Special Issue "Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Giovanna Orsini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Specialistiche ed Odontostomatologiche, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60121 Ancona, Italy
Interests: morphology of dental tissues; restorative and esthetic dentistry; biomaterials; electron microscopy; immunohistochemistry; regenerative dentistry; nanotechnology; stem Cells; randomized clinical trial

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent advances in biomaterials, tissue engineering and nanotechnology for dental clinical applications represent an important challenge for daily practice. Dental diseases often can lead to partial or complete damage to dental structures. Thus, the use of modern technologies with innovative and sophisticated biomaterials are fundamental for all kinds of dental care.

In restorative dentistry, nanotechnologies can develop aesthetic materials with ameliorated properties to increase the longevity of restorations. In endodontics, nanomaterials can deliver growth factors and stem cells, stimulating the regenerative capacity of the dentin-pulp complex. Current treatments using dental implants in association with scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors may enhance osseointegration and host tissue response. Moreover, prevention strategies for reducing caries incidence, periodontal disease, and oral cancer are strongly needed, as well as controlling the side effects produced by different materials (such as bleaching agents, resin methacrylates, and other nano-featured compounds). Modern developments of tissue engineering platforms, including spheroids, organoids, microfluidics, and organ-on-chip technologies, have paved the way for creating excellent tools simulating the oral environment, for a better understanding of the regenerative processes. Promising stem cell-based approaches for re-creating fully functional dental tissues are ongoing, offering exciting perspectives, that, hopefully, will soon be ready for clinical applications. Thus, the present topic would like to focus on the progress of contemporary materials coupled with biological and/or technological platforms for successful daily practice in all fields of dentistry, including craniofacial bone regeneration procedures.

Prof. Giovanna Orsini
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • nanotechnology
  • biomaterials
  • stem cells
  • tissue engineering
  • prevention
  • clinical trials

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
A Retrospective Study on the Transferring Accuracy of a Fully Guided Digital Template in the Anterior Zone
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4631; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14164631 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 349
Abstract
The accuracy of implant placement with a fully guided digital template can be influenced by many factors, such as arch difference, alveolar bone density, timing of implant placement and open flap. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the factors presumptively affecting [...] Read more.
The accuracy of implant placement with a fully guided digital template can be influenced by many factors, such as arch difference, alveolar bone density, timing of implant placement and open flap. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the factors presumptively affecting the accuracy of implant placement assisted by the fully guided template in the anterior zone. In 40 patients with missing anterior teeth, a total of 52 implants were placed with tooth-borne, fully guided templates after CBCT evaluation, in West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University. After overlapping the pre-and post-operative DICOM data, measurements were taken in the dental implant planning software (Nobel Clinician®) to calculate linear and angular deviations between virtual placement plan and actual implant placement. Grouping was categorized according to three factors that possibly have an influence on accuracy: arch type (maxilla/mandible), timing of implant placement (immediate/delayed), surgical technique (open flap/flapless). The data was analyzed with independent sample t-test (p < 0.05). The results showed that the apical, coronal, depth and angular mean deviations of implant positions in anterior zone were 1.13 ± 0.39 mm, 0.86 ± 0.33 mm, 0.41 ± 0.66 mm, 3.32 ± 1.65° with the fully guided templates. The accuracy at apex level, coronal level and the angulation were similar between the maxilla and mandible, and the magnitude of all four deviations between immediate and delayed implantation, open flap and flapless technique were small. No statistically significant difference was observed (p > 0.05). Whereas there was significant difference in depth deviation between maxilla and mandible (p < 0.05). Conclusively, the implant site, alveolar bone density, timing of implant placement and surgical techniques merely compromise the implant placement accuracy under the assistance of a fully guided template. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
Evaluation of Immediate Implantation and Provisionalization Combined with Guided Bone Regeneration by a Flap Approach in the Maxillary Esthetic Zone: A Retrospective Controlled Study
