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Special Issue "Cement, Gypsum, and Lime Composites: Methods, Models, Kinetics, and Recent Advances"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2022 | Viewed by 5437

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Lenka Scheinherrová
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 166 29 Praha 6, Czech Republic
Interests: thermal analysis; thermogravimetry; differential scanning calorimetry concrete; cement composites; modeling; kinetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the light of climate change, energy, and sustainability challenges, there is an urgent need to find ways to manage the increasing global demand for cement, which is used for the preparation of the most popular construction material: concrete. Thus, research efforts are of importance that aim at least to partially replace cement, or to replace cement fully in some specific applications with other building materials, e.g., gypsum, lime, geopolymers; or to reduce CO2 emissions from its production.

This Special Issue (SI) on “Cement, Gypsum, and Lime Composites: Methods, Models, Kinetics, and Recent Advances” is dedicated to progress in the design, manufacture, analyzing methods, applications, and performance of composites consisting of at least one of the mentioned traditional binders and their possible combinations in advanced applications, with emphasis on environmentally friendly solutions. More specifically, this SI covers composites prepared with the utilization of conventionally used supplementary cementitious materials (ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume, metakaolin, or e.g. ceramic waste), and newly developed composites, as well as advances in analytical techniques (isothermal calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry) used for analysis and interpretation of hydration and hardening mechanisms of beforementioned composites.

Please kindly consider this invitation to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Original research articles, review articles, and short communications are all welcome.

Dr. Lenka Scheinherrová
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cement composites
  • gypsum composites
  • lime composites
  • thermal analysis
  • microstructure
  • materials characterization
  • modeling
  • kinetics

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Numerical Simulation Study of Mixed Particle Size Calcination Processes in the Calcination Zone of a Parallel Flow Regenerative Lime Kiln
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15134609 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 211
Abstract
Limestone of different particle sizes is often calcined together to improve production efficiency, but the calcination effect of mixed particle size limestone is difficult to guarantee. To investigate the effect of different particle size combinations on calcination, this study uses a porous media [...] Read more.
Limestone of different particle sizes is often calcined together to improve production efficiency, but the calcination effect of mixed particle size limestone is difficult to guarantee. To investigate the effect of different particle size combinations on calcination, this study uses a porous media model and a shrinking core model to simulate the calcination process for a single particle size and two mixed particle sizes in a Parallel Flow Regenerative lime kiln (PFR lime kiln). The results of the study show that an increase in void fraction has a small effect on the gas temperature. The temperature also does not change with particle sizes. At the same time, the decomposition is poor near the wall and better the closer to the center of the calcination zone. In addition, when the particle sizes differ by 2 times, the decomposition of small limestone particles had less influence, and the decomposition of large particles was also better. When the particle sizes differ by 3 times, the decomposition of both limestone sizes is more affected, especially for the larger limestone size, where only the outer surface is involved in the decomposition. Full article
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Article
Self-Healing Performance Assessment of Bacterial-Based Concrete Using Machine Learning Approaches
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15134436 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Bacterial-based self-healing concrete (BSHC) is a well-known healing technology which has been investigated for a few decades for its excellent crack healing capacity. Nevertheless, considered as costly and time-consuming, the healing performance (HP) of concrete with various types of bacteria can be designed [...] Read more.
Bacterial-based self-healing concrete (BSHC) is a well-known healing technology which has been investigated for a few decades for its excellent crack healing capacity. Nevertheless, considered as costly and time-consuming, the healing performance (HP) of concrete with various types of bacteria can be designed and evaluated only in laboratory environments. Employing machine learning (ML) models for predicting the HP of BSHC is inspired by practical applications using concrete mechanical properties. The HP of BSHC can be predicted to save the time and cost of laboratory tests, bacteria selection and healing mechanisms adoption. In this paper, three types of BSHC, including ureolytic bacterial healing concrete (UBHC), aerobic bacterial healing concrete (ABHC) and nitrifying bacterial healing concrete (NBHC), and ML models with five kinds of algorithms consisting of the support vector regression (SVR), decision tree regression (DTR), deep neural network (DNN), gradient boosting regression (GBR) and random forest (RF) are established. Most importantly, 22 influencing factors are first employed as variables in the ML models to predict the HP of BSHC. A total of 797 sets of BSHC tests available in the open literature between 2000 and 2021 are collected to verify the ML models. The grid search algorithm (GSA) is also utilised for tuning parameters of the algorithms. Moreover, the coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) are applied to evaluate the prediction ability, including the prediction performance and accuracy of the ML models. The results exhibit that the GBR model has better prediction ability (R2GBR = 0.956, RMSEGBR = 6.756%) than other ML models. Finally, the influence of the variables on the HP is investigated by employing the sensitivity analysis in the GBR model. Full article
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Article
Multi Expression Programming Model for Strength Prediction of Fly-Ash-Treated Alkali-Contaminated Soils
Materials 2022, 15(11), 4025; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15114025 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Rapid industrialization is leading to the pollution of underground natural soil by alkali concentration which may cause problems for the existing expansive soil in the form of producing expanding lattices. This research investigates the effect of stabilizing alkali-contaminated soil by using fly ash. [...] Read more.
Rapid industrialization is leading to the pollution of underground natural soil by alkali concentration which may cause problems for the existing expansive soil in the form of producing expanding lattices. This research investigates the effect of stabilizing alkali-contaminated soil by using fly ash. The influence of alkali concentration (2 N and 4 N) and curing period (up to 28 days) on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of fly ash (FA)-treated (10%, 15%, and 20%) alkali-contaminated kaolin and black cotton (BC) soils was investigated. The effect of incorporating different dosages of FA (10%, 15%, and 20%) on the UCSkaolin and UCSBC soils was also studied. Sufficient laboratory test data comprising 384 data points were collected, and multi expression programming (MEP) was used to create tree-based models for yielding simple prediction equations to compute the UCSkaolin and UCSBC soils. The experimental results reflected that alkali contamination resulted in reduced UCS (36% and 46%, respectively) for the kaolin and BC soil, whereas the addition of FA resulted in a linear rise in the UCS. The optimal dosage was found to be 20%, and the increase in UCS may be attributed to the alkali-induced pozzolanic reaction and subsequent gain of the UCS due to the formation of calcium-based hydration compounds (with FA addition). Furthermore, the developed models showed reliable performance in the training and validation stages in terms of regression slopes, R, MAE, RMSE, and RSE indices. Models were also validated using parametric and sensitivity analysis which yielded comparable variation while the contribution of each input was consistent with the available literature. Full article
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Article
Experiment on the Properties of Soda Residue-Activated Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Mortars with Different Activators
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15103578 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Soda residue (SR), a solid waste generated in the production of Na2CO3 during the ammonia soda process, with a high pH value of 12, can be used as an activator of alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) cementitious materials. [...] Read more.
Soda residue (SR), a solid waste generated in the production of Na2CO3 during the ammonia soda process, with a high pH value of 12, can be used as an activator of alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) cementitious materials. Three groups of experiments on SR-activated GGBFS mortars were designed in this paper to assess the role of the dominant parameters on fluidity and compressive strength of mortars. The results indicate that for fluidity and mechanical properties, the optimal scheme of SR-activated GGBFS mortars is 16:84–24:76 S/G, 0.01 NaOH/b, 0.05 CaO/b, and 0.50 w/b, with fluidity and compressive strength (28 d) of the mortars being 181–195 mm and 32.3–35.4 MPa, respectively. Between 2.5–10% CaCl2 addition to CaO (5%)-SR (24%)-activated GGBFS mortar is beneficial to the improvement of the compressive strength of C2, whereas the addition of CaSO4 is harmful. The main hydration products of mortars are ettringite, Friedel’s slat, and CSH gels. The results provide a theoretical basis and data support for the utilization of SR. Full article
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Article
Production of Belite Based Clinker from Ornamental Stone Processing Sludge and Calcium Carbonate Sludge with Lower CO2 Emissions
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15072352 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 402
Abstract
Environmental concerns have come to the forefront due to the substantial role of the cement industry in the extraction and expenditure of natural resources. Additionally, industrial processes generate a considerable amount of waste, which is frequently disposed of inadequately. The objective of this [...] Read more.
