Special Issue "Respiratory Immune Responses during Infection and Pollution Inhalation"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Patrick Geraghty
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Health Science University, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Interests: pulmonary diseases; phosphatases; immunology; innate responses; cigarette smoke exposure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; viral exacerbations; allergy; damage-associated molecular patterns
Dr. Cormac McCarthy
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: pulmonary diseases; pulmonary biology; rare lung disease; lymphangioleiomyomatosis; pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; glycosylation of acute phase proteins; macrophages; lipid dysfunction; cholesterol homeostasis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of lung immune responses to pathogens and environmental factors. The lungs and upper airways are typically the first site of exposure to external factors and are exposed to over seven thousand liters of air per day. In response to harmful organisms and toxic pollutants, the lungs have a comprehensive and complex system of resident and immune cells with innate and adaptive immune responses. Altered immune responses can impact the primary role of the lungs, i.e., gas exchange. Resolution of altered immune responses is critical for normal lung function. A wide variety of cellular responses are altered due to inflammation responses that are associated with alteration of lung physiology and function. Within the lung, there is a complex interplay between resident cells, infiltrating immune cells, a multifaceted microbiome, a mucus clearing system, and secreted immune proteins that shape the outcome of host–pathogen, host–allergen, and host–particle interactions within the lungs. Pre-existing conditions and inhalation of noxious factors will alter these interactions and immune responses upon infection and/or prevent the restoration of homeostasis within the lungs. This research topic aims to collect recent updates and novel findings to elucidate important immune changes that occur within the lungs during an infection or following exposure to noxious factors. We are inviting original research articles, reviews, mini-reviews, and methods addressing immune responses in healthy lungs or pre-existing lung diseases during an infection or following exposure to noxious compounds.

Dr. Patrick Geraghty
Dr. Cormac McCarthy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pulmonary
  • pathogens
  • innate
  • adaptive
  • inhalation
  • lung disease
  • infection

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Procalcitonin Levels in COVID-19 Patients Are Strongly Associated with Mortality and ICU Acceptance in an Underserved, Inner City Population
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 1070; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57101070 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to identify demographic and clinical factors at the time of critical care consultation associated with mortality or intensive care unit acceptance in a predominantly Afro-Caribbean population during the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to identify demographic and clinical factors at the time of critical care consultation associated with mortality or intensive care unit acceptance in a predominantly Afro-Caribbean population during the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, single-center observational cohort study included 271 COVID19 patients who received a critical care consult between March 11 and April 30, 2020 during the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic at State University of New York Downstate Health Sciences University. Results: Of the 271 patients with critical care consults, 33% survived and 67% expired. At the bivariate level, age, blood urea nitrogen, and blood neutrophil percentage were significantly associated with mortality (mean age: survivors, 61.62 ± 1.50 vs. non-survivors, 68.98 ± 0.85, p < 0.001). There was also a significant association between neutrophil% and mortality in the univariate logistic regression model (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odd ratio 2.73, 95% confidence interval (1.28–5.82), p trend = 0.044). In the multivariate analyses, increasing levels of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein were significantly associated with mortality, adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity (for procalcitonin quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio 5.65, 95% confidence interval (2.14–14.9), p trend < 0.001). In contrast, higher platelet levels correlated with significantly decreased odds of mortality (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratio 0.47, 95% CI (0.22–0.998), p trend = 0.010). Of these factors, only elevated procalcitonin levels were associated with intensive care unit acceptance. Conclusions: Procalcitonin showed the greatest magnitude of association with both death and likelihood of intensive care unit acceptance at the bivariate level. Our data suggests that procalcitonin reflects pneumonia severity during COVID-19 infection. Thus, it may help the intensivist identify those COVID19 patients who require intensive care unit level care. Full article
Article
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Augmentation Inhibits Proteolysis of Neutrophil Membrane Voltage-Gated Proton Channel-1 in Alpha-1 Deficient Individuals
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57080814 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor that demonstrates an array of immunomodulatory functions. Individuals with the genetic condition of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) are at increased risk of early onset emphysematous lung disease. This lung disease is partly [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor that demonstrates an array of immunomodulatory functions. Individuals with the genetic condition of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) are at increased risk of early onset emphysematous lung disease. This lung disease is partly driven by neutrophil mediated lung destruction in an environment of low AAT. As peripheral neutrophil hyper-responsiveness in AATD leads to excessive degranulation and increased migration to the airways, we examined the expression of the membrane voltage-gated proton channel-1 (HVCN1), which is integrally linked to neutrophil function. The objectives of this study were to evaluate altered HVCN1 in AATD neutrophils, serine protease-dependent degradation of HVCN1, and to investigate the ability of serum AAT to control HVCN1 expression. Materials and Methods: Circulating neutrophils were purified from AATD patients (n = 20), AATD patients receiving AAT augmentation therapy (n = 3) and healthy controls (n = 20). HVCN1 neutrophil expression was assessed by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Neutrophil membrane bound elastase was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Results: In this study we demonstrated that HVCN1 protein is under-expressed in AATD neutrophils (p = 0.02), suggesting a link between reduced HVCN1 expression and AAT deficiency. We have demonstrated that HVCN1 undergoes significant proteolytic degradation in activated neutrophils (p < 0.0001), primarily due to neutrophil elastase activity (p = 0.0004). In addition, the treatment of AATD individuals with AAT augmentation therapy increased neutrophil plasma membrane HVCN1 expression (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate reduced levels of HVCN1 in peripheral blood neutrophils that may influence the neutrophil-dominated immune response in the AATD airways and highlights the role of antiprotease treatment and specifically AAT augmentation therapy in protecting neutrophil membrane expression of HVCN1. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Short-Term Effects of a Conditioning Telerehabilitation Program in Confined Patients Affected by COVID-19 in the Acute Phase. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Medicina 2021, 57(7), 684; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57070684 - 03 Jul 2021
Viewed by 966
Abstract
Background and objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has become a challenge for health systems and, specifically, to physical therapists obligated to adapt their job and stop face-to-face consultations. In this situation, therapeutic exercise has been implemented in different COVID-19 patients. This study evaluated [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has become a challenge for health systems and, specifically, to physical therapists obligated to adapt their job and stop face-to-face consultations. In this situation, therapeutic exercise has been implemented in different COVID-19 patients. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel therapeutic exercise program through telerehabilitation tools in COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptomatology in the acute stage. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 subjects were randomized an experimental group, based on muscle conditioning, and in a control group, who did not perform physical activity. Thirty-six subjects, 18 in each group, completed the one-week intervention. We measured the six-minute walking test, multidimensional dyspnoea-12, thirty seconds sit-to-stand test, and Borg Scale. Results: Both groups were comparable at baseline. Statistically significant improvement between groups (p < 0.05) in favor of the experimental group was obtained. No differences between gender were found (p > 0.05). Ninety percent adherence was found in our program. Conclusion: A one-week telerehabilitation program based on muscle toning exercise is effective, safe, and feasible in COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptomatology in the acute stage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
The Upper Airway Microbiota, Environmental Exposures, Inflammation, and Disease
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 823; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57080823 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Along with playing vital roles in pathogen exclusion and immune system priming, the upper airways (UAs) and their microbiota are essential for myriad physiological functions such as conditioning and transferring inhaled air. Dysbiosis, a microbial imbalance, is linked with various diseases and significantly [...] Read more.
Along with playing vital roles in pathogen exclusion and immune system priming, the upper airways (UAs) and their microbiota are essential for myriad physiological functions such as conditioning and transferring inhaled air. Dysbiosis, a microbial imbalance, is linked with various diseases and significantly impedes the quality of one’s life. Daily inhaled exposures and/or underlying conditions contribute to adverse changes to the UA microbiota. Such variations in the microbial community exacerbate UA and pulmonary disorders via modulating inflammatory and immune pathways. Hence, exploring the UA microbiota’s role in maintaining homeostasis is imperative. The microbial composition and subsequent relationship with airborne exposures, inflammation, and disease are crucial for strategizing innovating UA diagnostics and therapeutics. The development of a healthy UA microbiota early in life contributes to normal respiratory development and function in the succeeding years. Although different UA cavities present a unique microbial profile, geriatrics have similar microbes across their UAs. This lost community segregation may contribute to inflammation and disease, as it stimulates disadvantageous microbial–microbial and microbial–host interactions. Varying inflammatory profiles are associated with specific microbial compositions, while the same is true for many disease conditions and environmental exposures. A shift in the microbial composition is also detected upon the administration of numerous therapeutics, highlighting other beneficial and adverse side effects. This review examines the role of the UA microbiota in achieving homeostasis, and the impact on the UAs of environmental airborne pollutants, inflammation, and disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop