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Special Issue "Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Carmen Cuadrado
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid, Spain
Interests: plant food allergens (legumes and nuts); reduction of the allergenic potential through processing; proteomic and genomic analysis; detection of nuts allergens by RT-PCR and biosensors in processed foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Karim Allaf
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LMTAI; LaSIE, UMR 7356 CNRS; La Rochelle University Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle, France
Interests: thermodynamics: transformations under extreme conditions; modeling of transfer phenomena; intensification of unit operations; instant controlled pressure-drop DIC; microbiological decontamination (vegetative and spore forms); deallergenation; intensification of Industrial processes and unit operations for highly performant industrial operations (energy consumption, environmental impact, kinetics) and high-quality attributes of the final product: drying, extraction, thermochemical transformations; biofuels: biodiesel by in situ transesterification of microalgae and oilseeds (camelina…), depolymerization and thermochemical hydrolysis of cellulosic agro-resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New processes for microbiological decontamination, deallergenation, and texturing while preserving product quality have become key elements of food technology. The ultra-high-pressure (UHP) technology specifically allows purely mechanical processing, while instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) is a high-temperature/short-time (HT/ST) operation that destroys bacteria under both vegetative and spore forms and also allows the reduction and, possibly, complete elimination of allergens. This Special Issue aims to collect both fundamental research works and articles on technological applications.

Dr. Carmen Cuadrado
Prof. Dr. Karim Allaf
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ultra-High-Pressure UHP
  • Instant Controlled Pressure Drop DIC
  • High-Temperature/Short-Time HT/ST treatment
  • Vegetative and spore bacteria
  • Deallergenation

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Instant Controlled Pressure Drop as Blanching and Texturing Pre-Treatment to Preserve the Antioxidant Compounds of Red Dried Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25184132 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Red beetroot is rich in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins, among others. According to selected processing methods, the bioaccessibility of these compounds could be either enhanced or decreased. This study evaluated the effect of four different drying conditions: (1) Traditional [...] Read more.
Red beetroot is rich in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins, among others. According to selected processing methods, the bioaccessibility of these compounds could be either enhanced or decreased. This study evaluated the effect of four different drying conditions: (1) Traditional Drying (TD), (2) Swell Drying (SD), (3) DIC Blanching + Traditional Drying (BTD), and (4) DIC Blanching + Swell Drying (BSD) on the antioxidant content and the antioxidant activity of red beetroots. Obtained results showed that in all the cases, by comparing to Traditional Drying (TD), the coupling of a DIC Blanching pre-treatment to a Swell Drying treatment (BSD) maintained or enhanced the preservation of the Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC), the Total Flavonoids Compounds (TFC), the Betanin Concentration (BC), the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and the Free Radical Scavenging Activity by DPPH (IC50) of red beetroots. Various studies have shown that thanks to the expanded and porous structure triggered by the Swell Drying process, it has been possible to achieve better antioxidants extraction and better whole quality. Hence, by coupling DIC as a blanching–steaming pre-treatment, it was possible to preserve better the antioxidant content and the antioxidant activity of red dried beetroots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-1927 with Skim Milk Processed via Ultra-High-Pressure Homogenization
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3863; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25173863 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Several health benefits are associated with the consumption of probiotic foods. Lyophilized probiotic cultures are commonly used to manufacture probiotic-containing products. Spray drying (SDR) is a cost-effective process to microencapsulate probiotics. However, the high temperatures of the drying air in SDR can inactivate [...] Read more.
