Special Issue "Recent Advances in COVID-19 Receptor, Interaction, Biological Dynamic and Innovative Therapies"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Francesco Inchingolo
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Guest Editor
Dentistry at the School of Medicine, Director of School of specialization in Orthodontics, Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: scientific research activity in medicine and dentistry; stem cells; platelet derived growth factors; endodontics; geriatric dentistry; implantology; oral and maxillofacial pathology; oral and maxillofacial surgery; oral biology; oral medicine; othodontics; pediatric dentistry; periodontics; prosthodontics; dermatology; immunology; microbiology; public health and preventive medicine; biotechnology; sleep medicine; biochemistry and dental hygiene
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Prof. Dr. Gianfranco Favia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70121 Bari, Italy
2. Department of Urgency and Emergency, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: oro-facial oncology; pathology; molecular biology; reconstructive; regenerative; implantar and laser surgery
Prof. Dr. Gianluca M. Tartaglia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UOC Maxillo-Facial Surgery and Dentistry, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, 20100 Milan, Italy
Interests: oral health; cranio- and dentofacial growth; TMJ pathology in children and adults; oral rehabilitation
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Dr. Gianna Dipalma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; implant-supported rehabilitations; oral biology; oral medicine; orthodontics; pediatric dentistry; periodontics; prosthodontics; endodontics; geriatric dentistry; bone biology; oral pathology; public health and preventive medicine; platelet growth factors; blood derivates; Stem cells; bone regeneration; bone graft; tissue engineering; dental implant; microbiota; bioactive biomaterials; autologous tooth
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Felice Lorusso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Innovative Technologies in Medicine and Dentistry, BioClin Lab- CAST Center for Advanced Studies and Technology, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: implants surface treatments; biomimetic biomaterials; bone biology; nutraceutics
Dr. Ioana-Roxana Bordea
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oral Health, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400012 Cluj- Napoca, Romania
Interests: oral microbiota; oral health; lasers
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

State-of-the-art knowledge in biomolecular and receptor interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells has been involving to novel specific therapies to contrast the recent worldwide pandemic state. Moreover, the recent advances in treatment protocols and adjuvant supplement therapies seem to have provided a sensible increase in the clinical prognosis of the patients, as well as long-hauler subjects, affected by the severe disease. The target of these innovative approaches is oriented to increase the long-term predictability of the therapies and healing recovery of the patients affected severely by COVID-19. Therefore, the recent progress in biotechnologies and pharmacology has produced an increase in diagnostic and prevention capacity, as well as a significant decrease in the pressure on the healthcare systems correlated to the large-scale epidemic viral infection.

The present Special Issue aims to investigate the recent innovations and breakthroughs of medical and pharmacological therapies, adjuvant treatments, diagnostic and prevention protocols against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

In detail, in vivo original articles, in vitro papers, finite elements and biomolecular analysis, literature reviews and clinical studies will be considered for publication in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Francesco Inchingolo
Prof. Dr. Gianfranco Favia
Prof. Dr. Antonio Scarano
Prof. Dr. Gianluca M. Tartaglia
Dr. Gianna Dipalma
Dr. Felice Lorusso
Dr. Ioana-Roxana Bordea
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • human coronavirus
  • therapies
  • microbiome
  • oral mucosa
  • ACE2
  • adjuvant supplements
  • vaccines
  • diagnostic devices
  • vaccines
  • diagnostic devices
  • Endovir Stop spray

