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Topical Collection "Dental Biomaterials"

A topical collection in Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This collection belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Nikolaos Silikas
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Division of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Interests: resin composites; polymerisation; mechanical properties; surface characterisation; spectroscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade or so, there has been a phenomenal boost in research for dental biomaterials. The topic now covers a broad range of activities and materials and encompasses traditional material areas like mechanical properties of materials with more biological areas like bioactivity and tissue engineering. A plethora of techniques are now routinely used in dental biomaterials including spectroscopic techniques, such as FTIR, AFM, XPS, DSC and coupled with imaging techniques like micro-CT, SEM, TEM and various analytical techniques like HPLC and Gas Chromatography. All of these are always supported by a range of mechanical properties emphasizing the fatigue of materials and adopting a more forensic approach with techniques like fractography.

In this Special Issue, we aim to have a selection of papers covering all aspects of dental materials. Some of the key areas will be resin composites, particularly looking at the biological aspect and use of nanoparticles or novel matrix formulations. This also includes bulk fill type and fiber-reinforced composites that generate a lot of interest. Another area would be implant research, highlighting differences in surface modification and again including biological aspects that can be explored by the interaction of a bioactive implant surface with bacteria and biofilm in the oral environment.

More speculative areas that have attracted a lot of attention recently like nanodentistry and regeneration by using stem cells and polymeric scaffolds in tissue engineering are also welcome. Materials used in endodontics like mineral trioxide aggregates or similar types, and novel ceramics used in prosthodontics, are also of great interest. Particularly in ceramics, some of the latest types like ‘hybrid-ceramics’ should be explored further.

Dr. Nikolaos Silikas
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Resin-composites
  • Implants
  • Stem cells
  • Tissue engineering
  • Bulk-fill composites
  • Fiber-reinforced composites
  • Spectroscopic techniques
  • Polymerization
  • Analytical techniques
  • MTA
  • Imaging techniques
  • Regeneration
  • Bioactive
  • Biofilm
  • Fatigue
  • Fractography
  • Ceramics
  • Hybrid-ceramics
  • Biocompatibility

Published Papers (23 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018

Article
Analysis and Comparison of the Corrosive Behavior of Nickel-Based and Cobalt-Based Dental Alloys
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4949; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14174949 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Nickel-based and cobalt-based metal alloys are frequently used in dentistry. The introduction of various elements in the alloy changes its characteristics, and a thorough study of each alloy should be completed to determine its appropriate corrosion resistance and biocompatibility in contact with physiological [...] Read more.
Nickel-based and cobalt-based metal alloys are frequently used in dentistry. The introduction of various elements in the alloy changes its characteristics, and a thorough study of each alloy should be completed to determine its appropriate corrosion resistance and biocompatibility in contact with physiological fluids. There are scarce investigations on these widely used dental alloys in Ringer solution, and findings in this research bring new experimental data and information. The present study evaluated and compared the corrosion behavior of six NiCr- and two CoCr-based dental materials in Ringer solution, using the following techniques: potentiostatic polarization curves (chronoamperometry), microstructural analysis, and EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). The results obtained in this investigation showed that in the NiCr-based specimens Ni4, Ni5, and Ni6 the stability of the passive layer was destroyed after polarization and a development and growth of stable pits was found in the microstructural analysis after electrochemical treatment. In terms of susceptibility to corrosion, two different groups of specimens were derived from this investigation. A first group which included the two CoCr (Co1 and Co2) and three of the six NiCr alloys studied (Ni1, Ni2, and Ni3). A second group with the other NiCr alloys investigated Ni4, Ni5, and Ni6. Full article
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Article
Tissue Level Changes after Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation with Three Types of Calcium Phosphate Ceramics: A Radiological Study with a 5-Year Follow-Up
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14061471 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 610
Abstract