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3874; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14143874 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The aim of this research was too compare the thickness change of labial contour and bone tissues, as well as some biological complications of immediate implantation with and without immediate provisionalization for a single anterior maxilla presenting a vertical defect on labial bone [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was too compare the thickness change of labial contour and bone tissues, as well as some biological complications of immediate implantation with and without immediate provisionalization for a single anterior maxilla presenting a vertical defect on labial bone with the need of guided bone regeneration (GBR) by a flap approach. A total of 40 single implants were placed in 40 patients into fresh extraction sockets of the anterior maxilla with a vertical defect on the labial bone (<4 mm). Simultaneously, GBR was conducted at the sites by a flap approach, and the implants were given immediate or delayed provisionalization. The thickness change of bone tissues during six-month evaluation and labial contour during three and six-month follow-up were measured. Complications such as implant and restoration survival rates, infection as well as wound exposure were also evaluated at six months postoperatively. After six months, the mean thickness losses in labial bone were 0.9040, 0.8050, 0.7165, 0.5285 and 0.5335 mm at five different sites in immediate provisionalization group, and 0.8780, 0.8605, 0.7560, 0.5900 and 0.6300 mm, respectively, in delayed provisionalization group, showing no significant difference between the groups at all measurement sites. Although the labial contour changes of the two groups were similar at most sites, the values at 1 and 2 mm above the implant neck remained significantly lower in the immediate provisionalization group at three and six months postoperatively. No complications occurred during the follow-up time. Based on the limitation of this study, the immediate implantation combined with GBR, flap operation and immediate provisionalization obtained acceptable outcomes for a single anterior maxilla with vertical defect on the labial bone, but more long-term research with a larger sample are urgently needed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
A Comparative Evaluation of Nanohydroxyapatite-Enriched Hydrogen Peroxide Home Bleaching System on Color, Hardness and Microstructure of Dental Enamel
Materials 2021, 14(11), 3072; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14113072 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate two hydrogen peroxide (HP)-based at-home bleaching systems in order to analyze whether nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) addition may represent a reliable and safe solution for tooth whitening without altering dental microstructure and hardness. Human third molars (N = 15) were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate two hydrogen peroxide (HP)-based at-home bleaching systems in order to analyze whether nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) addition may represent a reliable and safe solution for tooth whitening without altering dental microstructure and hardness. Human third molars (N = 15) were treated with two bleaching agents, one containing 6%HP (6HP) and the other 6% HP nHA-enriched (6HP-nHA) with average particle diameter ranging from 5–20 nm. Their effects on enamel were assessed using a spectrophotometer, Vickers microhardness (VMH) test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), comparing the treated groups with the non-treated control group (CTR). Color analysis revealed improvement in whiteness in both groups compared to CTR. VMH test results showed no differences among the groups. SEM analysis highlighted no evident changes in the enamel microstructure of tested groups compared to CTR. At high magnification, in 6HP group, a slight increase in irregularities of enamel surface morphology was observed, while 6HP-nHA group displayed removal of the aprismatic layer but preservation of the intact prismatic structure. These results suggest that the 6HP-nHA agent may be recommended to provide reliable whitening treatment, without damaging the enamel micromorphology and hardness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
Evaluation of the Histomorphometric and Micromorphometric Performance of a Serum Albumin-Coated Bone Allograft Combined with A-PRF for Early and Conventional Healing Protocols after Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14071810 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of augmented bone following maxillary sinus augmentation (MSA) after healing periods of 3 (test) and 6 (control) months using the combination of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) and a serum albumin-coated bone allograft (SACBA). [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the microarchitecture of augmented bone following maxillary sinus augmentation (MSA) after healing periods of 3 (test) and 6 (control) months using the combination of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) and a serum albumin-coated bone allograft (SACBA). Twenty-six patients with 30 surgical sites who required two-stage MSA were enrolled and grafted with the combination of A-PRF and SACBAs. The surgical sites were randomly allocated to the test or control group. During implant site preparation, 17 bone core biopsy samples were collected from each study group for histological, histomorphometric and micromorphometric analysis. Resonance frequency analysis was performed at the time of implant placement and 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The percentage of newly formed bone was 44.89 ± 9.49% in the test group and 39.75 ± 8.15% in the control group (p = 0.100). The results of the µCT analysis showed no significant differences in morphometric parameters between the study groups. The implant stability quotient was not significantly different between the two groups at 10 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Based on these findings, the total treatment time may be reduced by 3 months with the use of A-PRF and SACBAs for two-stage MSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
Modelling ATR-FTIR Spectra of Dental Bonding Systems to Investigate Composition and Polymerisation Kinetics
Materials 2021, 14(4), 760; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14040760 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
Component ratios and kinetics are key to understanding and optimising novel formulations. This warrants investigation of valid methods. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red (ATR)-FTIR spectra of separate primers/adhesives were modelled using summed spectra of solvents (water, ethanol), methacrylate monomers (HEMA (hydroxyethyl methacrylate), [...] Read more.
