Special Issue "Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Xueyan Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Pavement Engineering Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: constitutive modeling; numerical modeling; material experimental characterization of pavement materials; static and dynamic response of reinforcing systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Linbing Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Via Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 301N Patton Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Interests: smart and sustainable technologies; innovative infrastructure assessment and performance predictions; high-performance materials, material design; multiple-scale characterization, modeling, and simulation; pavement testing and mechanistic pavement design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Zhanping You
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA
Interests: design, construction, and maintenance of pavements; micromechanics for road materials; discrete and finite element modeling techniques; construction materials: asphalt, aggregate; alternative and recycled materials for civil engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Yuqing Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Aston Institute of Materials Research (AIMR), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Interests: renewable construction materials; multiphysics and multiscale modeling; performance predictions of road infrastructures; intelligent and nondestructive road technologies
Dr. Changhong Zhou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Pavement Engineering, School of Transportation and Logistics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
Interests: microstructure and performance of pavement materials; GPU-based parallel computing of granular materials; polymer-modified asphalt binder; climate and disaster risk assessment of road facilities; testing instrument and software development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pavement materials such as asphalt mixtures, granular aggregates, and soils exhibit complex material properties and engineering performance under external loading and environmental conditions. For instance, the asphalt mixture shows highly nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic properties at high temperatures, and it presents fatigue cracking damage and fracture properties at intermediate or low temperatures. Constitutive models based on mechanics theories have been the kernel of performance prediction of pavement infrastructures and materials. They lay down a solid foundation for material selection, design and pavement structural evaluation, and maintenance decisions. Advances in mechanics modeling and the associated experimental testing for pavement infrastructures and construction materials are emerging constantly, such as nonlinear viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, fracture, and damage mechanics models. Meanwhile, various numerical modeling technologies are being developed and implemented to solve the multiscale and multiphysical equations and models for pavement structures and materials. Examples include finite element, discrete element, and micromechanics or molecular dynamics simulations at different dimensions and scales. These are being applied to both existing traditional pavement materials and novel and emerging materials such as recycled, modified or alternative materials. All the aforementioned advances have been leading to a large number of new studies and discoveries in the relevant areas. This Special Issue provides a unique platform to collect and present these novel studies and new discoveries in the areas of mechanics, numerical modeling and experimental testing of pavement infrastructures and materials.

Some suggested topics related to this Special Issue include:

  • Advanced constitutive modeling and experimental testing of pavement materials;
  • Viscoelastic, viscoplastic, fracture, and damage mechanics analysis;
  • Finite/boundary/discrete element modeling of pavements and materials;
  • Molecular dynamics modeling and micromechanics modeling;
  • Performance predictions of pavement structures and materials;
  • Multiscale and multiphysics modeling and evaluations;
  • Modified, renewable, recyclable or alternative pavement materials;
  • Artificial-intelligence-based constitutive behavior of asphalt mixtures;
  • Microscopic test method and instrument development of pavement materials;
  • Rapid repair materials for pavement structures: development or application.

Dr. Xueyan Liu
Prof. Dr. Linbing Wang
Prof. Dr. Zhanping You
Dr. Yuqing Zhang
Dr. Changhong Zhou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pavement materials
  • advanced mechanics and modeling
  • experimental testing and characterization
  • multiscale and multiphysics simulations
  • artificial intelligence

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Viscoelastic Damage Characteristics of Asphalt Mixtures Using Fractional Rheology
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5892; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195892 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
The mechanical behavior of asphalt mixtures at high stress levels are characterized by non-linear viscoelasticity and damage evolution. A nonlinear damage constitutive model considering the existence of creep hardening and creep damage mechanisms in the entire creep process is proposed in this study [...] Read more.