This study evaluates the radiological changes in tissue height after maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE) using three types of calcium phosphate ceramics over a period of up to 5 years after dental implant placement. In 163 patients, MSFE was performed. Three groups of [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the radiological changes in tissue height after maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE) using three types of calcium phosphate ceramics over a period of up to 5 years after dental implant placement. In 163 patients, MSFE was performed. Three groups of patients were distinguished and treated based on the type of calcium phosphate ceramic used and radiologically evaluated: 40 patients with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), 76 patients with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) 20% hydroxyapatite (HA)-80% β-TCP, and 47 patients with BCP 60% HA-40% β-TCP. Radiological measurements were performed on panoramic radiographs at several time points up to 5 years after dental implant placement. After MSFE, a slow decrease in tissue height measured over time was seen in all three study groups. Resorption of the grafted bone substitutes was more prominent in β-TCP than in BCP ceramics with an HA component (60/40 and 20/80). Loss of tissue height after 5 years was lowest in BCP 60/40 and highest in β-TCP. This radiological study shows a predictable and comparable behavior of the slow decrease in tissue height over time for all three types of calcium phosphate ceramics used in MSFE. The fraction of HA in calcium phosphate ceramics and dental implant loading seems to be beneficial for tissue height maintenance after MSFE. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019, 2018

Article
MTA Enhances the Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Dentin–Pulp Complex Regeneration
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5712; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13245712 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) as a surrogate cell source in futuristic stem-cell-based endodontic therapies. Human Ad-MSCs and mesenchymal stem [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) as a surrogate cell source in futuristic stem-cell-based endodontic therapies. Human Ad-MSCs and mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) were isolated from liposuction waste adipose tissue and femur, respectively, and the effects of MTA-conditioned media on their viability, mineralization potential, and osteo/odontogenic differentiation capacity were subsequently evaluated. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, quantitative alizarin red S staining, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were performed to investigate and compare the osteo/odontogenic induction potential of MTA on the Ad/BM-MSCs. The results of cytotoxicity assay revealed that at different concentrations, MTA-conditioned medium was not only biocompatible toward both cell types, but also capable of promoting cell proliferation. ALP activity assay showed that 0.2 mg/mL was the optimal concentration of MTA-conditioned medium for osteo/odontogenic induction in Ad/BM-MSCs. The expression of osteo/odontogenic gene markers was increased in Ad/BM-MSCs treated with 0.2 mg/mL MTA-conditioned media. Our results indicated that MTA can efficiently enhance the osteo/odontogenic potential of Ad-MSCs, and thus they can be considered as a better cell source for dentin–pulp complex regeneration. However, further investigations are required to test these potentials in animal models. Full article
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Article
Characterization of a Macro- and Micro-Textured Titanium Grade 5 Alloy Surface Obtained by Etching Only without Sandblasting
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5074; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13225074 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
Our purpose was to physically characterize the surface, and the subsurface, of a macro- and micro-textured titanium grade 5 dental implant surface obtained by etching only, without sandblasting. The topography, surface roughness, as well as the surface structure and subsurface distribution of elements, [...] Read more.
Our purpose was to physically characterize the surface, and the subsurface, of a macro- and micro-textured titanium grade 5 dental implant surface obtained by etching only, without sandblasting. The topography, surface roughness, as well as the surface structure and subsurface distribution of elements, were determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), non-contact profilometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and a concentration profile performed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The hydrogen concentration in the implants was measured; the ability to generate nanostructures when stored in deionized water was also investigated. Under SEM, the surface resembled a sandblasted and etched titanium surface with its typical macro- and micro-texture; roughness was moderate with average roughness (Sa) 1.29 µm. No titanium hydride was found at the implant surface and no enrichment of any alloying element was identified at the surface and subsurface. Hydrogen concentration was 79 ppm, within the normative tolerance (<130 ppm). After storage in water for 6 months, densely packed finger-like nanostructures were observed. The clinical advantage of this textured titanium alloy surface is that it displays the typical macro- and micro-features of a moderately rough sandblasted and etched (SLA) titanium surface without leaving behind any foreign sandblasting material. Full article
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Article
Improving the Bond Strength of Radiographically Tagged Caries Lesions In Vitro
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13173702 - 21 Aug 2020
Viewed by 733
Abstract
After selective carious tissue removal, residual carious lesions remain radiographically detectable. Radiopaque tagging resolves the resulting diagnostic uncertainty but impedes bond strengths of adhesives to tagged dentin. We developed a protocol mitigating these detrimental effects. A 30%/50%/70% SnCl2 solution was dissolved in [...] Read more.
