Special Issue "Lipid Metabolism Disorders Diagnosis and Therapy: Challenges and Opportunities"

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Lipid Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Zlatko Fras
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: internal medicine; cardiology; vascular diseases; preventive cardiology; fibrinolysis; thrombosis; haemostasis
Dr. Borut Jug
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Vascular Diseases, Ljubljana University Medical Centre, 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: heart failure; endothelial function; aortic diseases; vascular diseases
Dr. Peter E. Penson
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
2. Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
Interests: cardiovascular; pharmacology

Special Issue Information

For nearly seven decades, dyslipidemia has been widely recognized as one of the most important risk factors for the development and complications of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Large epidemiological and clinical trials have provided robust evidence in support of the fact that the magnitude of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, in front of all by statins, consistently predicts the reduction of ASCVD risk.

However, several questions related to more comprehensive, higher-quality management of elevated LDL-C levels remain to be answered. These include more consistent use of the highest possible doses of potent statins, easier prescription of combination therapies, faster and better identification of patients with dyslipidemia who would benefit from alternative treatment strategies, such as PCSK9 inhibition, as well as the issue of diagnosis and effective management of statin intolerance and its subjective equivalents. Additionally, the question of when to start and how aggressively to treat hypercholesterolemia in children, adolescents, and the elderly, as well as whether to treat with statins the ASCVD risk itself in very-high- and high-risk patients with “normal” (low) LDL-C levels.

Despite the unequivocal efficiency of statins, the issue of residual ASCVD risk related to dyslipidemia remains, even in patients with already low LDL-C, such as the challenge of the best possible management of patients with combined (mixed) hyperlipidemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia (lipid triad), or moderate hypertriglyceridemia. We face these challenges in most patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, increasing in prevalence.

Furthermore, the role of the increased levels and the potential clinical efficiency of much more effective lowering of lipoprotein (a) is an increasingly challenging topic. Although our armamentarium of available pharmacologic interventions is fortunately expanding, further well-designed studies are needed to assess the clinical effectiveness and long-term safety of any of these new pharmacological options.

The majority of up-to-date preventive cardiology guidelines encompass numerous, increasingly evidence-supported recommendations on the way to approach the difficulties of poor compliance and adherence to long-term lipid-lowering therapy. Further, different aspects of dyslipidemia diagnosis and therapy in the era of contemporary, so-called “4P” (predictive, preemptive, personalized, and participatory) medicine are worth discussing, primarily the perspectives of a more efficient use of individual genetic information for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In general, a more personalized but comprehensive approach is required instead of a “one size fits for all” intervention.

In summary, with this Special Issue of Metabolites, it is our aim to critically review available evidence on some of the above listed challenges that need to be met. We would prefer to discuss the best possible choices on the update of existing and on the development of novel lipid diagnostic and more effective pharmacotherapeutics to scale back the burden of ASCVD.

Prof. Dr. Zlatko Fras
Dr. Borut Jug
Prof. Dr. Manfredi Rizzo
Dr. Peter E. Penson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metabolites is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Challenges and Opportunities on Lipid Metabolism Disorders Diagnosis and Therapy: Novel Insights and Future Perspective
Metabolites 2021, 11(9), 611; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/metabo11090611 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Dyslipidemia has been globally recognized, for almost seven decades, as one of the most important risk factors for the development and complications of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Article
Betatrophin Levels Are Related to the Early Histological Findings in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Metabolites 2021, 11(7), 425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/metabo11070425 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 977
Abstract
Betatrophin, a liver hormone, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. We investigated the betatrophin levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and searched for any relationship with histological severity and metabolic parameters. Fifty males with NAFLD [Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 32); non-NASH (n [...] Read more.
Betatrophin, a liver hormone, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. We investigated the betatrophin levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and searched for any relationship with histological severity and metabolic parameters. Fifty males with NAFLD [Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 32); non-NASH (n = 18)] and 30 healthy controls were included. Plasma betatrophin was measured by ELISA method. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by HOMA-IR index. Histological features were scored by the semi quantitative classification and combined as the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Betatrophin levels in the non-NASH group were significantly higher than the controls. Betatrophin was positively correlated to the age, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and negatively correlated to the steatosis and NAS. In the stepwise linear regression analysis, the triglyceride (β = 0.457, p < 0.001), glucose (β = 0.281, p = 0.02) and NAS (β = −0.260, p = 0.03) were the independent determinants of betatrophin. Betatrophin levels are higher in the early stages of NAFLD and tend to decrease when the disease progresses. This could be an important preliminary mechanistic finding to explain the increased frequency of glucose intolerance during the course of NAFLD. Full article
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Article
Preliminary Results of CitraVes™ Effects on Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Waist Circumference in Healthy Subjects after 12 Weeks: A Pilot Open-Label Study
Metabolites 2021, 11(5), 276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/metabo11050276 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
Appropriate monitoring and control of modifiable risk factors, such as the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other types of dyslipidemia, have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, various nutraceuticals with lipid-lowering effects have gained attention. In [...] Read more.
Appropriate monitoring and control of modifiable risk factors, such as the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other types of dyslipidemia, have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, various nutraceuticals with lipid-lowering effects have gained attention. In addition to the plant-derived bioactive compounds, recent studies suggested that plant cells are able to release small lipoproteic structures named extracellular vesicles (EVs). The interaction between EVs and mammalian cells could lead to beneficial effects through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to assess the safety of the new patented plant-based product citraVes™, containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck juice, and to investigate its ability to modulate different CV risk factors in healthy subjects. A cohort of 20 healthy volunteers was recruited in a prospective open-label study. All participants received the supplement in a spray-dried formulation at a stable dose of 1000 mg/day for 3 months. Anthropometric and hematobiochemical parameters were analyzed at the baseline and after the follow-up period of 1 and 3 months. We observed that the supplement has an effect on two key factors of cardiometabolic risk in healthy subjects. A significant change in waist circumference was found in women after 4 (85.4 [79.9, 91.0] cm, p < 0.005) and 12 (85.0 [80.0, 90.0] cm, p < 0.0005) weeks, when compared to the baseline value (87.6 [81.7, 93.6] cm). No difference was found in men (baseline: 100.3 [95.4, 105.2] cm; 4 weeks: 102.0 [95.7, 108.3] cm; 12 weeks: 100.0 [95.3, 104.7] cm). The level of LDL-C was significantly lower at 12 weeks versus 4 weeks (p = 0.0064). Our study evaluated, for the first time, the effects of a natural product containing plant-derived EVs on modifiable risk factors in healthy volunteers. The results support the use of EV extracts to manage cardiometabolic risk factors successfully. Full article
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