The mechanical behavior of asphalt mixtures at high stress levels are characterized by non-linear viscoelasticity and damage evolution. A nonlinear damage constitutive model considering the existence of creep hardening and creep damage mechanisms in the entire creep process is proposed in this study by adopting the fractional rheology theory to characterize the three-stage creep process of mixtures. A series of uniaxial compressive creep tests under various stresses were conducted at different temperatures to verify the model. The results indicated that the model predictions were in good agreement with the creep tests. The relationship between the model parameters and applied stresses was established, and the stress range in which the mixture exhibited only creep consolidation was obtained. The damage to the asphalt mixture was initiated in the steady stage; however, it developed in the tertiary stage. A two-parameter Weibull distribution function was used to describe the evolution between the damage values and damage strains at different stress levels and temperatures. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99 at different temperatures, indicating that a unified damage evolution model could be established. Thus, the parameters of the unified model were related to material properties and temperature, independent of the stress levels applied to the mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Aging of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Modified Asphalt Binder with Different Polymer Additives
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5715; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195715 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
A wide variety of polymer additives have been widely used in recent years. However, the effect of different polymer additives on the durability of asphalt binders has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the aging property of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) asphalt binder with different [...] Read more.
A wide variety of polymer additives have been widely used in recent years. However, the effect of different polymer additives on the durability of asphalt binders has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the aging property of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) asphalt binder with different polymer additives, three polymer modifiers, namely high modulus modifier (HMM), anti-rutting agent (ARA), and high viscosity modifier (HVM), were added to it. First, the Thin Film Over Test (TFOT) and Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV) was performed on the asphalt binders. The rheological properties of the four asphalt binders before and after aging were then checked by the Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test (DSR). The chemical compositions of the asphalt binders were determined by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) test. Several aging indicators were adopted to reflect the aging degree of the asphalt binders. The results show that when polymer additives are added to the SBS asphalt binder, the complex modulus, storage modulus, loss modulus, and rutting factor substantially increase and the phase angle decreases. All the test parameters become higher after aging. The phase angle of the SBS asphalt binder is the highest at both unaged and aged states, while its other parameters values are the smallest. Moreover, the Carbonyl Aging Indicator (CAI) of SBS with polymer additives becomes lower under both TFOT and PAV conditions, indicating that polymer additives can improve the aging resistance of SBS asphalt, of which HVM modifies the aging resistance best. Complex Modulus Aging Indicator (CMAI) and Storage Modulus Aging Indicator (SMAI) have the best correlation coefficients with CAI, and the two aging indicators can be used to predict the aging degree of polymer modified asphalt binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Influence of Aeolian Sand on the Anti-Skid Characteristics of Asphalt Pavement
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5523; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14195523 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The influence of sand accumulation on the skid resistance of asphalt pavement was studied. Many scholars have researched the anti-skid performance of conventional asphalt pavements. However, there is a lack of research on the anti-skid performance of desert roads under the condition of [...] Read more.
The influence of sand accumulation on the skid resistance of asphalt pavement was studied. Many scholars have researched the anti-skid performance of conventional asphalt pavements. However, there is a lack of research on the anti-skid performance of desert roads under the condition of sand accumulation. In this study, AC-13 and AC-16 asphalt mixtures were used. The British Pendulum Number (BPN) under different sand accumulations was measured with a pendulum friction coefficient meter, and the Ames engineering texture scanner was used to obtain different sand accumulations. The texture index of asphalt mixture was used to study the macro and micro texture of asphalt pavement under different amounts of sand accumulation, and the degree of influence of different particle sizes on BPN was obtained through gray correlation analysis. The test results show that the presence of aeolian sand has a significant impact on the macro and micro texture of the asphalt pavement and will cause the anti-skid performance to decrease. Moreover, there is an apparent positive linear correlation between the road surface texture index and BPN. The research results may provide reference and reference for the design and maintenance of desert highways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Improved Mechanistic-Empirical Creep Model for Unsaturated Soft and Stabilized Soils
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14154146 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 400
Abstract
Soft soils are usually treated to mitigate their engineering problems, such as excessive deformation, and stabilization is one of most popular treatments. Although there are many creep models to characterize the deformation behaviors of soil, there still exist demands for a balance between [...] Read more.
