Special Issue "Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Obstetrics and Gynecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Masafumi Koshiyama
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Women' s Health, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga 522-8533, Japan
Interests: gynecologic oncology; dietary therapy; edema; women’s health; medical equipment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Women’s health belongs to the branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect a woman’s physical and emotional well-being.

In the forthcoming Special Issue on “Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for diseases specific to women”, we would like call for papers on a wide range of topics relating to the diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and nursing care regarding reproductive diseases, including maternal and child health, genital diseases, breast diseases, endocrine (hormonal) diseases including menstruation, birth-control, and menopause, and finally general health topics (medical diseases) specific to women.

We warmly welcome your submissions, including novel and interesting original articles or reviews in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Masafumi Koshiyama
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Women’s health
  • Gynecologic disease
  • Gynecologic cancer
  • Perinatal disease
  • Endocrine disease
  • Medical disease

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comparison of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for FIGO2018 Stage IIIC1 Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Study
Medicina 2021, 57(6), 548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060548 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In October 2018, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) revised its classification of advanced stages of cervical cancer. The main points of the classification are as follows: stage IIIC is newly established; pelvic lymph node metastasis is [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In October 2018, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) revised its classification of advanced stages of cervical cancer. The main points of the classification are as follows: stage IIIC is newly established; pelvic lymph node metastasis is stage IIIC1; and para-aortic lymph node metastasis is stage IIIC2. Currently, in Japan, radical hysterectomy is performed in advanced stages IA2 to IIB of FIGO2014, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended for patients with positive lymph nodes. However, the efficacy of CCRT is not always satisfactory. The aim of this study was to compare postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and postoperative CCRT in stage IIIC1 patients. Materials and Methods: Of the 40 patients who had undergone a radical hysterectomy at Iwate Medical University between January 2011 and December 2016 and were pathologically diagnosed as having positive pelvic lymph nodes, 21 patients in the adjuvant CT group and 19 patients in the postoperative CCRT group were compared. Results: The 5 year survival rates were 77.9% in the CT group and 74.7% in the CCRT group, with no significant difference. There was no significant difference in overall survival or progression-free survival between the two groups. There was no significant difference between CT and CCRT in postoperative adjuvant therapy in the new classification IIIC1 stage. Conclusions: The results of the prospective Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) 1082 study are pending, but the present results suggest that CT may be a treatment option in rural areas where radiotherapy facilities are limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Article
Anxiety and Depression in Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer and Waiting for Surgery: Prevalence and Associations with Socio-Demographic Variables
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 454; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050454 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Cancer is a threatening-life disease with a significant psychological burden. The psychological morbidity varies according to the phases of the illness and is influenced by multiple socio-demographic factors, that are useful to consider in order to identify the categories of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Cancer is a threatening-life disease with a significant psychological burden. The psychological morbidity varies according to the phases of the illness and is influenced by multiple socio-demographic factors, that are useful to consider in order to identify the categories of patients most at risk of developing psychiatric disorders. The present study analyzes, in a sample of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, the relationships between their levels of anxiety and depression and several socio-demographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and seventy eight women newly diagnosed with breast cancer completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale during the pre-surgical phase. Results: Findings show that almost 40% of the sample had clinically relevant anxious symptoms and about a quarter of the sample had significant depressive symptoms. Their prevalence was higher in widows. Moreover, depressive symptoms were higher in older women and anxious symptoms were higher in patients with a lower educational level. In the pre-surgical phase, women can suffer from clinically relevant anxiety and depression, especially the widows, older women, and women with a lower educational level. Conclusions: Identifying the most psychologically vulnerable patients, due to specific socio-demographic characteristics, is essential in order to provide adequate psycho-oncological treatments to the categories of patients, who are most at risk of developing psychopathological concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Article
The Fertility Indicator Equation Using Serum Progesterone and Urinary Pregnanediol-3-Glucuronide for Assessment of Ovulatory to Luteal Phase Transition
