Special Issue "Yeast in Winemaking"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hervé Alexandre
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR A 02.102, F-21000 Dijon, France
Interests: interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in wine; Brettanomyces; actor of wines spoilage; development of specific Brettanomyces detection methods
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Yeast is the main contributor of alcoholic fermentation in wine and has been the object of extensive research with two main focuses, the first one being controlling alcoholic fermentation and the second one improving wine sensorial profile. These last few years, the debate has shifted to a better understanding of wine ecology and to finding biological alternative to sulfite. In this regard, this Special Issue will present the latest discoveries on wine yeast ecology using metagenomic techniques that help to understand the influence of viticultural and enological practices in the yeast consortium. The scientific advances concerning the different strategies to improve the sensorial profile will receive special attention. Among the strategies, the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their properties, and their impact on the sensory profile will be reported. Yeast hybrids are another way to improve the sensorial profile of wines together with yeast nutrition. This last approach helps to control alcoholic fermentation but also impacts the volatile compounds produced by yeasts. Biological alternatives to sulfite need to understand spoilage microorganisms and interactions between microorganisms. Some of the articles to be published shall present some emerging technologies and approaches, like metagenomics, QTL mapping and metabolomics, and their applications that contribute to a better understanding of yeast interaction, yeast metabolism, and yeast genetics.

Prof. Hervé Alexandre
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • yeast
  • winemaking
  • alcoholic fermentation
  • non-Saccharomyces
  • emerging technologies

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Yeast in Winemaking”
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 940; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9050940 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Yeast in winemaking was first studied for its role in alcoholic fermentation, and has led to the publication of a huge amount of scientific articles [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)

Research

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Article
Do Metabolomics and Taxonomic Barcode Markers Tell the Same Story about the Evolution of Saccharomyces sensu stricto Complex in Fermentative Environments?
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8081242 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
Yeast taxonomy was introduced based on the idea that physiological properties would help discriminate species, thus assuming a strong link between physiology and taxonomy. However, the instability of physiological characteristics within species configured them as not ideal markers for species delimitation, shading the [...] Read more.
Yeast taxonomy was introduced based on the idea that physiological properties would help discriminate species, thus assuming a strong link between physiology and taxonomy. However, the instability of physiological characteristics within species configured them as not ideal markers for species delimitation, shading the importance of physiology and paving the way to the DNA-based taxonomy. The hypothesis of reconnecting taxonomy with specific traits from phylogenies has been successfully explored for Bacteria and Archaea, suggesting that a similar route can be traveled for yeasts. In this framework, thirteen single copy loci were used to investigate the predictability of complex Fourier Transform InfaRed spectroscopy (FTIR) and High-performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) profiles of the four historical species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group, both on resting cells and under short-term ethanol stress. Our data show a significant connection between the taxonomy and physiology of these strains. Eight markers out of the thirteen tested displayed high correlation values with LC-MS profiles of cells in resting condition, confirming the low efficacy of FTIR in the identification of strains of closely related species. Conversely, most genetic markers displayed increasing trends of correlation with FTIR profiles as the ethanol concentration increased, according to their role in the cellular response to different type of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
Enforced Mutualism Leads to Improved Cooperative Behavior between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8081109 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum are responsible for alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, respectively. Successful completion of both fermentations is essential for many styles of wine, and an understanding of how these species interact with each other, as well as the development of compatible [...] Read more.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum are responsible for alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, respectively. Successful completion of both fermentations is essential for many styles of wine, and an understanding of how these species interact with each other, as well as the development of compatible pairings of these species, will help to manage the process. However, targeted improvements of species interactions are difficult to perform, in part because of the chemical and biological complexity of natural grape juice. Synthetic ecological systems reduce this complexity and can overcome these difficulties. In such synthetic systems, mutualistic growth of different species can be enforced through the reciprocal exchange of essential nutrients. Here, we implemented a novel approach to evolve mutualistic traits by establishing a co-dependent relationship between S. cerevisiae BY4742Δthi4 and Lb. plantarum IWBT B038 by omitting different combinations of amino acids from a chemically defined synthetic medium simulating standard grape juice. After optimization, the two species were able to support the growth of each other when grown in the absence of appropriate combinations of amino acids. In these obligatory mutualistic conditions, BY4742Δthi4 and IWBT B038 were co-evolved for approximately 100 generations. The selected evolved isolates showed improved mutualistic growth and the growth patterns under non-selective conditions indicate the emergence of mutually beneficial adaptations independent of the synthetic selection pressure. The combined use of synthetic ecology and co-evolution is a promising strategy to better understand and biotechnologically improve microbial interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
Biotechnological Approach Based on Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starters for Reducing the Use of Sulfur Dioxide in Wine
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 738; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8050738 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Sulfites are considered the main additives in winemaking for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-oxidasic activities. The current concern about the potential negative effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on consumer health has focused the interest on replacing or reducing SO2 use. [...] Read more.
Sulfites are considered the main additives in winemaking for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-oxidasic activities. The current concern about the potential negative effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on consumer health has focused the interest on replacing or reducing SO2 use. Our work aims to develop a strategy based on the use of selected starter culture, able to perform wine fermentation without SO2 addition. Four selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae indigenous strains were tested as mixed starter cultures in laboratory scale fermentations. The starter culture, characterized by a similar percentage of dominance of both strains composing the mixed starter and able to produce a wine characterized by the best combination of chemical and aromatic characteristics, was chosen. This mixed culture was tested as a starter at pilot scale with and without SO2 addition, by using a higher inoculum level in the vinification without SO2. The selected starter confirmed higher dominance ability in vinification without SO2 addition than in SO2-added fermentation, demonstrating that sulfite addition is not a guarantee to reach an absolute dominance of starter culture on indigenous microflora. The proposed biotechnological tool allowed to produce good quality wines possessing also “functional properties”, as NO-SO2 added wines were characterized by high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
A Rapid Method for Selecting Non-Saccharomyces Strains with a Low Ethanol Yield
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 658; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8050658 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
The alcohol content in wine has increased due to external factors in recent decades. In recent reports, some non-Saccharomyces yeast species have been confirmed to reduce ethanol during the alcoholic fermentation process. Thus, an efficient screening of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with low [...] Read more.
The alcohol content in wine has increased due to external factors in recent decades. In recent reports, some non-Saccharomyces yeast species have been confirmed to reduce ethanol during the alcoholic fermentation process. Thus, an efficient screening of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with low ethanol yield is required due to the broad diversity of these yeasts. In this study, we proposed a rapid method for selecting strains with a low ethanol yield from forty-five non-Saccharomyces yeasts belonging to eighteen species. Single fermentations were carried out for this rapid selection. Then, sequential fermentations in synthetic and natural must were conducted with the selected strains to confirm their capacity to reduce ethanol compared with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that ten non-Saccharomyces strains were able to reduce the ethanol content, namely, Hanseniaspora uvarum (2), Issatchenkia terricola (1), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (2), Lachancea thermotolerans (1), Saccharomycodes ludwigii (1), Torulaspora delbrueckii (2), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (1). Compared with S. cerevisiae, the ethanol reduction of the selected strains ranged from 0.29 to 1.39% (v/v). Sequential inoculations of M. pulcherrima (Mp51 and Mp FA) and S. cerevisiae reduced the highest concentration of ethanol by 1.17 to 1.39% (v/v) in synthetic or natural must. Second, sequential fermentations with Z. bailii (Zb43) and T. delbrueckii (Td Pt) performed in natural must yielded ethanol reductions of 1.02 and 0.84% (v/v), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
New Insights into the Oenological Significance of Candida zemplinina: Impact of Selected Autochthonous Strains on the Volatile Profile of Apulian Wines
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 628; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8050628 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
In this investigation, we explored the oenological significance of Candida zemplinina (syn. Starmerella bacillaris) isolates from Apulian grape musts. Moreover, we provide the first evidence of the impact of different C. zemplinina strains on the wine aromatic properties tested as monocultures. We [...] Read more.