After selective carious tissue removal, residual carious lesions remain radiographically detectable. Radiopaque tagging resolves the resulting diagnostic uncertainty but impedes bond strengths of adhesives to tagged dentin. We developed a protocol mitigating these detrimental effects. A 30%/50%/70% SnCl2 solution was dissolved in distilled water or a 30%/50%/90% ethanol solution (E30/60/90) and applied to artificially induced dentin lesions. Tagging effects were radiographically evaluated using transversal wavelength-independent microradiography (n = 6/group). Groups with sufficient tagging effects at the lowest SnCl2 concentrations were used to evaluate how tagging affected the microtensile bond strength of a universal adhesive (Scotchbond Universal) to sound and carious dentin (n = 10/group). Two different protocols for removing tagging material were tested: 15 s phosphoric acid etching and 5 s rotating brush application. Scanning/backscattered electron microscopy (SEM/BSE) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to assess surfaces after tagging and removal. The most promising removal protocol was revalidated microradiographically. Tagging significantly increased the radiopacity, with consistent effects for 30% SnCl2 dissolved in water or E30. Microscopically, tagged surfaces showed a thick carpet of SnCl2, and tagging reduced bond strengths significantly on carious dentin but not on sound dentin (p < 0.01). On carious dentin, removal of tagging material using acid etching and rotating brush was microscopically confirmed. Acid etching also mitigated any bond strength reduction (median: 21.3 MPa; interquartile range: 10.8 MPa) compared with nontagged dentin (median: 17.4 MPa; interquartile range: 20.6 MPa). This was not the case for brushing (median: 13.2 MPa; interquartile range: 13.9 MPa). Acid etching minimally reduced the radiographic tagging effect (p = 0.055). Phosphoric acid etching reduces the detrimental bond-strength effects of tagging without significantly decreasing radiographic tagging effects when using a universal adhesive. Full article
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Article
Surface Characteristics and Color Stability of Gingiva-Colored Resin Composites
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13112540 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface characteristics and color stability of gingiva-colored composite restorative materials (Anaxgum—ANG, Ceramage—CMG and Gradia Gum—GRG). The microstructure, composition, degree of conversion (DC %) and 3D roughness (Sa, Sz, Sdr, Sc) were examined by LV-SEM/EDS, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface characteristics and color stability of gingiva-colored composite restorative materials (Anaxgum—ANG, Ceramage—CMG and Gradia Gum—GRG). The microstructure, composition, degree of conversion (DC %) and 3D roughness (Sa, Sz, Sdr, Sc) were examined by LV-SEM/EDS, ATR-FTIR and optical profilometry, respectively. For the color stability (CIE L*, a*, b* system) and hardness (HV), measurements were performed at baseline and after 30 days storage in distilled water, coffee and red wine. The ANG and GRG contain prepolymerized particles in aromatic and aliphatic resin matrices, respectively, whereas CMG contains inorganic zirconia silicate/silica particles, in an aromatic resin matrix, with a smaller particle size and a higher surface area fraction. Urethane monomers were mainly identified in CMG and GRG. The DC% showed statistically insignificant differences between the materials. The same applied for the roughness parameters, except for the greatest Sdr in CMG. ANG showed a color difference (ΔE) of > 3.3 after immersion in all media, CMG in coffee and wine and GRG only in coffee. Sc was the only roughness parameter demonstrating correlations with the ΔL*, Δb* and ΔE*. The HV values showed insignificant differences between the storage conditions per material. There are important differences in the color stability of the materials tested, which were mostly affected by the roughness parameters due to variations in their microstructure. Full article
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Article
Protective Effects of GIC and S-PRG Filler Restoratives on Demineralization of Bovine Enamel in Lactic Acid Solution
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13092140 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
This study was aimed at investigating the protective effects of glass ionomer cement (GIC) and surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) fillers used as dental restorative materials on demineralization of bovine enamel. GlasIonomer FX ULTRA (FXU), Fuji IX GP Extra (FIXE), CAREDYNE RESTORE (CDR) [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at investigating the protective effects of glass ionomer cement (GIC) and surface pre-reacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) fillers used as dental restorative materials on demineralization of bovine enamel. GlasIonomer FX ULTRA (FXU), Fuji IX GP Extra (FIXE), CAREDYNE RESTORE (CDR) were used as GICs. PRG Barrier Coat (BC) was used as the S-PRG filler. They were incubated in a lactic acid solution (pH = 4.0) for six days at a temperature of 37 °C. The mineral was etched from the enamel surface, and a large number of Ca and P ions were detected in solution. The Al, F, Na, Sr, and Sr ions were released in GICs and S-RPG fillers. The Zn ion was released only in CDR and the B ion was released only in BC. The presence of apparent enamel prism peripheries was observed after six days of treatment for the group containing only enamel blocks. pH values for the FXU, FIXE, CDR, BC, and enamel block groups after six days were 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 5.9, and 5.1, respectively. Therefore, the observed pH neutralization effect suppressed progression of caries due to the release of several ions from the restoratives. Full article
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Article
ATR-FTIR Analysis and One-Week Stress Relaxation of Four Orthodontic Aligner Materials
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1868; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13081868 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate possible differences in the chemical composition and relaxation of orthodontic aligner materials. Four commercially available thermoplastic materials CAM (Scheu-Dental, Iserlohn, Germany), COP (Essix, Dentsply Raintree Essix Sarasota, FL, USA), DUR (Great Lakes Dental Technologies, Tonawanda, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate possible differences in the chemical composition and relaxation of orthodontic aligner materials. Four commercially available thermoplastic materials CAM (Scheu-Dental, Iserlohn, Germany), COP (Essix, Dentsply Raintree Essix Sarasota, FL, USA), DUR (Great Lakes Dental Technologies, Tonawanda, NY) and ERK (Erkodent Erich Kopp, Pfalzgrafenweiler Germany) were included in this study. Rectangular strips from each material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions and subjected to attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and stress relaxation characterization. The reduction in applied stress (RAS) after one week was estimated and statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA at the 0.05 level of significance. All specimens were subjected to optical microscopy before and after stress relaxation testing under transmittance polarized illumination. ATR-FTIR microscopy revealed that all materials are made of polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) while no significant differences were identified in RAS values among materials tested, which ranged from 6%–10% (p ≥ 0.05). All samples illustrated the developments of shear bands during relaxation testing according to optical microscopy findings. The tested materials illustrated similar chemical composition and relaxation behavior and thus no differences in their clinical efficacy are anticipated. Full article
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Article
Color Shift, Color Stability, and Post-Polishing Surface Roughness of Esthetic Resin Composites
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13061376 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare color shift, color stability, and post-polishing surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials. Twenty-five disc-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) from five esthetic resin materials (Z250XT, IPS Empress-Direct, G-ænial, Vit-l-escence, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare color shift, color stability, and post-polishing surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials. Twenty-five disc-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) from five esthetic resin materials (Z250XT, IPS Empress-Direct, G-ænial, Vit-l-escence, and Ceram.X) were fabricated. Color shift before and immediately after light-curing (∆E0) then color stability after immersion in tea, coffee, berry juice, and distilled water were measured using a spectrophotometer. Color changes were measured after 2 (ΔE2), 4 (ΔE4), 6 (ΔE6), and 8 weeks (ΔE8). Surface roughness values (Rq) were determined using an optical profilometer after polishing using a rotary polishing system. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and multiple comparison methods at 0.05 significance level. There were no significant differences between the tested materials regarding color shift except between Vit-l-escence and Ceram.X (p = 0.033). There was no significant difference between coffee and tea solutions (p = 1.0) and between berry juice and distilled water (p = 0.15). There was no difference between the tested materials regarding Rq (p = 0.057). Ceram.X was associated with the lowest ΔE8 values overall. Tested materials were comparable regarding color shift and post-polishing surface roughness. Susceptibility to staining was dependent on the material. Full article
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Article
Non-Collagenous Dentin Protein Binding Sites Control Mineral Formation during the Biomineralisation Process in Radicular Dentin
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1053; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13051053 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The biomineralisation of radicular dentin involves complex molecular signalling. Providing evidence of protein binding sites for calcium ions and mineral precipitation is essential for a better understanding of the remineralisation process. This study aimed to evaluate the functional relationship of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and [...] Read more.
The biomineralisation of radicular dentin involves complex molecular signalling. Providing evidence of protein binding sites for calcium ions and mineral precipitation is essential for a better understanding of the remineralisation process. This study aimed to evaluate the functional relationship of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) with mineral initiation and maturation during the biomineralisation of radicular dentin. A standardized demineralisation procedure was performed to radicular dentin slices. Samples were remineralised in a PBS-bioactive material system for different periods of time. Assessments of ion exchange, Raman analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the remineralisation process. Immunohistochemistry and zymography were performed to analyse NCPs and MMPs expression. SEM evaluation showed that the mineral nucleation and growth occurs, exclusively, on the demineralised radicular dentin surface. Raman analysis of remineralised dentin showed intense peaks at 955 and 1063 cm−1, which can be attributed to carbonate apatite formation. Immunohistochemistry of demineralised samples revealed the presence of DMP1-CT, mainly in intratubular dentin, whereas DSPP in intratubular and intertubular dentin. DMP1-CT and DSPP binding sites control carbonate apatite nucleation and maturation guiding the remineralisation of radicular dentin. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Surface Characteristics of Dental CAD/CAM Materials after Different Surface Treatments
Materials 2020, 13(4), 981; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13040981 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was developed to ensure the sufficient strength of tooth restorations, to improve esthetic restorations with a natural appearance and to make the techniques easier, faster and more accurate. In the view of the limited research on the surface [...] Read more.