Soft soils are usually treated to mitigate their engineering problems, such as excessive deformation, and stabilization is one of most popular treatments. Although there are many creep models to characterize the deformation behaviors of soil, there still exist demands for a balance between model accuracy and practical application. Therefore, this paper aims at developing a Mechanistic-Empirical creep model (MEC) for unsaturated soft and stabilized soils. The model considers the stress dependence and incorporates moisture sensitivity using matric suction and shear strength parameters. This formulation is intended to predict the soil creep deformation under arbitrary water content and arbitrary stress conditions. The results show that the MEC model is in good agreement with the experimental data with very high R-squared values. In addition, the model is compared with the other classical creep models for unsaturated soils. While the classical creep models require a different set of parameters when the water content is changed, the MEC model only needs one set of parameters for different stress levels and moisture conditions, which provides significant facilitation for implementation. Finally, a finite element simulation analysis of subgrade soil foundation is performed for different loading levels and moisture conditions. The MEC model is utilized to predict the creep behavior of subgrade soils. Under the same load and moisture level, the deformation of soft soil is largest, followed by lime soil and RHA–lime-stabilized soil, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of Desulfurized Crumb Rubber/Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene Composite Modified Asphalt Based on Rheological Properties
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3780; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14143780 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
With the growing interest in bituminous construction materials, desulfurized crumb rubber (CR)/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) modified asphalts have been investigated by many researchers as low-cost environmental-friendly road construction materials. This study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of desulfurized CR/SBS composite modified asphalt within various [...] Read more.
With the growing interest in bituminous construction materials, desulfurized crumb rubber (CR)/styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) modified asphalts have been investigated by many researchers as low-cost environmental-friendly road construction materials. This study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of desulfurized CR/SBS composite modified asphalt within various temperature ranges. Bending beam rheometer (BBR), linear amplitude sweep (LAS), and multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) tests were performed on conventional CR/SBS composite modified asphalt and five types of desulfurized CR/SBS modified asphalts. Meanwhile, Burgers’ model and the Kelvin–Voigt model were used to derive nonlinear viscoelastic parameters and analyze the viscoelastic mechanical behavior of the asphalts. The experimental results indicate that both the desulfurized CR/SBS composite modifier and force chemical reactor technique can enhance the crosslinking of CR and SBS copolymer, resulting in an improved high-, intermediate-, and low-temperature performance of desulfurized CR/SBS composite modified asphalt. Burgers’ model was found to be apposite in simulating the creep stages obtained from MSCR tests for CR/SBS composite modified asphalts. The superior high-temperature performance of desulfurized CR/SBS modified asphalt prepared with 4% SBS, 20% desulfurized rubber, and a force chemical reactor time of 45 min contributes to the good high-temperature elastic properties of the asphalt. Therefore, this combination is recommended as an optimal preparation process. In summary, the desulfurization of crumb rubber and using the force chemical reactor technique are beneficial to composite asphalt performance and can provide a new way of utilizing waste tire rubber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Experimental Investigation of the Performance of a Hybrid Self-Healing System in Porous Asphalt under Fatigue Loadings
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14123415 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 600
Abstract
Self-healing asphalt, which is designed to achieve autonomic damage repair in asphalt pavement, offers a great life-extension prospect and therefore not only reduces pavement maintenance costs but also saves energy and reduces CO2 emissions. The combined asphalt self-healing system, incorporating both encapsulated [...] Read more.