In this investigation, we explored the oenological significance of Candida zemplinina (syn. Starmerella bacillaris) isolates from Apulian grape musts. Moreover, we provide the first evidence of the impact of different C. zemplinina strains on the wine aromatic properties tested as monocultures. We described the diversity of C. zemplinina strains isolated from grapes and the variability of ‘volatile’ phenotypes associated with this intraspecific variability. Thirty-three isolates were characterized at strain level by PCR-based approach and, among these, 16 strains were identified and then tested by microfermentation tests carried out in grape must. Analyzed strains were low producers of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide, not able to decarboxylate a panel of representative amino acids, whereas they showed fructophilic character and significant glycerol production. Volatile profiles of produced wines were investigated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The Odor Activity Values of all molecules were calculated and 12 compounds showed values above their odor thresholds. Two selected strains (35NC1 and 15PR1) could be considered as possible starter cultures since they were able to positively affect the sensory properties of obtained wine. This report firstly supplies evidence on the strain-specific impact of different C. zemplinina strains on the final aroma of produced wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
Biodiversity among Brettanomyces bruxellensis Strains Isolated from Different Wine Regions of Chile: Key Factors Revealed about Its Tolerance to Sulphite
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8040557 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Brettanomyces bruxellensis is regarded as the main spoilage microorganism in the wine industry, owing to its production of off-flavours. It is difficult to eradicate owing to its high tolerance of adverse environmental conditions, such as low nutrient availability, low pH, and high levels [...] Read more.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis is regarded as the main spoilage microorganism in the wine industry, owing to its production of off-flavours. It is difficult to eradicate owing to its high tolerance of adverse environmental conditions, such as low nutrient availability, low pH, and high levels of ethanol and SO2. In this study, the production of volatile phenols and the growth kinetics of isolates from various regions of Chile were evaluated under stressful conditions. Through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, 15 strains were identified. These were grown in the presence of p-coumaric acid, a natural antimicrobial and the main precursor of off-flavours, and molecular sulfur dioxide (mSO2), an antimicrobial synthetic used in the wine industry. When both compounds were used simultaneously, there were clear signs of an improvement in the fitness of most of the isolates, which showed an antagonistic interaction in which p-coumaric acid mitigates the effects of SO2. Fourteen strains were able to produce 4-vinylphenol, which showed signs of phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase activity, and most of them produced 4-ethylphenol as a result of active vinylphenol reductase. These results demonstrate for the first time the serious implications of using p-coumaric acid, not only for the production of off-flavours, but also for its protective action against the toxic effects of SO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
Autophagic Proteome in Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains during Second Fermentation for Sparkling Wine Elaboration
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 523; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8040523 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
A correlation between autophagy and autolysis has been proposed in order to accelerate the acquisition of wine organoleptic properties during sparkling wine elaboration. In this context, a proteomic analysis was carried out in two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (P29, conventional sparkling wine strain [...] Read more.
A correlation between autophagy and autolysis has been proposed in order to accelerate the acquisition of wine organoleptic properties during sparkling wine elaboration. In this context, a proteomic analysis was carried out in two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (P29, conventional sparkling wine strain and G1, implicated in sherry wine elaboration) with the aim of studying the autophagy-related proteome and comparing the effect of CO2 overpressure during sparkling wine elaboration. In general, a detrimental effect of pressure and second fermentation development on autophagy-related proteome was observed in both strains, although it was more pronounced in flor yeast strain G1. Proteins mainly involved in autophagy regulation and autophagosome formation in flor yeast G1, and those required for vesicle nucleation and expansion in P29 strain, highlighted in sealed bottle. Proteins Sec2 and Sec18 were detected 3-fold under pressure conditions in P29 and G1 strains, respectively. Moreover, ‘fingerprinting’ obtained from multivariate data analysis established differences in autophagy-related proteome between strains and conditions. Further research is needed to achieve more solid conclusions and design strategies to promote autophagy for an accelerated autolysis, thus reducing cost and time production, as well as acquisition of good organoleptic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
Differential Analysis of Proteins Involved in Ester Metabolism in two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains during the Second Fermentation in Sparkling Wine Elaboration
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8030403 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
The aromatic metabolites derived from yeast metabolism determine the characteristics of aroma and taste in wines, so they are considered of great industrial interest. Volatile esters represent the most important group and therefore, their presence is extremely important for the flavor profile of [...] Read more.
The aromatic metabolites derived from yeast metabolism determine the characteristics of aroma and taste in wines, so they are considered of great industrial interest. Volatile esters represent the most important group and therefore, their presence is extremely important for the flavor profile of the wine. In this work, we use and compare two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains: P29, typical of sparkling wines resulting of second fermentation in a closed bottle; G1, a flor yeast responsible for the biological aging of Sherry wines. We aimed to analyze and compare the effect of endogenous CO2 overpressure on esters metabolism with the proteins related in these yeast strains, to understand the yeast fermentation process in sparkling wines. For this purpose, protein identification was carried out using the OFFGEL fractionator and the LTQ Orbitrap, following the detection and quantification of esters with gas chromatograph coupled to flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and stir-bar sorptive extraction, followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-TD-GC-MS). Six acetate esters, fourteen ethyl esters, and five proteins involved in esters metabolism were identified. Moreover, significant correlations were established between esters and proteins. Both strains showed similar behavior. According to these results, the use of this flor yeast may be proposed for the sparkling wine production and enhance the diversity and the typicity of sparkling wine yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Article
First Proteomic Approach to Identify Cell Death Biomarkers in Wine Yeasts during Sparkling Wine Production
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms7110542 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Apoptosis and later autolysis are biological processes which take place in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during industrial fermentation processes, which involve costly and time-consuming aging periods. Therefore, the identification of potential cell death biomarkers can contribute to the creation of a long-term strategy in order [...] Read more.
Apoptosis and later autolysis are biological processes which take place in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during industrial fermentation processes, which involve costly and time-consuming aging periods. Therefore, the identification of potential cell death biomarkers can contribute to the creation of a long-term strategy in order to improve and accelerate the winemaking process. Here, we performed a proteomic analysis based on the detection of possible apoptosis and autolysis protein biomarkers in two industrial yeast strains commonly used in post-fermentative processes (sparkling wine secondary fermentation and biological aging) under typical sparkling wine elaboration conditions. Pressure had a negatively effect on viability for flor yeast, whereas the sparkling wine strain seems to be more adapted to these conditions. Flor yeast strain experienced an increase in content of apoptosis-related proteins, glucanases and vacuolar proteases at the first month of aging. Significant correlations between viability and apoptosis proteins were established in both yeast strains. Multivariate analysis based on the proteome of each process allowed to distinguish among samples and strains. The proteomic profile obtained in this study could provide useful information on the selection of wine strains and yeast behavior during sparkling wine elaboration. Additionally, the use of flor yeasts for sparkling wine improvement and elaboration is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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Review