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was developed to ensure the sufficient strength of tooth restorations, to improve esthetic restorations with a natural appearance and to make the techniques easier, faster and more accurate. In the view of the limited research on the surface treatments of the CAD/CAM materials and the need to evaluate the ideal surface characteristics of a material to achieve the best adhesion to tooth tissues, this study aimed to investigate the surface roughness and morphology of four different CAD/CAM materials using four different surface treatments. The CAD/CAM materials used in this study were three composites (Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate and Brilliant Crios) and a hybrid ceramic (Enamic). The surface of the specimens of each material received one of the following treatments: no surface treatment, sandblasting with 29 μm Al2O3 particles, 9% hydrofluoric acid etching and silane application, and the tribochemical method using CoJet System. Surface roughness was evaluated using optical profilometry, and surface morphology was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. All surface treatments resulted in higher surface roughness values compared to the control group. Different treatments affected the surface properties of the materials, presumably due to discrepancies in their composition and structure. Full article
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Article
Cytotoxicity of Self-Etch Versus Etch-and-Rinse Dentin Adhesives: A Screening Study
Materials 2020, 13(2), 452; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13020452 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Six dentin adhesives were tested in vitro regarding their cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts. The adhesives Hybrid Bond, One-up Bond F Plus, AdheSE, Clearfil SE Bond, Optibond Solo Plus and Syntac were eluted with culture medium as single or sequentially applied adhesive part for [...] Read more.
Six dentin adhesives were tested in vitro regarding their cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts. The adhesives Hybrid Bond, One-up Bond F Plus, AdheSE, Clearfil SE Bond, Optibond Solo Plus and Syntac were eluted with culture medium as single or sequentially applied adhesive part for 24 h. 75 Petri dishes were produced per group. They were evaluated triangulated, comprising the quantitative evaluation (105 ones) to determine “viable”, “dead” and “debris” cells with the use of a cell-counter and the reactivity index was also identified based on the qualitative assessment (420 ones). One-up Bond F Plus, AdheSE and Clearfil SE Bond showed a statistical difference of viable cells to the cell control. For One-up Bond F Plus, statistically, differences compared to hybrid bond and Syntac were also found. All the adhesives except One-up Bond F Plus showed significant differences between single and sequentially applied adhesive part regarding the quantitative evaluation. The test material showed a moderate grade of cytotoxicity. As a result, a statistically significant difference of the cytotoxicity between the self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesives cannot be demonstrated regarding the qualitative evaluation and the reactivity index, but the differences between sequentially applied and single applied components can be proved. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2018

Article
Evaluation of Fracture Resistance and Microleakage of Endocrowns with Different Intracoronal Depths and Restorative Materials Luted with Various Resin Cements
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12162528 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of restoration design on the fracture resistance of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramics and investigate the marginal leakage of endocrowns according to different types of cement. In total, 96 extracted mandibular first [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of restoration design on the fracture resistance of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramics and investigate the marginal leakage of endocrowns according to different types of cement. In total, 96 extracted mandibular first premolars were used for fabrication of endocrowns; 48 of the endocrowns were divided into 6 groups (n = 8) according to intracoronal cavity depth (2 and 3 mm) and CAD/CAM ceramics (lithium disilicate IPS e.max-CAD, zirconia-reinforced glass-ceramic Vita Suprinity, and poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK)). Teeth were subjected to a fracture resistance test with a universal test machine following thermo-cycling. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope after the load test. The rest of the endocrowns (n = 48) were produced by Vita Suprinity ceramic and divided into 6 groups (n = 8) according to the cement used (Panavia V5, Relyx Ultimate, and GC cement) with intracoronal cavity depths of 2 and 3 mm. Microleakage tests were performed using methylene blue with stereomicroscope after thermo-cycling. Numerical data for both fracture resistance and microleakage tests were obtained and evaluated by three-way ANOVA. PEEK endocrowns had higher fracture resistance compared to lithium disilicate and Vita Suprinity. Panavia V5 cement had the lowest degree of microleakage, while GC cement had the highest. Different intracoronal cavity depths had no correlation with fracture resistance and microleakage. Full article
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Article
Measurement of Fracture Strength of Zirconia Dental Implant Abutments with Internal and External Connections Using Acoustic Emission
Materials 2019, 12(12), 2009; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12122009 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the fracture behaviour of four different groups of zirconia abutments with internal and external connections: (A) Astra Tech ZirDesign™ abutment on Astra Tech Implants, (B) Procera® Esthetic abutment on Nobel Biocare MK III Groovy [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the fracture behaviour of four different groups of zirconia abutments with internal and external connections: (A) Astra Tech ZirDesign™ abutment on Astra Tech Implants, (B) Procera® Esthetic abutment on Nobel Biocare MK III Groovy Implants, (C) IPS e.max® on Straumann Implants, and (D) ZiReal® Posts on Biomet 3I implants. The load was applied on the assemblies using a Zwick universal testing machine: the initial and final failure loads and amplitude were recorded using acoustic emission technique. Mean initial and final failure force was found to be significantly different in each group (P < 0.001). IPS e.max® Straumann abutments exhibited the highest resistance to final fracture force compared to other abutment types. Acoustic emission can be used as one of the methods to detect fracture behaviour of implant abutments. There were no significant differences in fracture loads between the internal and externally connected zirconia abutments studied. However, externally connected abutments demonstrated screw loosening and some deformations. Full article
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Article
Universal Adhesives: Setting Characteristics and Reactivity with Dentin
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1720; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12101720 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of six commercially available universal dental adhesives: Adhese Universal (ADU), All-Bond Universal (ABU), Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CBQ), G-Premio Bond (GPB), Prelude One (PRO) and Scotchbond Universal (SBU). The properties tested were: (a) [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of six commercially available universal dental adhesives: Adhese Universal (ADU), All-Bond Universal (ABU), Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CBQ), G-Premio Bond (GPB), Prelude One (PRO) and Scotchbond Universal (SBU). The properties tested were: (a) degree of C=C conversion (DC%); (b) Vickers micro-hardness (VHN); (c) extent of oxygen inhibition (OI/μm), all related with the adhesive film properties; (d) extent of dentin demineralisation (DM%), insoluble salt formation (AS%); and (e) shear bond strength (SBS, self-etch mode) related to the adhesive-dentin interactions. Statistical analysis (α = 0.05) was performed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (DC%, VHN, OI, DM% AS%) and Weibull analysis (SBS, σ0-β). The DC ranged from 67.2–82.5% (all >GPB), OI from 5.6–18.6 μm (SBU > ADU, GPB, ABU > CBQ > PRO), microhardness from 1.1–6.6 VHN (SBU > ADU > ABU > CBQ > PRO > GPB: not measurable), DM from 69.3% (GPB) to 16–12.5% (CBQ, SBU, ADU) and 13.2–10.6% (ABU, ADU, PRO), in homogeneous groups and AS from 26–15.9% (ABU, CBQ > GPB, PRO, ADU, SBU). For SBS the σ0 (characteristic life) ranged from 29.3–16.6 MPa (CBQ, ADU, ABU, SBU > PRO > GPB), the β (reliability) from 5.1–9.7 (p > 0.05). All failure modes were of mixed type (adhesive and composite cohesive). Although all these adhesives were based on the 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) adhesive monomer, the different co-monomers, solvents and catalysts led to variations in their film properties, reactivity and bonding capacity with dentin. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Experimental Self-Adhesive Orthodontic Composites Used to Bond Ceramic Brackets
Materials 2019, 12(3), 419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12030419 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS), and shear bond strength (SBS) of ceramic brackets bonded to enamel with experimental self-adhesive orthodontic composites. Functional monomers 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP) and glycerol-dimethacrylate-phosphate (GDMA-P) were used in experimental [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS), and shear bond strength (SBS) of ceramic brackets bonded to enamel with experimental self-adhesive orthodontic composites. Functional monomers 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP) and glycerol-dimethacrylate-phosphate (GDMA-P) were used in experimental composites. They were compared to the same composite without an acidic monomer (negative control) and with enamel acid-etching prior to adhesive application (positive control). DC was evaluated by Raman micro-spectroscopy. Flexural three-point bending testing was performed in a universal testing machine. Ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine enamel and SBS was evaluated before and after 2000 thermal-cycles. Fracture patterns were surveyed with manual removal with specific pliers and analyzed by SEM. Statistics was performed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). DC of the control composite was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of GDMA-P and MDP. FS showed no significant difference between composites (p = 0.451). Regarding adhesion, the positive control (8.47 ± 0.88 MPa) and MDP (7.07 ± 2.69 MPa) obtained higher overall results. The predominant fracture pattern of the positive control and MDP was mixed while it was adhesive for further groups. The MDP-containing orthodontic composite attained similar adhesion to a conventional three-step orthodontic bonding system, with a similar fracture pattern and mechanical properties. Nevertheless, the presence of acidic functional monomers reduced the DC. Full article
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Article
Pulp Temperature Rise Induced by Light-Emitting Diode Light-Curing Units Using an Ex Vivo Model
Materials 2019, 12(3), 411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12030411 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The aim of this research was to compare the pulp temperature (PT) rise induced by four light-emitting diode light-curing units (LED LCUs) (Bluephase 20i, Demi Ultra, SPEC 3, and Valo) in different curing modes. Immediately after extraction, the pulp chamber of 11 premolars [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to compare the pulp temperature (PT) rise induced by four light-emitting diode light-curing units (LED LCUs) (Bluephase 20i, Demi Ultra, SPEC 3, and Valo) in different curing modes. Immediately after extraction, the pulp chamber of 11 premolars was accessed from the palatal cervical third of the crown for insertion of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for temperature measurement and kept in a 37.0° water bath. The teeth were then submitted to a random sequence of curing modes with four irradiations at 30 s intervals. Care was taken to ensure complete pulp temperature reset between curing modes. The curing modes were classified as high-energy (above 80 J/cm2) or low-energy (below 40 J/cm2) according to the total energy density delivered. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated ANOVA measures and Pearson’s correlation for the association between energy density and temperature variation. The significance level was set to 0.05. All curing units promoted a statistically significant PT rise (p < 0.01). After four emissions, the PT rise was higher than 5.0 °C for the high-energy curing modes. The low-energy modes induced approximately a 2.5 °C rise. A strong positive correlation was found between energy density and PT increase (R = 0.715; p = 0.01). Exposure of intact premolars to LED LCUs induced significant and cumulative PT rise. Curing modes emitting high energy densities produced higher PT variations. Radiant exposure was positively correlated to PT variation. Full article
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2018

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Article
Doping β-TCP as a Strategy for Enhancing the Regenerative Potential of Composite β-TCP—Alkali-Free Bioactive Glass Bone Grafts. Experimental Study in Rats
Materials 2019, 12(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12010004 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
The present work aims at evaluating the potential gains derived from partially replacing calcium in resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by two different molar percentages of strontium (5, 10) and zinc (1, 2), concomitantly with a fixed molar percentage (0.5) of manganese. Synthetic granular [...] Read more.