Medicina 2021, 57(2), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57020134 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The Fertility Indicator Equation (FIE) has been shown to signal the fertile phase during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. It was hypothesized that this formulation, a product of two sequential normalized changes with a sign indicating direction of change, could [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The Fertility Indicator Equation (FIE) has been shown to signal the fertile phase during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. It was hypothesized that this formulation, a product of two sequential normalized changes with a sign indicating direction of change, could be used to identify the transition from ovulatory to luteal phase with daily serum progesterone (P) and urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG) levels. Materials and Methods: Day-specific serum P levels from two different laboratories and day-specific urinary PDG levels from an additional two different laboratories were submitted for FIE analysis. These day-specific levels included mean or median, 5th, 10th, 90th and 95th percentile data. They were indexed to the day of ovulation, day 0, by ultrasonography, serum or urinary luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: All data sets showed a clear “cluster”—a periovulatory sequence of positive FIE values with a maximum. All clusters of +FIE signaled the transition from the ovulatory to luteal phase and were at least four days in length. The start day for the serum P and urinary PDG FIE clusters ranged from −3 to −1 and −3 to +2, respectively. The end day for serum P and PDG clusters went from +2 to +7 and +4 to +8, respectively. Outside these periovulatory FIE-P and FIE-PDG clusters, there were no consecutive positive FIE values. In addition, the maximum FIE-P and FIE-PDG values throughout the entire cycles were found in the clusters. Conclusions: FIE analysis with either daily serum P or urinary PDG levels provided a distinctive signature to recognize the periovulatory interval. The Fertility Indicator Equation served to robustly signal the transition from the ovulatory phase to the luteal phase. This may have applications in natural family planning especially with the recent emergence of home PDG tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Article
Factors Affecting Quality of Work Life in a Sample of Cancer Survivor Female Nurses
Medicina 2020, 56(12), 721; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina56120721 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Background and objectives: Identifying the factors affecting the Quality of Work Life (QWL) of cancer survivor female nurses is important and necessary to overcome the various challenges experienced by these professionals upon returning to work following recovery from the disease. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Identifying the factors affecting the Quality of Work Life (QWL) of cancer survivor female nurses is important and necessary to overcome the various challenges experienced by these professionals upon returning to work following recovery from the disease. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the factors affecting the level of nurses’ QWL. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 115 registered female nurses who had survived cancer, in general hospitals and clinics in South Korea. SPSS statistics version 21 was used for ordinary least squares, and Stata version 12.0 was used for quantile regression analysis. Results: Workplace spirituality affected all quantiles of QWL except the 90% quantile; fatigue was an affecting factor in the 20%, 30%, and 70% quantiles; and job stress in the 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60%, 70%, 80% quantiles. For workplace spirituality, the effect size was 0.33 (p < 0.001) in the 10% quantile, increasing to 0.45 (p < 0.001) in the 80% quantile. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, suggestions for clinical practice include providing the mediating strategies and programs to manage fatigue and job stress as well as workplace spirituality. Job-related factors such as shift work should also be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
Article
Early-Stage Ovarian Malignancy Score versus Risk of Malignancy Indices: Accuracy and Clinical Utility for Preoperative Diagnosis of Women with Adnexal Masses
Medicina 2020, 56(12), 702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina56120702 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Background and objectives: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the Early-stage Ovarian Malignancy (EOM) score with the Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) in the presurgical assessment of women presenting with adnexal masses. Materials and Methods: A secondary analysis was carried [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the Early-stage Ovarian Malignancy (EOM) score with the Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) in the presurgical assessment of women presenting with adnexal masses. Materials and Methods: A secondary analysis was carried out in a retrospective cohort of women who presented with an adnexal mass and were scheduled for surgery at Phrapokklao Hospital between September 2013 and December 2017. The clinical characteristics, ultrasonographic features of the masses, and preoperative CA-125 levels were recorded. The EOM and the RMI score were calculated and compared in terms of accuracy and clinical utility. Decision curve analysis (DCA), which examined the net benefit (NB) of applying the EOM and the RMI in practice at a range of threshold probabilities, was presented. Results: In this study, data from 270 patients were analyzed. Fifty-four (20.0%) women in the sample had early-stage ovarian cancer. All four RMI versions demonstrated a lower sensitivity for the detection of patients with early-stage ovarian cancer compared to an EOM score ≥ 15. An EOM ≥ 15 resulted in a higher proportion of net true positive or NB than all versions of the RMIs from a threshold probability of 5% to 30%. Conclusions: It also showed a higher capability to reduce the number of inappropriate referrals than the RMIs at a threshold probability between 5% and 30%. The EOM score showed higher diagnostic sensitivity and has the potential to be clinically more useful than the RMIs to triage women who present with adnexal masses for referral to oncologic gynecologists. Further external validation is required to support our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Article
Uterine Artery Doppler Ultrasonography for First Trimester Prediction of Preeclampsia in Individuals at Risk from Low-Resource Settings
Medicina 2020, 56(9), 428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina56090428 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of first trimester uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography for the early prediction of preeclampsia (PE), in at-risk pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study, including 120 Caucasian [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of first trimester uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography for the early prediction of preeclampsia (PE), in at-risk pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study, including 120 Caucasian pregnant women with risk factors for PE. The potential of pulsatility indexes (PI) and notch was assessed as a tool for preeclampsia screening. Results: Doppler examination of the uterine artery performed early at 11–14 WA allows the detection of pregnancies that will develop PE with a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 63.8% based on PI analysis. Predictive power increases slightly by adding bilateral notch (sensitivity = 65.4%; specificity = 66%). Conclusions: Uterine artery Doppler examination is an effective non-invasive screening test for the development of PE in pregnancies at risk, particularly appropriate in health systems with limited means of evaluating other biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Article