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Immunity Profiling of COVID-19 Infection, Dynamic Variations of Lymphocyte Subsets, a Comparative Analysis on Four Different Groups
Microorganisms 2021, 9(10), 2036; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9102036 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Background: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonia (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 in China, spreading worldwide. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the immunological response and the clinical subset of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19 infection. Methods: the study was [...] Read more.
Background: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonia (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019 in China, spreading worldwide. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the immunological response and the clinical subset of peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration in COVID-19 infection. Methods: the study was conducted on four different clinical groups (n = 4; total n = 138). Each individual was assigned to different groups based on specific criteria evaluated at the admission such as fever, dyspnea, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), oral-nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR, and thoracic CT-scan. Treatment was performed only after blood samples were collected from each patient (PP and PP) at day 1. The blood samples were analyzed and tested the same day (CBC and Flowcytometry). The positive–positive group (PP n = 45; F = 18/ M = 27; median age = 62.33), comprised individuals affected by COVID-19 who showed fever, dyspnea (ABG = pO2 < 60), confirmed positive by oral-nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR and with CT-scan showing ground-glass opacities. The negative–positive (NP; n = 37; F = 11/M = 26; median age = 75.94) or “COVID-like” group comprised individuals with fever and dyspnea (ABG = pO2 < 60), who tested negative to nasopharyngeal swab/RT-PCR, with CT-scans showing ground-glass opacities in the lungs. The negative–affected group (NA; n = 40; F = 14/M = 26; median age = 58.5) included individuals negative to COVID-19 (RT-PCR) but affected by different chronic respiratory diseases (the CT-scans didn’t show ground-glass opacities). Finally, the negative–negative group (NN; n = 16; F = 14/M = 2) included healthy patients (NN; n = 16; median age = 42.62). Data and findings were collected and compared. Results: Lymphocytes (%) cells showed a decline in COVID-19 patients. The subsets showed a significant association with the inflammatory status in COVID-19, especially with regard to increased neutrophils, T-killer, T-active, T-suppressor, and T-CD8+CD38+ in individuals belong to the either COVID-19 and Covid-like NP group. Conclusions: Peripheral lymphocyte subset alteration was associated with the clinical characteristics and progression of COVID-19. The level of sub-set cells T-lymphocytes (either high or low) and B-lymphocytes could be used as an independent predictor for COVID-19 severity and treatment efficacy. Full article
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Article
The Vitamin D, IL-6 and the eGFR Markers a Possible Way to Elucidate the Lung–Heart–Kidney Cross-Talk in COVID-19 Disease: A Foregone Conclusion
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1903; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9091903 - 07 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Background: Based on recent findings, we speculated the existence of the lung, heart, and kidney axis as the main pathway for the COVID-19 disease progression. Methods: This paper reports on an observational study conducted by a team of researchers and doctors of the [...] Read more.
Background: Based on recent findings, we speculated the existence of the lung, heart, and kidney axis as the main pathway for the COVID-19 disease progression. Methods: This paper reports on an observational study conducted by a team of researchers and doctors of the 118-Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department of SG Moscati of Taranto City in Italy. The study was conducted on a totality of 185 participants that were divided into three groups. The study group included COVID-19 affected patients (PP n = 80), the first control group included patients with different pathologies (non-COVID-19 NNp n = 62) of the SG Moscati Hospital, and the second control group included healthy individuals (NNh n = 43). The core of the current trial was focused on assessing the level of the vitamin D (serum 25(OH) D concentration), IL-6, and the renal glomerular filtrate (eGFR) in COVID-19 disease and non-COVID-19 patients in both groups. Results: It was observed that the majority of COVID-19-infected patients showed a progressive multi-organ involvement, especially in regard to the lung, kidney, and heart. The majority of the COVID-19 patients exhibited preexisting comorbidities which include cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal disorders accompanied by a severely low level of vitamin D, extremely high level of IL-6, and low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The significant overall damages exerted by the immune-mediated responses under the hyper-expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interleukins, such as IL-6, may be facilitated by either a decreased level of vitamin D or the ageing process. The reduced presence of vitamin D was often found together with a reduced functionality of renal activity, as revealed by the low eGFR, and both were seen to be concomitant with an increased mortality risk in patients with lung disorders and heart failure (HF), whether it is showed at baseline or it develops during manifestation of COVID-19. Therefore, the documentation of the modifiable risk factors related to SARS-CoV-2 and lung impairment in older patients with kidney and heart disease may help the clinician to better manage the situation. Conclusions: This paper addresses how a low level of vitamin D and older age may be indicative of systemic worsening in patients with COVID-19, with a goal of providing a broader context in which to view a better therapeutic approach. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Multifaceted COVID-19: CT Aspects of Its Atypical Pulmonary and Abdominal Manifestations and Complications in Adults and Children. A Pictorial Review
Microorganisms 2021, 9(10), 2037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9102037 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Our daily experience in a COVID hospital has allowed us to learn about this disease in many of its changing and unusual aspects. Some of these uncommon manifestations, however, appeared more frequently than others, giving shape to a multifaceted COVID-19 disease. This pictorial [...] Read more.
Our daily experience in a COVID hospital has allowed us to learn about this disease in many of its changing and unusual aspects. Some of these uncommon manifestations, however, appeared more frequently than others, giving shape to a multifaceted COVID-19 disease. This pictorial review has the aim to describe the radiological aspects of atypical presentations and of some complications of COVID-19 disease in adults and children and provide a simple guide for radiologists to become familiar with the multiform aspects of this disease. Full article
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Review
COVID-19 Infection in Children, Infants and Pregnant Subjects: An Overview of Recent Insights and Therapies
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1964; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9091964 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has involved a severe increase of cases worldwide in a wide range of populations. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate recent insights about COVID-19 infection in children, infants and pregnant subjects. Methods: a literature overview was [...] Read more.
Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has involved a severe increase of cases worldwide in a wide range of populations. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate recent insights about COVID-19 infection in children, infants and pregnant subjects. Methods: a literature overview was performed including clinical trials, in vitro studies, reviews and published guidelines regarding the present paper topic. A descriptive synthesis was performed to evaluate recent insights and the effectiveness of therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, infants and pregnant subjects. Results: Insufficient data are available regarding the relationship between COVID-19 and the clinical risk of spontaneous abortion and premature foetus death. A decrease in the incidence of COVID-19 could be correlated to a minor expression of ACE2 in childrens’ lungs. At present, a modulation of the dose-effect posology for children and infants is necessary. Conclusions: Pregnant vertical transmission has been hypothesised for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccines are necessary to achieve mass immunity for children and also pregnant subjects. Full article
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Other