The present work aims at evaluating the potential gains derived from partially replacing calcium in resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by two different molar percentages of strontium (5, 10) and zinc (1, 2), concomitantly with a fixed molar percentage (0.5) of manganese. Synthetic granular composite bone filling grafts consisting of doped β-TCP and an alkali-free bioactive glass were prepared and implanted in ~4 mm diameter bone defects drilled in the calvaria of Wistar rats used as animal models. The animals were sacrificed after 9 weeks of implantation and the calvaria was excised. Non-manipulated bone was used as positive control, while empty defects were used as a negative control group. The von Kossa staining revealed an enhanced new bone formation with increasing doping levels, supporting the therapeutic effects exerted by the doping elements. The percentage of newly formed bone was similar when the defects were filled with autologous bone, BG (previous results) or 3TCP2/7BG, which indicates that the latter two are excellent candidates for replacement of autologous bone as bone regeneration material. This finding confirms that doping with suitable doses of therapeutic ions is a good strategy towards transposing the bone graft materials to biomedical applications in humans. Full article
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Article
Hydrogen Peroxide Diffusion through Enamel and Dentin
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1694; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma11091694 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro diffusion of commercial bleaching products (hydrogen peroxide (HP) or carbamide peroxide (CP) based) with different application protocols. Human enamel-dentin discs were obtained and divided into 20 groups. Four commercial products based on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro diffusion of commercial bleaching products (hydrogen peroxide (HP) or carbamide peroxide (CP) based) with different application protocols. Human enamel-dentin discs were obtained and divided into 20 groups. Four commercial products based on HP (Pola Office+(PO), Perfect Bleach (PB), Norblanc Office-automix (NO), and Boost (BT)), and one based on CP (PolaDay CP (PD)), were evaluated with different application protocols (3 applications × 10 min or 1 application × 30 min, with or without light activation). Artificial pulp chambers with 100 µL of a buffer solution were prepared. After each application, the buffer was removed and diffused HP was quantified by fluorimetry. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. In groups where 3 × 10 min applications were done, after the first 10 min, PB, NO, and PD showed similar diffusion (p < 0.05). After the second and third applications, diffusion proved similar for PO and PD, while PB exhibited the greatest diffusion. In the 30 min application groups, PO and BT showed no significant differences (p > 0.05), with similar results for NO and PD. Comparing products with or without light activation, PO, BT, and PB showed significantly greater diffusion with light activation (p < 0.05). Reapplication, and light activation, increased HP diffusion independently of the concentration of the product. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Study on the Mechanical Properties of a Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic-Network Material Used for the Fabrication of Hybrid Abutment
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma11091681 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) material is a new type of material used for the hybrid abutments of dental implants. This study aimed to compare flexural strength, bond strengths, and fracture-resistance values of PICN with lithium disilicate ceramic (LDS) and to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
Polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) material is a new type of material used for the hybrid abutments of dental implants. This study aimed to compare flexural strength, bond strengths, and fracture-resistance values of PICN with lithium disilicate ceramic (LDS) and to evaluate the effect of thermocycling on the tested parameters. Twenty specimens were fabricated using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology for each material according to three-point bending (n = 10), microshear bond strength (µSBS), and a fracture-resistance test (hybrid abutment, n = 10). All specimens of each test group were divided into two subgroups, thermocycled or nonthermocycled. Hybrid abutments were cemented on titanium insert bases and then fixed on implants to compare fracture resistance. Failure loads were recorded for each test and data were statistically analyzed. Thermocycling decreased bond strength to the resin luting agent and the fracture-resistance values of both materials (p < 0.001), whereas flexural-strength values were not affected. LDS ceramic showed significantly higher flexural strength, bond strength, and fracture-resistance values than PICN material (p < 0.001). Within the limitations of this study, LDS may be a preferable hybrid-abutment material to PICN in terms of mechanical and bonding properties. Full article
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Article
Push-Out Bond Strength and SEM Evaluation in Roots Filled with Two Different Techniques Using New and Conventional Sealers