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Review
Yeast–Yeast Interactions: Mechanisms, Methodologies and Impact on Composition
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8040600 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
During the winemaking process, alcoholic fermentation is carried out by a consortium of yeasts in which interactions occurs. The consequences of these interactions on the wine matrix have been widely described for several years with the aim of controlling the winemaking process as [...] Read more.
During the winemaking process, alcoholic fermentation is carried out by a consortium of yeasts in which interactions occurs. The consequences of these interactions on the wine matrix have been widely described for several years with the aim of controlling the winemaking process as well as possible. In this review, we highlight the wide diversity of methodologies used to study these interactions, and their underlying mechanisms and consequences on the final wine composition and characteristics. The wide variety of matrix parameters, yeast couples, and culture conditions have led to contradictions between the results of the different studies considered. More recent aspects of modifications in the composition of the matrix are addressed through different approaches that have not been synthesized recently. Non-volatile and volatile metabolomics, as well as sensory analysis approaches are developed in this paper. The description of the matrix composition modification does not appear sufficient to explain interaction mechanisms, making it vital to take an integrated approach to draw definite conclusions on them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)

Other

Opinion
Wine Yeast Terroir: Separating the Wheat from the Chaff—for an Open Debate
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 787; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms8050787 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Wine terroir is characterized by a specific taste and style influenced by the cultivar of the fermented grapes, geographical factors such as the vineyard, mesoclimate, topoclimate, and microclimate, soil geology and pedology, and the agronomic approach used. These characteristics together define the concept [...] Read more.
Wine terroir is characterized by a specific taste and style influenced by the cultivar of the fermented grapes, geographical factors such as the vineyard, mesoclimate, topoclimate, and microclimate, soil geology and pedology, and the agronomic approach used. These characteristics together define the concept of “terroir”. Thus, regional distinctive flavors in wine have been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding the link between the wine and the vineyard. Indeed, the identification of key environmental elements involved in the regional variation of grape and wine quality characteristics is a critical feature for improving wine production in terms of consumer preference and economic appreciation. Many studies have demonstrated the role of abiotic factors in grape composition and consequently in wine style. Biotic factors are also involved such as grape microbial communities. However, the occurrence and effects of region-specific microbiota in defining wine characteristics are more controversial issues. Indeed, several studies using high throughput sequencing technologies have made it possible to describe microbial communities and revealed a link between grape must and soil microbial communities, and the geography of the territory. Based on these observations, the concept of “microbial terroir” emerged. However, this concept has been subject to contradictory studies. The aim of this opinion article is to take a step back and examine in perspective the concept of microbial terroir, by comparing numerous data from different studies and providing arguments in favor of or against this concept to stimulate discussion and point out that experimental research is still needed to study the contribution of this assembly of microorganisms to the final product and to support or refute the concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast in Winemaking)
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