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Special Issue "Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Pezzani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1 OU Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
2 Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca Oncologica di Base, Padova, Italy
Interests: plant medicinal chemistry; phytotherapy research; oncology; preclinical research; endocrinology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants contain a plethora of diverse biochemical compounds. They are molecules which are necessary for plant survival, but they can also have a different fate: helping in the fight against human diseases. For centuries, humanity has used plant natural extracts to cure the most varied disorders, including cardiac disfunction, neoplasia, diabetes, circulation problems, and many others. However, only in recent decades have these ethnotraditional, evidenced-based, folkloric, anecdotic uses been converted into a scientific tool, with a real pharmacological, pathophysiological, and rational background. Despite strong advances in medicine, numerous diseases remain without practical treatment or have to deal with heavy drug side effects. In this regard, any effort to improve human health is a new path to follow, and plant natural compounds represent an infinite reserve of molecules that can be explored. Undeniably, many therapeutic properties of plants are still to be discovered. This Special Issue is intended to substantially contribute to our knowledge on their curative properties.   

The Special Issue aims to uncover novel unconventional, alternative, and original characteristics of plant-derived compounds with a distinctive emphasis on biological and pharmacological activities. Moreover, phytocomplex (chemical compounds derived in full from plants) synergic effects, as well as the effects of single molecules will be explored in preclinical models, including normal and cancer cells, animals, and human-derived samples. Reviews investigating plant product effects and/or describing the state-of-the-art are welcome, considering the increasing role of plant-derived molecules in daily use.

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Pezzani
Prof. Dr. Sara Vitalini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Natural compounds
  • Plant-derived products
  • Plant natural products
  • Biological and biochemical acitivity
  • Pharmacological properties
  • Plant pharmacology
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant medicine
  • Plant medicinal chemistry
  • Phytocomplex effects
  • Plant extracts and phytochemicals in preclinical models
  • Phytotherapy and natural medicine

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Bioactive Abietane-Type Diterpenoid Glycosides from Leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Lamiaceae)
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26144121 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 916
Abstract
In this study, two previously undescribed diterpenoids, (5R,10S,16R)-11,16,19-trihydroxy-12-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-3,8,11,13-abietatetraene-7-one (1) and (5R,10S,16R)-11,16-dihydroxy-12-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-4-carboxy-3,8,11,13-abietatetraene-7-one (2 [...] Read more.
In this study, two previously undescribed diterpenoids, (5R,10S,16R)-11,16,19-trihydroxy-12-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-3,8,11,13-abietatetraene-7-one (1) and (5R,10S,16R)-11,16-dihydroxy-12-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-4-carboxy-3,8,11,13-abietatetraene-7-one (2), and one known compound, the C13-nor-isoprenoid glycoside byzantionoside B (3), were isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum L. (Lamiaceae). Structures were established based on spectroscopic and spectrometric data and by comparison with literature data. The three terpenoids, along with five phenylpropanoids: 6′-O-caffeoyl-12-glucopyranosyloxyjasmonic acid (4), jionoside C (5), jionoside D (6), brachynoside (7), and incanoside C (8), previously isolated from the same source, were tested for their in vitro antidiabetic (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), anticancer (Hs578T and MDA-MB-231), and anticholinesterase activities. In an in vitro test against carbohydrate digestion enzymes, compound 6 showed the most potent effect against mammalian α-amylase (IC50 3.4 ± 0.2 μM) compared to the reference standard acarbose (IC50 5.9 ± 0.1 μM). As yeast α-glucosidase inhibitors, compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 displayed moderate inhibitory activities, ranging from 24.6 to 96.0 μM, compared to acarbose (IC50 665 ± 42 μM). All of the tested compounds demonstrated negligible anticholinesterase effects. In an anticancer test, compounds 3 and 5 exhibited moderate antiproliferative properties with IC50 of 94.7 ± 1.3 and 85.3 ± 2.4 μM, respectively, against Hs578T cell, while the rest of the compounds did not show significant activity (IC50 > 100 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
Glochidion littorale Leaf Extract Exhibits Neuroprotective Effects in Caenorhabditis elegans via DAF-16 Activation
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 3958; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26133958 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
A number of plants used in folk medicine in Thailand and Eastern Asia are attracting interest due to the high bioactivities of their extracts. The aim of this study was to screen the edible leaf extracts of 20 plants found in Thailand and [...] Read more.
