Special Issue "The Role of Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Dysfunction"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Paul Chantler
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor; Human Performance—Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV, USA
Interests: metabolic syndrome (MetS); obesity; stroke; cardiac, cerebro and vascular function; exercise

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There has been an explosion in the number of individuals with metabolic disturbances, resulting in a global epidemic of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance that shows no signs of slowing. The presence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance affects multiple organ beds (heart, vasculature, brain, kidney, etc.) and has clinically very significant consequences, increasing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk. Our basic understanding of the processes by which metabolic disease affects cardiovascular and cerebrovascular structure and function remain incomplete. For example, what roles do oxidative stress, inflammation, and their interactions play in the pathogenesis of vascular disease? In light of such questions, the purpose of this Special Issue will be to highlight the important pathways leading to cardio and cerebrovascular dysfunction related to metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, as well as to discuss potential therapeutic approaches to ameliorate or reduce the risk of CV dysfunction.

Prof. Dr. Paul Chantler
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cardiovascular
  • cerebrovascular
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • adipose tissue
  • exercise

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Vascular Dysfunction among Malaysian Men with Increased BMI: An Indication of Synergistic Effect of Free Testosterone and Inflammation
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina55090575 - 08 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with poor vascular function and may lead to future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also related to increased inflammation and a low testosterone level. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between inflammation, testosterone level, and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with poor vascular function and may lead to future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also related to increased inflammation and a low testosterone level. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between inflammation, testosterone level, and vascular function among subjects with an increased body mass index (BMI) and to determine whether both low testosterone and high inflammation have synergistic effects towards vascular dysfunction. Materials and Methods: A total of 303 men aged 40–80 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their height, weight, blood pressure (BP), lipid, blood glucose level, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVCF) and augmentation index (AI) were also recorded as markers of vascular function. Results: The mean age of all the subjects was 54.46 ± 9.77 years. Subjects were divided into a low/normal body mass index (BMI) group (BMI < 25 kg/m2; NG, n = 154) and high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; OG, n = 149). The mean BMI for NG was 22.20 ± 1.94 kg/m2 while for OG was 28.87 ± 3.24 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). The level of TT (OG = 21.13 ± 6.44 versus NG = 16.18 ± 6.16 nmol/L, p < 0.01) and FT (OG = 0.34 ± 0.12 versus NG = 0.39 ± 0.11 nmol/L, p < 0.01) were reduced while the level of CRP [OG = 1.05 (2.80) versus NG = 0.50 (1.50) mmol/L, p = 0.01] was increased in OG compared to NG. PWVCF (OG = 8.55 ± 1.34 versus NG = 8.52 ± 1.42 m/s, p = 0.02) and AI (OG = 16.91% ± 6.00% versus 15.88% ± 5.58%, p < 0.01) were significantly increased in OG after adjustment for other CVD risk factors. The subjects that had both a low FT and an increased CRP had higher AI when compared to those with a high CRP and high FT (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The increased BMI was associated with vascular dysfunction, mediated by a low testosterone level and increased inflammation. Furthermore, having both conditions concurrently lead to higher vascular dysfunction. Weight loss, testosterone supplementation, and the anti-inflammatory agent may be beneficial for men to prevent vascular dysfunction. Full article
Article
Serum Levels of Carbamylated LDL and Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Are Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina55080493 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Background and objectives: Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been recognized as the primary receptor for carbamylated low-density lipoproteins (cLDL) and is increasingly being viewed as a critical mediator of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been recognized as the primary receptor for carbamylated low-density lipoproteins (cLDL) and is increasingly being viewed as a critical mediator of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible role of circulating cLDL and soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) as potential biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as of coronary artery disease (CAD) among MetS patients. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of cLDL and sLOX-1 were measured by ELISA in 30 MetS patients without CAD, 30 MetS patients with CAD, and 30 healthy controls. Results: Patients with MetS had significantly higher serum levels of both cLDL and sLOX-1 than the healthy controls but lower in comparison to MetS + CAD subjects. Serum sLOX-1 concentration correlated significantly with fasting glucose (rs = 0.414, p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (rs = −0.273, p = 0.035) in the whole MetS cohort, whereas it correlated with cLDL only in the MetS + CAD subgroup (rs = 0.396, p = 0.030). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of cLDL and sLOX-1 for MetS diagnosis had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.761 and 0.692, respectively. AUC values of cLDL and sLOX-1 for CAD diagnosis among MetS patients were 0.811 and 0.739. Elevated serum levels of cLDL and sLOX-1 were associated with a higher risk of MetS development [odds ratio (OR) 24.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.86–104.61, p < 0.001 and OR 4.75; 95% CI: 1.58–14.25, p = 0.009] as well as with presence of CAD among MetS subjects (OR 11.23; 95% CI: 3.10–40.71, p < 0.001 and OR 4.03; 95% CI: 1.73–11.84, p = 0.019, respectively). Conclusions: The present study underscores the potential of cLDL and sLOX-1 as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and risk assessment of MetS and CAD among the MetS population. Full article
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Review
Cardiac Glucolipotoxicity and Cardiovascular Outcomes
Medicina 2018, 54(5), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina54050070 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Cardiac insulin signaling can be impaired due to the altered fatty acid metabolism to induce insulin resistance. In diabetes and insulin resistance, the metabolic, structural and ultimately functional alterations in the heart and vasculature culminate in diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, ischemia and [...] Read more.
Cardiac insulin signaling can be impaired due to the altered fatty acid metabolism to induce insulin resistance. In diabetes and insulin resistance, the metabolic, structural and ultimately functional alterations in the heart and vasculature culminate in diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, ischemia and eventually heart failure. Glucolipotoxicity describes the combined, often synergistic, adverse effects of elevated glucose and free fatty acid concentrations on heart structure, function, and survival. The quality of fatty acid shapes the cardiac structure and function, often influencing survival. A healthy fatty acid balance is therefore critical for maintaining cardiac integrity and function. Full article
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