The Relationship between the IFNG (rs2430561) Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in Perimenopausal Women
Medicina 2020, 56(8), 384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina56080384 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multiple risk factor for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and strokes. One-third of middle-age women are at risk of MetS, which predisposes them to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Changes in the regulation [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multiple risk factor for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and strokes. One-third of middle-age women are at risk of MetS, which predisposes them to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Changes in the regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines―which play an important role in pathologic processes―may contribute to inflammatory disorders. Cytokine polymorphisms are known to have an impact on gene expression. The purpose of this study was to search for the relationship between the IFNG polymorphisms and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Materials and Methods: This study, conducted in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, involved 416 women. Of these women, 33.6% of them had primary education, 44.8% lived in cities with a population of over 100,000, and 82.7% were married. Of the participants, 28.4% met the criteria for MetS. The study involved: interview performed to collect sociodemographic and medical data, anthropometric measurements, as well as venous blood collection for biochemical analysis, genetic testing and the measurement of inflammatory markers. Results: The link between the IFNG (rs2430561) polymorphism and serum PIC (proinflammatory cytokines) levels was tested with regard to MetS. In the MetS+ subgroup, the T/T and A/T genotypes of the IFNG gene were accompanied by higher IL-6 levels than in the MetS− subgroup. Conclusion: Our study has not confirmed a direct link between the IFNG polymorphisms and the levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Nevertheless, the T/T and A/T genotypes of the IFNG gene may predispose to elevated IL-6 levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)

Review

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Review
Expectations and Challenges of First-Line Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57050501 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
The incidence of ovarian cancer, which has had a poor prognosis, is increasing annually. Currently, the prognosis is expected to improve with the use of molecular-targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors as maintenance therapies after the first-line chemotherapy. The GOG218 and ICON7 studies [...] Read more.
The incidence of ovarian cancer, which has had a poor prognosis, is increasing annually. Currently, the prognosis is expected to improve with the use of molecular-targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors as maintenance therapies after the first-line chemotherapy. The GOG218 and ICON7 studies reported the usefulness of bevacizumab and the SOLO-1 and PRIMA (A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study of Niraparib Maintenance Treatment in Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer Following Response on Front-Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy) studies have reported the usefulness of olaparib and niraparib, respectively. The ATHENA study investigating the usefulness of rucaparib is currently ongoing. Although clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors are lagging in the field of gynecology, many clinical studies using programmed death cell-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies are currently ongoing. Some biomarkers have been identified for molecular-targeted drugs, but none have been identified for immune checkpoint inhibitors, which is a challenge that should be addressed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
Review
Current Overview of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050464 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), or brittle bone disease, is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by bone fragility, multiple fractures, bone deformity, and short stature. OI is a heterogeneous disorder primarily caused by mutations in the genes involved in the production of type 1 collagen. Severe [...] Read more.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), or brittle bone disease, is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by bone fragility, multiple fractures, bone deformity, and short stature. OI is a heterogeneous disorder primarily caused by mutations in the genes involved in the production of type 1 collagen. Severe OI is perinatally lethal, while mild OI can sometimes not be recognised until adulthood. Severe or lethal OI can usually be diagnosed using antenatal ultrasound and confirmed by various imaging modalities and genetic testing. The combination of imaging parameters obtained by ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resource imaging (MRI) can not only detect OI accurately but also predict lethality before birth. Moreover, genetic testing, either noninvasive or invasive, can further confirm the diagnosis prenatally. Early and precise diagnoses provide parents with more time to decide on reproductive options. The currently available postnatal treatments for OI are not curative, and individuals with severe OI suffer multiple fractures and bone deformities throughout their lives. In utero mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has been drawing attention as a promising therapy for severe OI, and a clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of cell therapy is currently ongoing. In the future, early diagnosis followed by in utero stem cell transplantation should be adopted as a new therapeutic option for severe OI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Review
The Preventive Effect of Dietary Antioxidants on Cervical Cancer Development
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina56110604 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