Several health benefits are associated with the consumption of probiotic foods. Lyophilized probiotic cultures are commonly used to manufacture probiotic-containing products. Spray drying (SDR) is a cost-effective process to microencapsulate probiotics. However, the high temperatures of the drying air in SDR can inactivate significant numbers of probiotic cells. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) processing can modify the configuration of proteins found in skim milk which may increase its protective properties as microencapsulating agent towards probiotic cells during SDR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microencapsulating probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-1927 (LP) with UHPH-treated skim milk after SDR or freeze drying (FD). Dispersions containing LP were made with either UHPH-treated (at 150 MPa or 300 MPa) or untreated skim milk and dried via concurrent SDR (CCSD), mixed-flow SDR (MXSD) or FD. Higher cell survival (%) of LP was found in powders microencapsulated with 150 MPa-treated skim milk than in those microencapsulated with non-UHPH-treated and 300 MPa-treated skim milk via FD followed by MXSD and CCSD, respectively. Increasing UHPH pressures increased the particle size of powders produced via CCSD; and reduced particle agglomeration of powders produced via MXSD and FD. This study demonstrated that UHPH processes improves the effectiveness of skim milk as a microencapsulating agent for LP, creating powders that could be used in probiotic foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Microbial Shelf-Life, Starch Physicochemical Properties, and In Vitro Digestibility of Pigeon Pea Milk Altered by High Pressure Processing
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2516; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25112516 - 28 May 2020
Viewed by 864
Abstract
This study examined the effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) on microbial shelf-life, starch contents, and starch gelatinization characteristics of pigeon pea milk. HPP at 200 MPa/240 s, 400 MPa/210 s, and 600 MPa/150 s reduced the count of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pigeon [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) on microbial shelf-life, starch contents, and starch gelatinization characteristics of pigeon pea milk. HPP at 200 MPa/240 s, 400 MPa/210 s, and 600 MPa/150 s reduced the count of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pigeon pea milk by more than 5 log CFU/mL. During the subsequent 21-day refrigerated storage period, the same level of microbial safety was achieved in both HPP-treated and high-temperature short-time (HTST)-pasteurized pigeon pea milk. Differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscope revealed that HPP at 600 MPa and HTST caused a higher degree of gelatinization in pigeon pea milk, with enthalpy of gelatinization (∆H) being undetectable for both treatments. In contrast, HPP at 400 MPa led to an increase in the onset temperature, peak temperature, and conclusion temperature, and a decrease in ∆H, with gelatinization percentages only reaching 18.4%. Results of an in vitro digestibility experiment indicate that maximum resistant starch and slowly digestible starch contents as well as a decreased glycemic index were achieved with HPP at 400 MPa. These results demonstrate that HPP not only prolongs the shelf-life of pigeon pea milk but also alters the structural characteristics of starches and enhances the nutritional value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Influence of Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) on Allergenic Potential of Tree Nuts
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1742; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25071742 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Pistachio and cashew contain allergenic proteins, which causes them to be removed from the diet of allergic people. Previous studies have demonstrated that food processing (thermal and non-thermal) can produce structural and/or conformational changes in proteins by altering their allergenic capacity. In this [...] Read more.
Pistachio and cashew contain allergenic proteins, which causes them to be removed from the diet of allergic people. Previous studies have demonstrated that food processing (thermal and non-thermal) can produce structural and/or conformational changes in proteins by altering their allergenic capacity. In this study, the influence of instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) on pistachio and cashew allergenic capacity has been studied. Western blot was carried out using IgG anti-11S and anti-2S and IgE antibodies from sera of patients sensitized to pistachio and cashew. DIC processing causes changes in the electrophoretic pattern, reducing the number and intensity of protein bands, as the pressure and temperature treatment increment, which results in a remarkable decrease in detection of potentially allergenic proteins. The harshest conditions of DIC (7 bar, 120 s) markedly reduce the immunodetection of allergenic proteins, not only by using IgG (anti 11S and anti 2S) but also when IgE sera from sensitized patients were used for Western blots. Such immunodetection is more affected in pistachio than in cashew nuts, but is not completely removed. Therefore, cashew proteins are possibly more resistant than pistachio proteins. According these findings, instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) can be considered a suitable technique in order to obtain hypoallergenic tree nut flour to be used in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Effect of Instant Controlled Pressure-Drop on the Non-Nutritional Compounds of Seeds and Sprouts of Common Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1464; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25061464 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The common bean is an important caloric-protein food source. However, its nutritional value may be affected by the presence of non-nutritional compounds, which decrease the assimilation of some nutrients; however, at low concentrations, they show a beneficial effect. Germination and treatment by controlled [...] Read more.