Environmental concerns have come to the forefront due to the substantial role of the cement industry in the extraction and expenditure of natural resources. Additionally, industrial processes generate a considerable amount of waste, which is frequently disposed of inadequately. The objective of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous use of ornamental rock processing sludge and calcium carbonate sludge generated from the kraft process in the production of belitic clinker. These waste materials would be used in total or partial substitution of natural raw materials, namely, limestone and clay. Several formulations were produced and sintered at 1100 and 1200 °C. The raw materials were characterized physico-chemically and thermogravimetrically, with subsequent evaluation of the resulting dosed raw mixes. Mineral analyses determined that the mixtures with limestone and clay in substitution ratios of 95% and 100%, respectively, and sintered at 1100 °C have the potential to produce belite-rich clinkers. This temperature is considerably lower than those reported in reference studies. Additionally, full limestone and clay substitution could result in a 23.92% reduction in carbon dioxide in clinker production. The results confirmed the potential use of ornamental rock processing sludge and calcium carbonate sludge as viable alternative materials for cement production and, consequently, could contribute to a reduction in the negative environmental impacts of this industry. Full article
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Article
Fire-Exposed Fly-Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete: Effects of Burning Temperature on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1884; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15051884 - 03 Mar 2022
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Geopolymer concrete possesses superior fire resistance compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based concrete; however, there are concerns regarding its vulnerability when exposed to real fire events. In the present study, the fire resistance of fly-ash-based geopolymer concrete was evaluated relative to that of [...] Read more.
Geopolymer concrete possesses superior fire resistance compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based concrete; however, there are concerns regarding its vulnerability when exposed to real fire events. In the present study, the fire resistance of fly-ash-based geopolymer concrete was evaluated relative to that of OPC-based concrete. Concrete specimens of standard strength grades of 20, 40, and 60 MPa were exposed to fire at 500 and 1200 °C for 2 h to simulate real fire events. Visual observation was performed, mass loss and residual compressive strength were measured, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were conducted. OPC-based concrete suffered major cracks accompanied with spalling for the high-strength specimen, while geopolymer concrete experienced minor cracks with no spalling. Mass losses of the geopolymer concrete—of 1.69% and 4%, after the exposure to fire at 500 and 1200 °C, respectively—were lower than those of the OPC-based concrete. More than 50% of the residual compressive strength for low- and medium-strength geopolymer concrete, after the exposure to fire at 1200 °C, was maintained. After the exposure to fire at 500 °C, the residual compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete increased from 13 to 45%, while the OPC-based concrete was not able to sustain its compressive strength. SEM images showed that the matrix of the geopolymer concrete, after the exposure to fire, was denser than that of the OPC-based concrete, while the FTIR spectra of the geopolymer concrete showed a minor shift in wavelength. Hence, our findings indicate that fly-ash-based geopolymer concrete has an excellent fire resistance as compared to OPC-based concrete. Full article
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Article
Mechanical Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete with Coal Gangue as Sand Replacement
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1807; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma15051807 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 398
Abstract
Coal gangue (CG) represents a huge amount of industrial solid waste in China, and usually is used as a coarse aggregate to produce low-strength coal-gangue-based concrete. In this paper, in order to prove the possibility to obtain a higher-strength concrete with a higher [...] Read more.
Coal gangue (CG) represents a huge amount of industrial solid waste in China, and usually is used as a coarse aggregate to produce low-strength coal-gangue-based concrete. In this paper, in order to prove the possibility to obtain a higher-strength concrete with a higher CG utilization rate, reactive powder concrete (RPC) with coal gangue as a sand replacement at different replacement ratios was studied. RPC samples were prepared by replacing natural river sand (RS) with CG sand at different CG/RS weight ratios from 0–100% at intervals of 25%. Mechanical tests were carried out, and the microstructure features of RPC samples at 28 days were characterized. The test results showed that strong back shrinkage of strength existed. On days 7 and 14, the flexural strengths of samples with CG/RS replacement ratios of 0–75% fluctuated around the mean value. Strengths of samples with a CG/RS replacement ratio of 100% dropped off. However, on day 28, the flexural strengths of samples with CG were all lower than the strengths of samples on days 7 and 14. The flexural strengths and compressive strengths of the RPC with a CG/RS replacement ratio of 100% on day 14 were 14.09 MPa and 37.03 MPa, respectively, which decreased to 6.42 MPa and 28.44 MPa, respectively, on day 28. Compared with natural river sand, CG sand reduced the working performance, compressive strength, and flexural strength of RPC. Microscopic analysis showed that on day 28, increasing the CG replacement ratio could inhibit cement hydration, weaken the interface transition zone, and lead to the degradation of the RPC’s performance. Modification of CG sand would be helpful to obtain higher-strength concrete. Full article
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Article
Investigation of the Impact of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GnP) on the Bond Stress of High-Performance Concrete Using Pullout Testing
Materials 2021, 14(22), 7054; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14227054 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 880
Abstract
Efficient load transmission between concrete and steel reinforcement by bonding action is a key factor in the process of the design procedure of bar-reinforced concrete structures. To enhance the bond strength of steel/concrete composites, the impact of graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) on the bond [...] Read more.