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Hypothesis
Sars-CoV-2 Virus Infection May Interfere CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Megakaryocyte–Erythroid Progenitors Differentiation Contributing to Platelet Defection towards Insurgence of Thrombocytopenia and Thrombophilia
Microorganisms 2021, 9(8), 1632; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9081632 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4113
Abstract
To date, several cases of thrombosis have been confirmed to be related to Sars-CoV-2 infection. Multiple attempts detected the prolonged occurrence of Sars-CoV-2 viral RNA (long COVID) in whole blood suggesting that virus byproducts may remain within cells and tissues well over the [...] Read more.
To date, several cases of thrombosis have been confirmed to be related to Sars-CoV-2 infection. Multiple attempts detected the prolonged occurrence of Sars-CoV-2 viral RNA (long COVID) in whole blood suggesting that virus byproducts may remain within cells and tissues well over the disease has finished. Patients may develop severe thrombocytopenia, acute anemia of inflammation and, systemic thrombosis with the fatal course of disease, which is suggestive of further interferences of Sars-CoV-2 on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) within the differentiation process towards erythroid and megakaryocytic cells. Therefore, we speculated whether Sars-CoV-2 propagates in or compartmentalizes with hematopoietic progenitor, erythroid, and megakaryocytic cells as the main cause of thrombotic events in either COVID-19 patients or vaccinated individuals. Results: The Sars-CoV-2 RNA replication, protein translation and infectious particle formation as the spike proteins in hematopoietic cell lines take place via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) entry pathway within primary CD34+ HSCs inducing, ex vivo, the formation of defected erythroid and megakaryocytic cells that eventually become targets of humoral and adaptive immune cells. Conclusions: Viral particles from affected CD34+ HSCs or the cellular component of RBC units and eventually platelets, present the greatest risk for sever thrombosis-transmitted Sars-CoV-2 infections. Full article
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