A number of plants used in folk medicine in Thailand and Eastern Asia are attracting interest due to the high bioactivities of their extracts. The aim of this study was to screen the edible leaf extracts of 20 plants found in Thailand and investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of the most bioactive sample. The total phenol and flavonoid content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined for all 20 leaf extracts. Based on these assays, Glochidion littorale leaf extract (GLE), which showed a high value in all tested parameters, was used in further experiments to evaluate its effects on neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. GLE treatment ameliorated H2O2-induced oxidative stress by attenuating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and protected the worms against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects observed may be associated with the activation of the transcription factor DAF-16. The characterization of this extract by LC-MS identified several phenolic compounds, including myricetin, coumestrin, chlorogenic acid, and hesperidin, which may play a key role in neuroprotection. This study reports the novel neuroprotective activity of GLE, which may be used to develop treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of a γ-Lactone Isolated from Ostrich Oil of Struthio camelus (Ratite) and Its Formulated Nano-Emulsion in Formalin-Induced Paw Edema
Molecules 2021, 26(12), 3701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26123701 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The ostrich oil of Struthio camelus (Ratite) found uses in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory in eczema and contact dermatitis. The anti-inflammatory effect of a γ-lactone (5-hexyl-3H-furan-2-one) isolated from ostrich oil and its formulated nano-emulsion in formalin-induced paw edema was investigated in this [...] Read more.
The ostrich oil of Struthio camelus (Ratite) found uses in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory in eczema and contact dermatitis. The anti-inflammatory effect of a γ-lactone (5-hexyl-3H-furan-2-one) isolated from ostrich oil and its formulated nano-emulsion in formalin-induced paw edema was investigated in this study. Ostrich oil was saponified using a standard procedure; the aqueous residue was fractionated, purified, and characterized as γ-lactone (5-hexyl-3H-furan-2-one) through the interpretation of IR, NMR, and MS analyses. The γ-lactone was formulated as nano-emulsion using methylcellulose (MC) for oral solubilized form. The γ-lactone methylcellulose nanoparticles (γ-lactone-MC-NPs) were characterized for their size, shape, and encapsulation efficiency with a uniform size of 300 nm and 59.9% drug content. The γ-lactone was applied topically, while the formulated nanoparticles (NPs) were administered orally to rats. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac gel) was used as a reference drug for topical use and ibuprofen suspension for oral administration. Edema was measured using the plethysmograph method. Both γ-lactone and γ-lactone-MC-NPs showed reduction of formalin-induced paw edema in rats and proved to be better than the reference drugs; diclofenac gel and ibuprofen emulsion. Histological examination of the skin tissue revealed increased skin thickness with subepidermal edema and mixed inflammatory cellular infiltration, which were significantly reduced by the γ-lactone compared to the positive control (p-value = 0.00013). Diuretic and toxicity studies of oral γ-lactone-MC-NPs were performed. No diuretic activity was observed. However, lethargy, drowsiness, and refusal to feeding observed may limit its oral administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
BDNF as a Putative Target for Standardized Extract of Ginkgo biloba-Induced Persistence of Object Recognition Memory
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3326; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26113326 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Despite considerable progress on the study of the effect of standardized extract of Gingko biloba (EGb) on memory processes, our understanding of its role in the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) and the molecular mechanism underlying its effect, particularly episodic-like memory, is limited. [...] Read more.
Despite considerable progress on the study of the effect of standardized extract of Gingko biloba (EGb) on memory processes, our understanding of its role in the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) and the molecular mechanism underlying its effect, particularly episodic-like memory, is limited. We here investigated the effects of EGb on the long-term retention of recognition memory and its persistence and BDNF expression levels in the dorsal hippocampal formation (DHF). Adult male Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were handled for 10 min/5 day. On day 6, the animals were treated with vehicle or 0.4 mg/kg diazepam (control groups) or with EGb (250, 500 or 100 mg/kg) 30 min before the training session (TR1), in which the animals were exposed to two sample objects. On day 7, all rats underwent a second training session (TR2) as described in the TR1 but without drug treatment. Object recognition memory (ORM) was evaluated on day 8 (retention test, T1) and day 9 (persistence test, T2). At the end of T1or T2, animals were decapitated, and DHF samples were frozen at −80 °C for analyses of the differential expression of BDNF by Western blotting. EGb-treated groups spent more time exploring the novel object in T2 and showed the highest recognition index (RI) values during the T1 and T2, which was associated with upregulation of BDNF expression in the DHF in a dose-and session-dependent manner. Our data reveal, for the first time, that EGb treatment before acquisition of ORM promotes persistence of LTM by BDNF differential expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
Astragaloside IV Suppresses Hepatic Proliferation in Regenerating Rat Liver after 70% Partial Hepatectomy via Down-Regulation of Cell Cycle Pathway and DNA Replication
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2895; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26102895 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is one of the major bio-active ingredients of huang qi which is the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus (a traditional Chinese medicinal plant). The pharmacological effects of AS-IV, including anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects have been actively studied, however, the [...] Read more.
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is one of the major bio-active ingredients of huang qi which is the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus (a traditional Chinese medicinal plant). The pharmacological effects of AS-IV, including anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects have been actively studied, however, the effects of AS-IV on liver regeneration have not yet been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of AS-IV on regenerating liver after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) in rats. Differentially expressed mRNAs, proliferative marker and growth factors were analyzed. AS-IV (10 mg/kg) was administrated orally 2 h before surgery. We found 20 core genes showed effects of AS-IV, many of which were involved with functions related to DNA replication during cell division. AS-IV down-regulates MAPK signaling, PI3/Akt signaling, and cell cycle pathway. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and cyclin D1 expression were also decreased by AS-IV administration. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1, growth regulation signal) was slightly increased. In short, AS-IV down-regulated proliferative signals and genes related to DNA replication. In conclusion, AS-IV showed anti-proliferative activity in regenerating liver tissue after 70% PHx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
Protective Effects of Swertiamarin against Methylglyoxal-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Improving Oxidative Stress in Rat Kidney Epithelial (NRK-52E) Cells
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2748; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26092748 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Increased blood glucose in diabetic individuals results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), causing various adverse effects on kidney cells, thereby leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, the antiglycative potential of Swertiamarin (SM) isolated from the methanolic extract [...] Read more.
Increased blood glucose in diabetic individuals results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), causing various adverse effects on kidney cells, thereby leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, the antiglycative potential of Swertiamarin (SM) isolated from the methanolic extract of E. littorale was explored. The effect of SM on protein glycation was studied by incubating bovine serum albumin with fructose at 60 °C in the presence and absence of different concentrations of swertiamarin for 24 h. For comparative analysis, metformin was also used at similar concentrations as SM. Further, to understand the role of SM in preventing DN, in vitro studies using NRK-52E cells were done by treating cells with methylglyoxal (MG) in the presence and absence of SM. SM showed better antiglycative potential as compared to metformin. In addition, SM could prevent the MG mediated pathogenesis in DN by reducing levels of argpyrimidine, oxidative stress and epithelial mesenchymal transition in kidney cells. SM also downregulated the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. This study, for the first time, reports the antiglycative potential of SM and also provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms by which SM prevents toxicity of MG on rat kidney cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
Constituents of Aquilaria sinensis Leaves Upregulate the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteases 2 and 9
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26092537 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
In this novel study, we isolated 28 compounds from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg based on a bioassay-guided procedure and also discovered the possible matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) modulatory effect of pheophorbide A (PA). To evaluate the regulatory [...] Read more.
In this novel study, we isolated 28 compounds from the leaves of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg based on a bioassay-guided procedure and also discovered the possible matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) modulatory effect of pheophorbide A (PA). To evaluate the regulatory activity on MMP-2 and MMP-9, the HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells were treated with various concentrations of extracted materials and isolated compounds. PA was extracted by methanol from the leaves of A. sinensis and separated from the fraction of the partitioned ethyl acetate layer. PA is believed to be an active component for MMP expression since it exhibited significant stimulation on MMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity. When treating with 50 μM of PA, the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased 1.9-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. PA also exhibited no cytotoxicity against HT-1080 cells when the cell viability was monitored. Furthermore, no significant MMP activity was observed when five PA analogues were evaluated. This study is the first to demonstrate that C-17 of PA is the deciding factor in determining the bioactivity of the compound. The MMP-2 and proMMP-9 modulatory activity of PA indicate its potential applications for reducing scar formation and comparative medical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
Enhancement of β-Glucan Biological Activity Using a Modified Acid-Base Extraction Method from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26082113 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Beta glucan (β-glucan) has promising bioactive properties. Consequently, the use of β-glucan as a food additive is favored with the dual-purpose potential of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Our aim was to evaluate the biological activity [...] Read more.
Beta glucan (β-glucan) has promising bioactive properties. Consequently, the use of β-glucan as a food additive is favored with the dual-purpose potential of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Our aim was to evaluate the biological activity of β-glucan (antimicrobial, antitoxic, immunostimulatory, and anticancer) extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a modified acid-base extraction method. The results demonstrated that a modified acid-base extraction method gives a higher biological efficacy of β-glucan than in the water extraction method. Using 0.5 mg dry weight of acid-base extracted β-glucan (AB extracted) not only succeeded in removing 100% of aflatoxins, but also had a promising antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and yeast, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.39 and 0.19 mg/mL in the case of resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. In addition, AB extract exhibited a positive immunomodulatory effect, mediated through the high induction of TNFα, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-2. Moreover, AB extract showed a greater anticancer effect against A549, MDA-MB-232, and HepG-2 cells compared to WI-38 cells, at high concentrations. By studying the cell death mechanism using flow-cytometry, AB extract was shown to induce apoptotic cell death at higher concentrations, as in the case of MDA-MB-231 and HePG-2 cells. In conclusion, the use of a modified AB for β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae exerted a promising antimicrobial, immunomodulatory efficacy, and anti-cancer potential. Future research should focus on evaluating β-glucan in various biological systems and elucidating the underlying mechanism of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
Antioxidant and Polyphenol-Rich Ethanolic Extract of Rubia tinctorum L. Prevents Urolithiasis in an Ethylene Glycol Experimental Model in Rats
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 1005; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26041005 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Treatment of kidney stones is based on symptomatic medications which are associated with side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting) and hepatotoxicity. The search for effective plant extracts without the above side effects has demonstrated the involvement of antioxidants in the [...] Read more.
Treatment of kidney stones is based on symptomatic medications which are associated with side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting) and hepatotoxicity. The search for effective plant extracts without the above side effects has demonstrated the involvement of antioxidants in the treatment of kidney stones. A local survey in Morocco has previously revealed the frequent use of Rubia tinctorum L. (RT) for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study, we first explored whether RT ethanolic (E-RT) and ethyl acetate (EA-RT) extracts of Rubia tinctorum L. could prevent the occurrence of urolithiasis in an experimental 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride (AC)-induced rat model. Secondly, we determined the potential antioxidant potency as well as the polyphenol composition of these extracts. An EG/AC regimen for 10 days induced the formation of bipyramid-shaped calcium oxalate crystals in the urine. Concomitantly, serum and urinary creatinine, urea, uric acid, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride were altered. The co-administration of both RT extracts prevented alterations in all these parameters. In the EG/AC-induced rat model, the antioxidants- and polyphenols-rich E-RT and EA-RT extracts significantly reduced the presence of calcium oxalate in the urine, and prevented serum and urinary biochemical alterations together with kidney tissue damage associated with urolithiasis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the beneficial preventive effects of E-RT co-administration were more pronounced than those obtained with EA-RT. The superiority of E-RT was associated with its more potent antioxidant effect, due to its high content in polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Anti-Cyclooxygenase Activities for a Range of Coffee Extracts (Coffea arabica)
Molecules 2021, 26(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26010010 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
Coffee is rich in caffeine (CF), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and phenolics. Differing types of coffee beverages and brewing procedures may result in differences in total phenolic contents (TPC) and biological activities. Inflammation and increases of platelet activation and aggregation can lead to thrombosis. [...] Read more.
Coffee is rich in caffeine (CF), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and phenolics. Differing types of coffee beverages and brewing procedures may result in differences in total phenolic contents (TPC) and biological activities. Inflammation and increases of platelet activation and aggregation can lead to thrombosis. We focused on determining the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on agonist-induced platelet aggregation and cyclooxygenase (COX) of coffee beverages in relation to their preparation method. We prepared instant coffee and brewed coffee beverages using drip, espresso, and boiling techniques. Coffee extracts were assayed for their CF and CGA contents using HPLC, TPC using colorimetry, platelet aggregation with an aggregometer, and COX activity using ELISA. The findings have shown all coffee extracts, except the decaffeinated types, contained nearly equal amounts of CF, CGA, and TPC. Inhibitory effects of coffee extracts on platelet aggregation differed depending on the activation pathways induced by different agonists. All espresso, drip and boiled coffee extracts caused dose dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, epinephrine, and arachidonic acid (ARA). The most marked inhibition was seen at low doses of collagen or ARA. Espresso and drip extracts inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation more than purified caffeine or CGA. Espresso, boiled and drip coffee extracts were also a more potent inhibitors of COX-1 and COX-2 than purified caffeine or CGA. We conclude that inhibition of platelet aggregation and COX-1 and COX-2 may contribute to anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects of espresso and drip coffee extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Article
The Anti-Cancer Effect of Linusorb B3 from Flaxseed Oil through the Promotion of Apoptosis, Inhibition of Actin Polymerization, and Suppression of Src Activity in Glioblastoma Cells
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5881; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25245881 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Linusorbs (LOs) are natural peptides found in flaxseed oil that exert various biological activities. Of LOs, LOB3 ([1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3) was reported to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its anti-cancer activity has been poorly understood. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-cancer effect of [...] Read more.
Linusorbs (LOs) are natural peptides found in flaxseed oil that exert various biological activities. Of LOs, LOB3 ([1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3) was reported to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its anti-cancer activity has been poorly understood. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-cancer effect of LOB3 and its underlying mechanism in glioblastoma cells. LOB3 induced apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation of C6 cells by inhibiting the expression of anti-apoptotic genes, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and p53, as well as promoting the activation of pro-apoptotic caspases, caspase-3 and -9. LOB3 also retarded the migration of C6 cells, which was achieved by suppressing the formation of the actin cytoskeleton critical for the progression, invasion, and metastasis of cancer. Moreover, LOB3 inhibited the activation of the proto-oncogene, Src, and the downstream effector, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in C6 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that LOB3 plays an anti-cancer role by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the migration of C6 cells through the regulation of apoptosis-related molecules, actin polymerization, and proto-oncogenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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Review

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Review
Bergenia Genus: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25235555 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Bergenia (Saxifragaceae) genus is native to central Asia and encompasses 32 known species. Among these, nine are of pharmacological relevance. In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda), “Pashanabheda” (stone breaker) is an elite drug formulation obtained from the rhizomes of B. ligulata [...] Read more.
Bergenia (Saxifragaceae) genus is native to central Asia and encompasses 32 known species. Among these, nine are of pharmacological relevance. In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda), “Pashanabheda” (stone breaker) is an elite drug formulation obtained from the rhizomes of B. ligulata. Bergenia species also possess several other biological activities like diuretic, antidiabetic, antitussive, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-bradykinin, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, anticancer, antioxidant, antiobesity, and adaptogenic. This review provides explicit information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological significance of the genus Bergenia. The extant literature concerned was systematically collected from various databases, weblinks, blogs, books, and theses to select 174 references for detailed analysis. To date, 152 chemical constituents have been identified and characterized from the genus Bergenia that belong to the chemical classes of polyphenols, phenolic-glycosides, lactones, quinones, sterols, tannins, terpenes, and others. B. crassifolia alone possesses 104 bioactive compounds. Meticulous pharmacological and phytochemical studies on Bergenia species and its conservation could yield more reliable compounds and products of pharmacological significance for better healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Pharmacological Activity of Plant Natural Compounds II)
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