Cervical cancer results from a continuous process, starting from a normal cervical epithelium after human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progressing to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), before finally developing into invasive squamous carcinoma (ISC). In recent decades, dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins, have received [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer results from a continuous process, starting from a normal cervical epithelium after human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progressing to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), before finally developing into invasive squamous carcinoma (ISC). In recent decades, dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins, have received much attention in relation to cancer prevention. We reviewed the relevant literature to investigate the dietary and nutrient intake on cervical cancer. The intake of vitamins A and D and carotenoids may inhibit early cervical cancer development. The intake of folate may prevent or inhibit HPV infection rom progressing to various grades of CIN. The intake of vitamins C and E may widely inhibit the process of cervical cancer development. Polyphenols are often used in cases of cervical cancer in combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Regarding nutrients, different antioxidants may have differing abilities to intervene in the natural history of cervical diseases associated with HPV infection. Regarding foods, the intake of both vegetables and fruits containing multiple vitamins may widely suppress cervical cancer development. Most previous papers have described epidemiological studies. Thus, further research using in vitro and in vivo approaches will be needed to clarify the effects of the dietary and nutrient intake in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Other

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Case Report
Management Strategies for Brain Tumors Diagnosed during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Medicina 2021, 57(6), 613; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060613 - 12 Jun 2021
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Maternal brain tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are very rare, and their clinical course remains incompletely understood. We recently experienced a case of a brain tumor diagnosed at 30 weeks of gestation, and the treatment was initiated after delivery at [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Maternal brain tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are very rare, and their clinical course remains incompletely understood. We recently experienced a case of a brain tumor diagnosed at 30 weeks of gestation, and the treatment was initiated after delivery at 32 weeks of gestation. In this study, we reviewed case reports of brain tumors diagnosed during pregnancy, focusing on whether the brain tumor was treated during pregnancy or after termination of pregnancy and on the timing of therapeutic intervention. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed and Ichushi-Web for articles published after January 2000 that reported cases of maternal brain tumors diagnosed during pregnancy. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether the tumor was treated during pregnancy (Group A) or after termination of pregnancy (Group B). Results: In total, 42 patients were included in the study (13 (31%) in Group A and 29 (69%) in Group B). The most common symptoms before diagnosis were those caused by increased intracranial pressure (57.1%). The diagnosis was made at 18 ± 6 weeks of gestation in Group A and 26 ± 9 weeks of gestation in Group B (p = 0.007). In all cases diagnosed after 34 weeks of gestation, termination of pregnancy was followed by treatment. Treatment was initiated within two weeks of diagnosis in 50% of patients in Group A and 30% in Group B. Conclusions: When severe symptoms caused by increased intracranial pressure last for several weeks, imaging tests should be considered. Termination of pregnancy is a good option for a brain tumor diagnosed after 34 weeks of gestation, while comprehensive treatment decisions should be made based on the severity of symptoms and the course of pregnancy in other cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Systematic Review
Prevalence of Pathogens and Other Microorganisms in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women with Vulvovaginal Symptoms: A Retrospective Study in a Single Institute in South Korea
Medicina 2021, 57(6), 577; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060577 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Vaginitis causes vulvovaginal symptoms, including itching, irritation, vaginal discharge, burning, or foul odor. It is one of the most common diseases encountered in gynecologic practice. Hypoestrogenism due to menopause has a considerable negative effect on vaginal health and leads to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Vaginitis causes vulvovaginal symptoms, including itching, irritation, vaginal discharge, burning, or foul odor. It is one of the most common diseases encountered in gynecologic practice. Hypoestrogenism due to menopause has a considerable negative effect on vaginal health and leads to changes in the vaginal pH and vaginal microflora, which are related to a change in the causes and microorganisms of vaginitis. Thus the aim here was to investigate the prevalence of pathogens and other microorganisms in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal symptoms, using an STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test and routine culture of vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: From January 2018 to December 2019, records of patients diagnosed with vaginitis at Changwon Gyeongsang National University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects were categorized into Group A and Group B, respectively. and the data of symptoms, general characteristics, and results of both STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test and routine culture of vaginal discharge were retrieved. Results: On the STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test, Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common microorganism in both groups. Ureaplasma parvum was the second most common one, followed by Candida speceies. On the routine culture of vaginal discharge, Escherichia coli was the most common aerobic bacterial microorganism in both groups, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS). There was no significant difference between the two groups. Pathogens and other microorganisms of patients with vulvovaginal symptoms that showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups were Ureaplasa parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticulum, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of pathogens and other microorganisms in menopausal women with vulvovaginal symptoms did not show a significant difference from premenopausal women. Therefore, management strategies for patients with vulvovaginal symptoms should be developed through accurate diagnosis using appropriate diagnostic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
Case Report
Clitoromegaly, Vulvovaginal Hemangioma Mimicking Pelvic Organ Prolapse, and Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: Gynecologic Manifestations of Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome
Medicina 2021, 57(4), 366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57040366 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome (KTS) is a genetic vascular malformation involving the capillary, lymphatic, and venous channels. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of KTS with an enlarged fetal limb is well-known; however, postnatal gynecologic manifestations are rarely reported. KTS can cause clitoromegaly, vulvovaginal hemangioma, and heavy menstrual [...] Read more.
Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome (KTS) is a genetic vascular malformation involving the capillary, lymphatic, and venous channels. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of KTS with an enlarged fetal limb is well-known; however, postnatal gynecologic manifestations are rarely reported. KTS can cause clitoromegaly, vulvovaginal hemangioma, and heavy menstrual bleeding. Somatic mosaicism of the PIK3CA gene is considered as responsible for KTS but reports based on whole-genome sequencing are limited. A 31-year-old woman with KTS presented with bulging of the clitoris and vagina. Analysis of whole-genome sequencing variant data revealed that gene ontology terms related to development and differentiation such as ‘skeletal system morphogenesis’, ‘embryonic morphogenesis’, and ‘sensory organ development’ were nominally significant in non-coding regions. Variants in non-coding genes may be responsible for this phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Case Report
Dietary Treatment from Birth to Pregnancy in a Woman with Methylmalonic Aciduria
Medicina 2021, 57(2), 128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57020128 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Methylmalonic aciduria is treated with a natural protein-restricted diet with adequate energy intake to sustain metabolic balance. Natural protein is a source of methylmalonic acid precursors, and intake is individually modified according to the severity and clinical course of the disease. The experience [...] Read more.
Methylmalonic aciduria is treated with a natural protein-restricted diet with adequate energy intake to sustain metabolic balance. Natural protein is a source of methylmalonic acid precursors, and intake is individually modified according to the severity and clinical course of the disease. The experience and approach to MMA treatment in European centers is variable with different amounts of natural protein and precursor-free l-amino acids being prescribed, although the outcome appears independent of the use of precursor-free l-amino acids. Further long-term outcome data is necessary for early treated patients with MMA. This case study, a woman with MMA followed from birth to the age of 35 years, including pregnancy, illustrates the long-term course of the disease and lifetime changes in dietary treatment. A low natural protein diet (1.5 g–1.0 g/kg/day) was the foundation of treatment, but temporary supplementation with precursor-free l-amino acids, vitamin-mineral mixture, and energy supplements were necessary at different timepoints (in childhood, adolescence, adulthood and pregnancy). Childhood psychomotor development was slightly delayed but within the normal range in adulthood. There were few episodes of metabolic decompensation requiring IV glucose, but at age 27 years, she required intensive care following steroid treatment. In pregnancy, she remained stable but received intensive biochemical and medical follow-up. This successful long-term follow-up of a patient with MMA from childhood, throughout pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum confirms that careful clinical, biochemical, and dietetic monitoring is crucial to ensure a favourable outcomes in MMA. Personalized treatment is necessary according to the individual clinical course. Knowledge about long-term treatment and clinical outcome is important information to influence future MMA clinical guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
Case Report
Positive Anti-SSA/Ro Antibody in a Woman with SARS-CoV-2 Infection Using Immunophenotyping: A Case Report
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 521; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina56100521 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
The clinical spectrum of novel coronavirus infection appears to be wide, encompassing asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory tract illness, and severe viral pneumonia, with respiratory failure and even death. Autoantibodies, especially antiphospholipid antibodies, can occur in severe infections. Other autoantibodies are seldom reported. [...] Read more.
The clinical spectrum of novel coronavirus infection appears to be wide, encompassing asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory tract illness, and severe viral pneumonia, with respiratory failure and even death. Autoantibodies, especially antiphospholipid antibodies, can occur in severe infections. Other autoantibodies are seldom reported. Here, a 60-year-old female patient without dry-mouth symptoms detected positive for anti-60 kDa SSA/Ro antibodies on day 43 after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To investigate this unique clinical case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, immunological characteristics of this case were detected by using flow cytometry and were compared to the other three groups of patients—health subjects, 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) recovery patients, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) patients. Monitoring the autoantibody level and the development of subsequently related autoimmune diseases are warranted after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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