Efficient load transmission between concrete and steel reinforcement by bonding action is a key factor in the process of the design procedure of bar-reinforced concrete structures. To enhance the bond strength of steel/concrete composites, the impact of graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) on the bond stress and bond stress–slip response of deformed reinforcement bars, embedded in high-performance concrete (HPC), was investigated using bar pullout tests. In the current study, 36 samples were produced and examined. The main variables were the percentages of GnP, the steel reinforcement bar diameter, and embedded length. Bond behavior, failure mode, and bond stress-slip response were studied. Based on the experimental findings, the inclusion of GnP had a significant favorable influence on the bar-matrix interactions due to the bridging action of GnP as a nano reinforcement. For 0.02 wt.% of GnP, the bond strength was enhanced by more than 41.28% and 53.90% for steel bar diameters of 10 and 16 mm, respectively. The HPC-GnP mixture displayed a reduction in the initial slippage in comparison to the control sample. The test findings were compared to the prediction models created by other researchers and the ACI 408R-12 code. Full article
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Article
Study on Fractal Characteristics of Mineral Particles in Undisturbed Loess and Lime-Treated Loess
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14216549 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
In order to explore the fractal characteristics of particle size distribution (PSD) of various minerals in loess and lime-treated loess, the Q4 undisturbed loess and lime-treated loess were studied. From the perspective of multi-scaled microstructure, the internal characteristics of loess were observed and [...] Read more.
In order to explore the fractal characteristics of particle size distribution (PSD) of various minerals in loess and lime-treated loess, the Q4 undisturbed loess and lime-treated loess were studied. From the perspective of multi-scaled microstructure, the internal characteristics of loess were observed and the regularity statistics were carried out from a macroscopic view. Fractal theory was used to quantitatively study the distribution of mineral particles in undisturbed loess and lime-treated loess. It was found that the skeleton particles of undisturbed loess were obvious and the structure of soil was loose. While that of lime-treated loess decreased, the fine particles were connected with each other, and the structure of soil changed from loose to dense. The three mineral particles in the undisturbed loess and lime-treated loess did not accord with the single fractal distribution characteristics, but the total particles had fractal characteristics. The percentage content of the mineral particles in the soil varied greatly with the particle size. In addition, the non-uniform degrees of mineral particles in the two soils from large to small were carbonate minerals of lime-treated loess, carbonate minerals of undisturbed loess, quartz minerals of lime-treated loess, feldspar mineral of lime-treated loess, feldspar mineral of the undisturbed loess, and the quartz mineral of the undisturbed loess. This paper provided a basis for the future study of the different soil mechanical properties of undisturbed loess and lime-treated loess. Full article
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Article
The Relationship of Compressive Strength and Chemically Bound Water Content of High-Volume Fly Ash-Cement Mortar
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14216273 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 469
Abstract
Fly ash (FA) has been widely used in cement-based materials, but limited work has been conducted to establish the relationship between the compressive strength and hydration process of high-volume FA (HVFA)-cement-based material. In this study, the compressive strength and chemically bound water contents [...] Read more.
Fly ash (FA) has been widely used in cement-based materials, but limited work has been conducted to establish the relationship between the compressive strength and hydration process of high-volume FA (HVFA)-cement-based material. In this study, the compressive strength and chemically bound water contents of FA-cement-based materials with different water-to-binder ratios (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) and FA contents (0%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%) were tested. Replacing more cement with FA reduced the compressive strength and of HVFA-cement-based materials. The compressive strength and chemically bound water content reduced by about 60–70% when 70% cement was replaced by FA. Water-to-binder ratio showed more significant influence on the chemically bonded water at later ages than that at early ages. Based on test results, the prediction equation of chemically bound water content was established, and its accuracy was verified. The error was less than 10%. The relationship between the compressive strength and chemically bound water content was also fitted. The compressive strength and chemically bound water content showed linear relationships for different water-to-binder ratios, hence the compressive strength of HVFA-cement mortar could be predicted with the chemically bound water content and water-to-binder ratios. The results of this study could be used for the prediction of the compressive strength development of HVFA-cement mortars, and is helpful to develop the mix design method of HVFA-cement-based materials. Full article
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