Component ratios and kinetics are key to understanding and optimising novel formulations. This warrants investigation of valid methods. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infra-Red (ATR)-FTIR spectra of separate primers/adhesives were modelled using summed spectra of solvents (water, ethanol), methacrylate monomers (HEMA (hydroxyethyl methacrylate), Bis-GMA (bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate), and 10-MDP (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate)), and fillers, multiplied by varying fractions. Filler loads were obtained following their separation from the adhesives, by analysing three repetitions (n = 3). Spectral changes during light exposure at 37 °C (20 s, LED 1100–1330 mW/cm2) were used to determine polymerisation kinetics (n = 3). Independent samples T-test was used for statistical analysis (significance level of 5%). FTIR modelling suggested a primer solvent percentage of OBFL (Optibond FL) (30%) was half that of CFSE (Clearfil SE 2) (60%). OBFL included ethanol and water, while CFSE included only water. Monomer peaks were largely those of HEMA with lower levels of phosphate monomers. OBFL/CFSE adhesive model spectra suggested that both contained equal volumes of Bis-GMA/HEMA, with CFSE having 10-MDP. Filler levels and spectra from OBFL (48 wt.%) and CFSE (5 wt.%) were different. Both systems reached a 50% conversion rate within seconds of light exposure. The final conversion for OBFL (74 ± 1%) was lower compared to CFSE (79 ± 2%) (p < 0.05). ATR-FTIR is a useful method to investigate relative levels of main components in bonding systems and their polymerisation kinetics. Such information is valuable to understanding such behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
The Influence of Different Guided Bone Regeneration Procedures on the Contour of Bone Graft after Wound Closure: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Materials 2021, 14(3), 583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14030583 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 655
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures on bone graft contour after wound closure in lateral ridge augmentation. A total of 48 patients with 63 augmented sites were included in this study. Participants [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures on bone graft contour after wound closure in lateral ridge augmentation. A total of 48 patients with 63 augmented sites were included in this study. Participants were divided into 4 groups (n = 12 in each group) based on different surgical procedures: group 1: particulate bone substitute + collagen membrane; group 2: particulate bone substitute + collagen membrane + healing cap, group 3: particulate bone substitute + injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) + collagen membrane; group 4: particulate bone substitute + i-PRF + surgical template + collagen membrane. After wound closure, the thickness of labial graft was measured at 0–5 mm apical to the implant shoulder (T0–T5). At T0–T2, the thickness of labial graft in group 4 was significantly higher than the other three groups (p < 0.05). And group 4 showed significantly more labial graft thickness than group 1 and group 2 at T3–T5 (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, the use of i-PRF in combination with the surgical template in GBR may contribute to achieving an appropriate bone graft contour after wound closure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
Microleakage Analysis of Different Bulk-Filling Techniques for Class II Restorations: µ-CT, SEM and EDS Evaluations
Materials 2021, 14(1), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14010031 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
This study aimed to compare two different bulk-filling techniques, evaluating the internal and external adaptation of class II resin-composite restorations, by analysing the gap formation using microcomputed tomography (µ-CT) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two standardized mesio/disto-occlusal [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare two different bulk-filling techniques, evaluating the internal and external adaptation of class II resin-composite restorations, by analysing the gap formation using microcomputed tomography (µ-CT) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two standardized mesio/disto-occlusal (MO/DO) cavities were prepared in eight extracted human third molars that were divided, according to the filling technique used, in the following two groups (n = 4): BG (Bulk&Go group) and BT (Bulk Traditional group). After universal bonding application, followed by the light curing, all teeth were restored using a bulk-fill composite. Specimens were scanned with µ-CT to evaluate 3D interfacial gaps. Acquired µ-CT data were analysed to quantify the gap formation. Complementary information to the µ-CT analysis were obtained by SEM. Thereafter, the chemical composition of tooth–restoration interface was analysed using EDS. The µ-CT analysis revealed gaps formation at the tooth–restoration interface for both the BG and BT groups, while within the restoration, only in the BT group there was evidence of microleakage formation. The scanning electron micrographs of both groups showed that the external marginal integrity of the restoration was preserved, while EDS showed the three different structures (tooth surface, adhesive layer and resin composite) of the tooth–restoration interface, highlighting the absence of gap formation. In both BG and BT, the two filling techniques did not show significant differences regarding the internal and external marginal adaptation of the restoration. To achieve a successful restoration, the clinician could be advised to restore a class II cavity using a single increment bulk-filling technique (BG), thus treating it as a class I cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
Accuracy of Full-Guided and Half-Guided Surgical Templates in Anterior Immediate and Delayed Implantation: A Retrospective Study
Materials 2021, 14(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14010026 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
Computer-aided implantology has developed rapidly in recent years, this study aimed to compare the accuracy of guided-surgery between anterior immediate and delayed implantation, and simultaneously assess the effect of full-guided and half-guided templates on accuracy values. Seventy-six implants were inserted in 63 patients [...] Read more.