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1620; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma11091620 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium-silicate-based sealer (Endosequence-BC-Sealer) in roots, filled with thermo-plasticized injectable technique aided by Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System, on bond strength to radicular dentin, in comparison with conventional epoxy-resin-based sealer (AH-Plus) along with cold-lateral-compaction technique. Root canals [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium-silicate-based sealer (Endosequence-BC-Sealer) in roots, filled with thermo-plasticized injectable technique aided by Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System, on bond strength to radicular dentin, in comparison with conventional epoxy-resin-based sealer (AH-Plus) along with cold-lateral-compaction technique. Root canals of mandibular-premolar teeth (n = 80) were instrumented using Protaper Universal rotary files and were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 20) as follows: (1) AH-Plus + cold-lateral-compaction technique; (2) Endosequence-BC-Sealer + cold-lateral-compaction technique; (3) AH-Plus + thermo-plasticized injectable technique; and (4) Endosequence-BC-Sealer + thermo-plasticized injectable technique. Horizontal disc shaped samples from each group (n = 60/group) were obtained and push-out bond strength testing was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.001). The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference amongst the groups (p < 0.001). The highest bond strength values were found in group 1 compared with all the other experimental groups (p < 0.001), whereas the lowest bond strength values were found in group 4 (p < 0.001). It was concluded that thermo-plasticized injectable technique with Calamus-Flow-Delivery-System lowered the bond strengths of the sealers, especially Endosequence-BC-Sealer. Therefore, this technique is not recommended to calcium-silicate-based sealers. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study. Full article
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Article
Simultaneous Evaluation of Creep Deformation and Recovery of Bulk-Fill Dental Composites Immersed in Food-Simulating Liquids
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma11071180 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
The aim of this study is to compare the creep/recovery behavior of bulk-fill dental composites after storage in various food simulating organic solvents. For this purpose, five different resin-composites (four bulk-fills and one conventional) were used. A total of 20 rectangular specimens (14 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to compare the creep/recovery behavior of bulk-fill dental composites after storage in various food simulating organic solvents. For this purpose, five different resin-composites (four bulk-fills and one conventional) were used. A total of 20 rectangular specimens (14 mm × 3 mm × 0.7 mm) were prepared by filling the resin-composites in Teflon mold. All of the specimens for each material (n = 5) were divided into four groups namely dry (control), distilled water (DW), artificial saliva, and absolute ethanol. The specimens were subjected to three-point bending creep test during immersion directly. A constant load of 2 N was used for each specimen with loading and unloading time 2 h each. Results: SF2 and XF showed a lower creep strain % after immersion, ranging from 0.44 (dry) to 0.75 (saliva) and 0.43 (dry) to 0.80 (ethanol), respectively. TNC BF depicts the maximum creep strain % ranging from 1.24% (dry) to 2.87% (ethanol) followed by FBF ranging from 1.17 (dry) to 2.59 (ethanol). However, the conventional material (GR) showed lower creep strain after immersion ranging from 0.28 to 0.54. Moreover, SF2 resulted in the highest creep recovery in all of the composites groups, as well as conventional material. The other composite groups showed lower creep recovery as compared to the conventional material (GR). The creep strain % for all the bulk-fill composites materials were increased during immersion in the liquids. However, for the conventional material, the creep deformation is decreased after immersion. SF2 showed the highest percentage of creep recovery among the bulk-fill composites, followed by XF. Full article
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Article
Mechanical and Morphological Effect of Plant Based Antimicrobial Solutions on Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer
Materials 2018, 11(6), 925; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma11060925 - 30 May 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant based antimicrobial solutions specifically tea tree and Manuka oil on facial silicone elastomers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with plant extract solution [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant based antimicrobial solutions specifically tea tree and Manuka oil on facial silicone elastomers. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with plant extract solution on mechanical properties and morphology on the silicone elastomer. Test specimens were subjected to disinfection using tea tree oil, Manuka oil and the staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Furthermore, a procedure duration was used in the disinfection process to simulate up to one year of usage. Over 500 test specimens were fabricated for all tests performed namely hardness, elongation, tensile, tear strength tests, visual inspection and lastly surface characterization using SEM. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that hardness and elongation at break varied significantly over the time period, whereas this was not observed in the tear and tensile strength parameters of the test samples. Full article
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