The common bean is an important caloric-protein food source. However, its nutritional value may be affected by the presence of non-nutritional compounds, which decrease the assimilation of some nutrients; however, at low concentrations, they show a beneficial effect. Germination and treatment by controlled pressure-drop (DIC, French acronym of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée) are methods that modify the concentration of these components. The objective of this work was to evaluate the change in the non-nutritional composition of bean seeds and sprouts by DIC treatment. The results show that with the germination, the concentration of phenolic and tannin compounds increased 99% and 73%, respectively, as well as the quantity of saponins (65.7%), while phytates and trypsin inhibitors decreased 26% and 42%, respectively. When applying the DIC treatment, the content of phytates (23–29%), saponins (44%) and oligosaccharides increased in bean sprouts and decreased phenolic compounds (4–14%), tannins (23% to 72%), and trypsin inhibitors (95.5%), according to the pressure and time conditions applied. This technology opens the way to new perspectives, especially to more effective use of legumes as a source of vegetable protein or bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Antioxidant Content of Frozen, Convective Air-Dried, Freeze-Dried, and Swell-Dried Chokecherries (Prunus virginiana L.)
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25051190 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) is rich in bioactive molecules as phenolics, which can act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, among others; however, due to its high perishability, most of this fruit is wasted. Freezing and sun drying have been the most adopted techniques [...] Read more.
Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) is rich in bioactive molecules as phenolics, which can act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, among others; however, due to its high perishability, most of this fruit is wasted. Freezing and sun drying have been the most adopted techniques to avoid its postharvest deterioration. Nevertheless, both processes have presented some drawbacks as high storage costs and losses of bioactive molecules. Therefore, to preserve these molecules, this study compared the impact of convective airflow drying (CAD), freezing (FR), freeze drying (FD), and swell drying (SD). Total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), kuromanin concentration (KC), and antioxidant activity (antiradical activity (ARA) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC)) of chokecherries were measured. “Swell drying” is a drying process coupling convective airflow drying to the Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) expansion. A central composite rotatable design was applied to optimize the DIC variables and responses. Results showed that both freezing and swell drying effectively preserve the TPC, TFC, KC, and ARA. Moreover, SD samples also presented the highest TEAC. Contrary, in the case of CAD, it caused the highest losses of both antioxidant content and activity. Swell drying remedies the shrinkage and collapsing of dried food structure, which results in a better antioxidants extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Combination of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Ultrafiltration to Generate a New Emulsifying Ingredient from Egg Yolk
Molecules 2020, 25(5), 1184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25051184 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Egg yolk granule phosvitin (45 kDa) is a phosphoprotein known for its emulsifying properties. Recently, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of granule induced the transfer of phosvitin to the soluble plasma fraction. This project evaluated the performance of the ultrafiltration (UF) used to [...] Read more.
Egg yolk granule phosvitin (45 kDa) is a phosphoprotein known for its emulsifying properties. Recently, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of granule induced the transfer of phosvitin to the soluble plasma fraction. This project evaluated the performance of the ultrafiltration (UF) used to concentrate phosvitin from the plasma fraction to produce a natural emulsifier. Phosvitin was characterized in plasma from a pressure-treated granule (1.73 ± 0.07% w/w) and in its UF retentate (26.00 ± 4.12% w/w). The emulsifying properties of both retentates were evaluated. The emulsion prepared with phosvitin-enriched retentate was more resistant to flocculation and creaming. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a network of aggregated protein similar to a gel, which encapsulated oil droplets in emulsions made with UF-retentate of plasma from pressure-treated granule. However, although sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that β-phosvitin is recovered in the cream, it is difficult to attribute the improved emulsifying properties of the UF-retentate of plasma from pressure-treated granules only to phosvitin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Changes Induced by Pressure Processing on Immunoreactive Proteins of Tree Nuts
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 954; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25040954 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Tree nuts confer many health benefits due to their high content of vitamins and antioxidants, and they are increasingly consumed in the last few years. Food processing is an important industrial tool to modify allergenic properties of foods, in addition to ensuring safety [...] Read more.
Tree nuts confer many health benefits due to their high content of vitamins and antioxidants, and they are increasingly consumed in the last few years. Food processing is an important industrial tool to modify allergenic properties of foods, in addition to ensuring safety and enhancing organoleptic characteristics. The effect of high pressure, without and with heating, on SDS-PAGE and immunodetection profile of potential allergenic proteins (anti-11S, anti-2S and anti-LTP) of pistachio, cashew, peanut, hazelnut, almond, and chestnut was investigated. Processing based on heat and/or pressure and ultra-high pressure (HHP, 300–600 MPa) without heating was applied. After treating the six tree nuts with pressure combined with heat, a progressive diminution of proteins with potential allergenic properties was observed. Moreover, some tree nuts proteins (pistachio, cashew, and peanut) seemed to be more resistant to technological processing than others (hazelnut and chestnut). High pressure combined with heating processing markedly reduce tree nut allergenic potential as the pressure and treatment time increases. HHP do not alter hazelnut and almond immunoreactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Article
Effect of Instant Controlled Pressure-Drop (DIC), Cooking and Germination on Non-Nutritional Factors of Common Vetch (Vicia sativa spp.)
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25010151 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
Legumes are widely consumed by humans, being an important source of nutrients; however, they contain non-nutritional factors (NNFs), such as phytic acid (IP6), raffinose, stachyose, total phenolic compounds, condensed tannins, and flavonoids, that have negative effects on human health. Although vetches [...] Read more.
Legumes are widely consumed by humans, being an important source of nutrients; however, they contain non-nutritional factors (NNFs), such as phytic acid (IP6), raffinose, stachyose, total phenolic compounds, condensed tannins, and flavonoids, that have negative effects on human health. Although vetches (Vicia sativa) are widely cultivated, they are not intended for human feeding due to their contents of NNF. Usually, the NNF are removed by cooking or germinating; however, germination is a process that requires extended time, and cooking may compromise the viability of some nutrients. To promote vetches for human consumption, the effect of the Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) process was studied as an alternative to cooking and germinating to decrease NNF contents. Results showed that compared to raw vetches, DIC treatment reduced total phenolic compounds (48%), condensed tannins (28%), flavonoids (65%), IP6 (92%), raffinose (77%), and stachyose (92%). These results are very similar to the ones achieved by traditional ways of removing NNF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Review

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Review
High Homogenization Pressures to Improve Food Quality, Functionality and Sustainability
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3305; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25143305 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Interest in high homogenization pressure technology has grown over the years. It is a green technology with low energy consumption that does not generate high CO2 emissions or polluting effluents. Its main food applications derive from its effect on particle size, causing [...] Read more.
Interest in high homogenization pressure technology has grown over the years. It is a green technology with low energy consumption that does not generate high CO2 emissions or polluting effluents. Its main food applications derive from its effect on particle size, causing a more homogeneous distribution of fluid elements (particles, globules, droplets, aggregates, etc.) and favoring the release of intracellular components, and from its effect on the structure and configuration of chemical components such as polyphenols and macromolecules such as carbohydrates (fibers) and proteins (also microorganisms and enzymes). The challenges of the 21st century are leading the processed food industry towards the creation of food of high nutritional quality and the use of waste to obtain ingredients with specific properties. For this purpose, soft and nonthermal technologies such as high pressure homogenization have huge potential. The objective of this work is to review how the need to combine safety, functionality and sustainability in the food industry has conditioned the application of high-pressure homogenization technology in the last decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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Review
A Review on the Effect of High Pressure Processing (HPP) on Gelatinization and Infusion of Nutrients
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2369; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25102369 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
High pressure processing (HPP) is a novel technology that involves subjecting foods to high hydrostatic pressures of the order of 100–600 MPa. This technology has been proven successful for inactivation of numerous microorganisms, spores and enzymes in foods, leading to increased shelf life. [...] Read more.
High pressure processing (HPP) is a novel technology that involves subjecting foods to high hydrostatic pressures of the order of 100–600 MPa. This technology has been proven successful for inactivation of numerous microorganisms, spores and enzymes in foods, leading to increased shelf life. HPP is not limited to cold pasteurization, but has many other applications. The focus of this paper is to explore other applications of HPP, such as gelatinization, forced water absorption and infusion of nutrients. The use of high pressure in producing cold gelatinizing effects, imparting unique properties to food and improving food quality will be also discussed, highlighting the latest published studies and the innovative methods adopted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities and Challenges in High Pressure Processing of Foods)
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