Computer-aided implantology has developed rapidly in recent years, this study aimed to compare the accuracy of guided-surgery between anterior immediate and delayed implantation, and simultaneously assess the effect of full-guided and half-guided templates on accuracy values. Seventy-six implants were inserted in 63 patients using full-guided or half-guided template in the anterior zone. Postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was matched with preoperative planning to evaluate the deviation between actual and planned implants. No statistical difference was found in any deviation between immediate and delayed implantation (p > 0.05). In anterior immediate implantation, the global coronal, apical, depth and angular deviations of full-guided templates were all significantly lower than those of half-guided templates (0.66 ± 0.26 vs. 1.10 ± 0.76 mm, 0.96 ± 0.41 vs. 1.43 ± 0.70 mm, 0.46 ± 0.24 mm vs. 0.93 ± 0.79 mm and 1.69° ± 0.94° vs. 2.57° ± 1.57°). While in delayed implantation, full-guided templates only perform better with statistical significance on global apical and depth deviation (1.01 ± 0.42 vs. 1.51 ± 0.55 mm and 0.32 ± 0.26 vs. 0.71 ± 0.47 mm). After excluding the influence of depth deviation, the coronal and apical deviations between the two systems in immediate implantation and the apical deviations in delayed implantation had no statistical difference. Within the limit of this study, the results suggested the accuracy of guided-surgeries for anterior immediate and delayed implantations was comparable, and full-guided template was more accurate for immediate and delayed implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Article
The Effect of Different Bleaching Protocols, Used with and without Sodium Ascorbate, on Bond Strength between Composite and Enamel
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2710; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13122710 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
This in vitro study aims to evaluate whether a solution of 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) may exert a beneficial effect on the bonding of composite to enamel after using different bleaching agents and protocols. Microtensile bond strength (µTBS) was evaluated on 72 freshly [...] Read more.
This in vitro study aims to evaluate whether a solution of 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) may exert a beneficial effect on the bonding of composite to enamel after using different bleaching agents and protocols. Microtensile bond strength (µTBS) was evaluated on 72 freshly extracted human central incisors, divided into eight experimental groups and one control group (total n = 9): Group 1 serves as control (nonbleached). Group 2 was bleached with 5% carbamide peroxide. Group 3 was bleached with 5% carbamide peroxide and then treated with 10% SA. Group 4 was bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide. Group 5 was bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide, then treated with 10% SA. Group 6 was bleached with 16% carbamide peroxide. Group 7 was bleached with 16% carbamide peroxide, then treated with 10% SA. Group 8 was bleached with 6% hydrogen peroxide. Group 9 was bleached with 6% hydrogen peroxide, then treated with 10% SA. All groups were restored immediately after the different treatments using a resin composite. The µTBS values were measured using a universal testing machine and statistical analysis was performed by means of normality and variance analyses, SIDAK test for univariate test and multiple comparisons, and Student test to compare µTBS values of each group with the control. The mean µTBS values in groups 2, 4, 6, 8 were significantly lower than controls. For groups 3, 5, 7, 9, subjected to antioxidant (10% SA) application, all µTBS values increased significantly. However, only for Groups 3 and 5 there was no significant difference with the control. Applying 10% SA for 10 min may improve the bond strength composite/bleached enamel just when whitening is performed with 5% and 10% carbamide peroxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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Review

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Review
Does the Addition of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Improve the Antibacterial Properties of Direct Dental Composite Resins? A Systematic Review
Materials 2021, 14(1), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14010040 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
A promising approach to improve the poor antibacterial properties of dental composite resins has been the addition of metal oxide nanoparticles into the resin matrix. This systematic review aimed to determine whether the addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) improves the antibacterial properties [...] Read more.
A promising approach to improve the poor antibacterial properties of dental composite resins has been the addition of metal oxide nanoparticles into the resin matrix. This systematic review aimed to determine whether the addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) improves the antibacterial properties of direct dental composite resins. This review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered with the PROSPERO database: CRD42019131383. A systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases: Medline (Ovid), the Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Trove, Google Scholar, World Cat, and OpenGrey. The initial search retrieved 3178 results, which were then screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in a total of four studies that were eligible for qualitative synthesis within this review. All the included studies were in vitro non-randomized post-test design experimental studies. A lack of congruity in the results obtained from these studies that used different tests to evaluate antibacterial activity was evident. Although some studies demonstrated a significant improvement of antibacterial properties in composites containing at least 1% ZnO-NPs (wt %), they are unlikely to present any clear clinical advantage due to the short lifetime of observed antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials and Technology for Dental Clinical Applications)
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