally has a high air void because of the moisture content during construction, and the moisture susceptibility is vital for estimating the [...] Read more.
Cold in-place recycling (CIR) asphalt mixtures are an attractive eco-friendly method for rehabilitating asphalt pavement. However, the on-site CIR asphalt mixture generally has a high air void because of the moisture content during construction, and the moisture susceptibility is vital for estimating the road service life. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to characterize the effect of moisture on the high-temperature and low-temperature performance of a CIR asphalt mixture to predict CIR pavement distress based on a mechanistic–empirical (M-E) pavement design. Moisture conditioning was simulated by the moisture-induced stress tester (MIST). The moisture susceptibility performance of the CIR asphalt mixture (pre-mist and post-mist) was estimated by a dynamic modulus test and a disk-shaped compact tension (DCT) test. In addition, the standard solvent extraction test was used to obtain the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and CIR asphalt. Asphalt binder performance, including higher temperature and medium temperature performance, was evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) equipment and low-temperature properties were estimated by the asphalt binder cracking device (ABCD). Then the predicted pavement distresses were estimated based on the pavement M-E design method. The experimental results revealed that (1) DCT and dynamic modulus tests are sensitive to moisture conditioning. The dynamic modulus decreased by 13% to 43% at various temperatures and frequencies, and the low-temperature cracking energy decreased by 20%. (2) RAP asphalt incorporated with asphalt emulsion decreased the high-temperature rutting resistance but improved the low-temperature anti-cracking and the fatigue life. The M-E design results showed that the RAP incorporated with asphalt emulsion reduced the international roughness index (IRI) and AC bottom-up fatigue predictions, while increasing the total rutting and AC rutting predictions. The moisture damage in the CIR pavement layer also did not significantly affect the predicted distress with low traffic volume. In summary, the implementation of CIR technology in the project improved low-temperature cracking and fatigue performance in the asphalt pavement. Meanwhile, the moisture damage of the CIR asphalt mixture accelerated high-temperature rutting and low-temperature cracking, but it may be acceptable when used for low-volume roads. Full article
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Article
Fracture Parameters and Cracking Propagation of Cold Recycled Mixture Considering Material Heterogeneity Based on Extended Finite Element Method
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1993; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14081993 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Cold recycled mixture (CRM) has been widely used around the world mainly because of its good ability to resist reflection cracking. In this study, mixed-mode cracking tests were carried out by the designed rotary test device to evaluate the cracking resistance of CRM. [...] Read more.
Cold recycled mixture (CRM) has been widely used around the world mainly because of its good ability to resist reflection cracking. In this study, mixed-mode cracking tests were carried out by the designed rotary test device to evaluate the cracking resistance of CRM. Through the finite element method, the heterogeneous model of CRM based on its meso-structure was established. The cracking process of CRM was simulated using the extended finite element method, and the influence of different notch lengths on its anti-cracking performance was studied. The results show that the mixed-mode fracture test method can effectively evaluate the cracking resistance of CRM by the proposed fracture parameters. The virtual tests under three of five kinds of mixed-cracking modes have good simulation to capture the cracking behavior of CRM. The effect of notch length on the initial crack angle and the crack propagation process of the CRM is mainly related to the distribution characteristics of its meso-structure. With the increase of the proportion of Mode II cracking, the crack development path gradually deviates, and the failure elements gradually increase. At any mixed-mode level, there is an obvious linear relationship between the peak load, fracture energy, and the notch length. Full article
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