Self-healing asphalt, which is designed to achieve autonomic damage repair in asphalt pavement, offers a great life-extension prospect and therefore not only reduces pavement maintenance costs but also saves energy and reduces CO2 emissions. The combined asphalt self-healing system, incorporating both encapsulated rejuvenator and induction heating, can heal cracks with melted binder and aged binder rejuvenation, and the synergistic effect of the two technologies shows significant advantages in healing efficiency over the single self-healing method. This study explores the fatigue life extension prospect of the combined healing system in porous asphalt. To this aim, porous asphalt (PA) test specimens with various healing systems were prepared, including: (i) the capsule healing system, (ii) the induction healing system, (iii) the combined healing system and (iv) a reference system (without extrinsic healing). The fatigue properties of the PA samples were characterized by an indirect tensile fatigue test and a four-point bending fatigue test. Additionally, a 24-h rest period was designed to activate the built-in self-healing system(s) in the PA. Finally, a damaging and healing programme was employed to evaluate the fatigue damage healing efficiency of these systems. The results indicate that all these self-healing systems can extend the fatigue life of porous asphalt, while in the combined healing system, the gradual healing effect of the released rejuvenator from the capsules may contribute to a better induction healing effect in the damaging and healing cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Laboratory Study on the Stability of Large-Size Graded Crushed Stone under Cyclic Rotating Axial Compression
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1584; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14071584 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
In this paper, the stability of large-size graded crushed stone used for road base or cushioning under repeated load is investigated. Using an in-house developed device, large-size crushed stone mix was compacted and molded by the vibration and rotary compaction method. Cyclic rotating [...] Read more.
In this paper, the stability of large-size graded crushed stone used for road base or cushioning under repeated load is investigated. Using an in-house developed device, large-size crushed stone mix was compacted and molded by the vibration and rotary compaction method. Cyclic rotating axial compression was applied, and the shakedown theory was used to study the cumulative deformation of the large-size crushed stone specimens. The effects of gradation parameters on the cumulative strain and stability behavior were analyzed, and the critical stability and failure loads were determined according to the shakedown theory. The test results indicate that there are three obvious instability behavior stages of large-size graded crushed stone under cyclic rotating axial compression: elastic stability, plastic creep, and incremental plastic failure. Large-size graded crushed stone has a higher critical stability load stiffness than conventional-size graded crushed stone. The critical shakedown load of the specimen is mainly affected by the skeleton structure performance, and the critical failure load by the properties of the crushed stone material. Increasing the content and compactness of large-size crushed stone in the specimen can improve the stiffness and stability performance, and to achieve improvements, the content of large-size crushed stone should be controlled between 22% and 26%. The critical shakedown load increases with the increase in the California bearing ratio (CBR) value, while, on the other hand, the CBR value has little relationship with the critical failure load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Fatigue Models for Airfield Concrete Pavement: Literature Review and Discussion
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6579; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14216579 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
The fatigue model plays an important role in the mechanistic–empirical design procedure of airfield pavement. As for cement concrete pavement, the fatigue model represents the relationship between the stress and the number of load repetitions. To further understand the fatigue model, a literature [...] Read more.
The fatigue model plays an important role in the mechanistic–empirical design procedure of airfield pavement. As for cement concrete pavement, the fatigue model represents the relationship between the stress and the number of load repetitions. To further understand the fatigue model, a literature review was performed in this paper along with the discussion. In this paper, the developed fatigue models available now were classified as the full-scale testing-based fatigue model and the concrete beam testing-based fatigue model, according to the data source. Then, the regression analysis process and stress calculation method of each fatigue model were summarized. Besides, the fatigue model proposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was compared with the fatigue model of the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The design thicknesses using the two models were obtained based on the finite element analysis. The results show that the designed slab using the fatigue model of FAA is thicker than that of CAAC, meaning that the fatigue model of FAA is comparatively conservative. Moreover, it can be concluded that the differences in the slab thickness become more significant with the increase in the wheel load and the foundation strength. Finally, the recommendation was proposed to refine the fatigue model in the future study from three aspects: data source, stress calculation method, and regression analysis process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Testing and Constitutive Modelling of Pavement Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop