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Special Issue "Natural Polyphenols and Health"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Margarida Castell Escuer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Secció de Fisiologia, Departament de Bioquímica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l’Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2. Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària (INSA-UB), UB, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: flavonoids; antioxidants; allergy; inflammation; immunomodulation; methylxanthines; sport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mariona Camps-Bossacoma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Secció de Fisiologia, Departament de Bioquímica i Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l’Alimentació, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Espanya
Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària (INSA-UB), UB, Spain
Interests: allergy; antibody; cocoa; flavonoids; hesperidin; immunoglobulin; immune system; microbiota; nutraceutical; polyphenols; prebiotic; sentitization; theobromine; tolerance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols, found in vegetables as secondary metabolites, are abundant micronutrients in our diet. In the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in their potential health benefits. This Special Issue of Molecules entitled “Natural Polyphenols and Health” will focus on the relevant current knowledge of polyphenols in the improvement or prevention of some diseases, as well as in a healthy status, to provide the most recent perspectives of this area. Papers of interest include research of any polyphenol, either as a pure compound or included in a food in in vitro and in vivo studies. Study designs can include clinical and preclinical aspects developed at in any stage of life and any health threats. Observational studies as well as those establishing the preventive effects of polyphenols for human and animal models are also welcome. Health aspects can include nervous, cardiovascular, intestinal, immune systems or any physiological system. It is a pleasure to invite original research as well as review articles that describe or detail the influence of polyphenols on health.

Prof. Dr. Margarida Castell Escuer
Dr. Mariona Camps-Bossacoma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Flavonoids
  • Immune system
  • Intestinal system
  • Microbiota
  • Nervous system
  • Physiology

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Research

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Article
Anti-Hypochlorite and Catalytic Activity of Commercially Available Moringa oleifera Diet Supplement
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24183330 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Aiming at the assessment of the pro-health, and especially anti-hypochlorite properties of Moringa oleifera species a representative, commercially available Moringa oleifera dietary supplement was used as a substrate for the preparation of aqueous Moringa extract. The anti-hypochlorite activity of the extract was assessed [...] Read more.
Aiming at the assessment of the pro-health, and especially anti-hypochlorite properties of Moringa oleifera species a representative, commercially available Moringa oleifera dietary supplement was used as a substrate for the preparation of aqueous Moringa extract. The anti-hypochlorite activity of the extract was assessed using the hypochlorite-specific coumarin-based fluorescence turn-off sensor, namely 7-diethylamino-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (7-DCCA). This compound was synthesized via the Knoevenagel condensation of 4-diethylamino-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with Meldrum’s acid and the Moringa extract was employed as a medium and catalyst. Moreover, the total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the reactive oxygen species (ROS)–scavenging ability of the aqueous Moringa extract were determined. The results obtained demonstrated the applicability of Moringa extract as an anti-hypochlorite agent. Additionally, the satisfactory yield of the 7-DCCA obtained suggests the usefulness of the extract as a catalyst and the reaction medium. The antioxidative potential of the extract was notably lower than that of the standard (TROLOX). Determination of TPC in 100 g of the dry weight (DW) of studied material revealed a high number of polyphones present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Black Sorghum Phenolic Extract Regulates Expression of Genes Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Endothelial Cells
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3321; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24183321 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Oxidative stress is one of the primary factors leading to endothelial dysfunction, a major underlying cause of vascular disorders. This study aims to understand the key signalling pathways regulated by sorghum (Shawaya short black 1 variety; characterised to be very high in its [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is one of the primary factors leading to endothelial dysfunction, a major underlying cause of vascular disorders. This study aims to understand the key signalling pathways regulated by sorghum (Shawaya short black 1 variety; characterised to be very high in its antioxidant activity) under oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pre-treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of phenolic-rich black sorghum extract (BSE) prior to induction of oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Treatment with BSE upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and downregulated the levels of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). BSE treatment significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). Results from this study suggest that phenolic-rich BSE may reduce oxidative stress by regulating pro- and antioxidant signalling pathways and the expression of inflammatory mediators linked to endothelial dysfunction under oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
A Comparative Study on the Phenolic Composition and Biological Activities of Morus alba L. Commercial Samples
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3082; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24173082 - 25 Aug 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
Morus alba L. (white mulberry) has been commonly used as a functional food and for medicinal purposes. Hence, the aim of the study was to compare the phenolic profile of white mulberry commercial samples in relation to their antioxidant potential and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) [...] Read more.
Morus alba L. (white mulberry) has been commonly used as a functional food and for medicinal purposes. Hence, the aim of the study was to compare the phenolic profile of white mulberry commercial samples in relation to their antioxidant potential and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. It is of interest to determine whether herbal products originating from different commercial sources differ in their phenolic profiles. For this purpose, a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for the separation and determination of ten major phenolic compounds. Total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), and total phenolic acid contents (TPAC), as well as l(+)-ascorbic acid (ASA) contents, were determined. The antioxidant potential was assessed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, while the AChE inhibitory activity was determined by the Ellman assay for water extracts. The study revealed that excluding two herbal products containing fruits and a sample containing leaves of white mulberry, yerba mate and lemon, the remaining samples were generally consistent in terms of phenolic composition as well as antioxidant potential and AChE inhibitory activity. This reflects the health-promoting properties of the samples under study. Moreover, the results showed that the water extracts of white mulberry were richer in phenolic compounds and presented higher antioxidant activity than the hydromethanolic extracts. However, the water extracts showed low inhibitory activity against AChE. Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated a high positive relationship between phenolic composition and antioxidant activity in extracts of white mulberry. Overall, the obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary supplements and food products. The water extracts of white mulberry could be used for antioxidant purposes, while the hydromethanolic extracts could be incorporated in antioxidant formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
The Influence of Yeast Strain, β-Cyclodextrin, and Storage Time on Concentrations of Phytochemical Components, Sensory Attributes, and Antioxidative Activity of Novel Red Apple Ciders
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2477; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24132477 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
The yeast strain and storage time is an important factor affecting the development of phytochemicals and sensory attributes in ciders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of yeast strains (Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), β-cyclodextrin [...] Read more.
The yeast strain and storage time is an important factor affecting the development of phytochemicals and sensory attributes in ciders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of yeast strains (Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), β-cyclodextrin (BCD), and storage time on physicochemical parameters, contents of phenolic compounds (ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–PDA–QToF-MS/MS)), antioxidative activity (free radical-scavenging ability (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidative power (FRAP) assay), and sensory attributes of new cider from the “Bella Marii” cultivar of red apple. The pH value, acidity, concentrations of alcohol, organic acids, and polyphenols; and the color and antioxidative properties were evaluated in red apple ciders immediately after fermentation and after three months of storage at 4 °C. S. cerevisiae SIHAFERM Finesse Red with BCD and SIHAFERM Finesse Red yeast strain especially contributed to obtaining ciders with a high content of the tested compounds. The use of BCD during fermentation significantly influenced the protection of bioactive compounds, by as much as 18%. Storage time had an impact on concentrations of the tested components (mainly on the total flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids). Based on the achieved values of parameters analyzed in red apple ciders and results of the consumer acceptance test, it may be concluded that red apple offers vast potential for the production of ciders with a high content of polyphenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Apoptosis Induction Pathway in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line SW480 Exposed to Cereal Phenolic Extracts
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24132465 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Cereal phenolic extracts have previously been investigated for their potential anticancer properties; however, the exact mechanisms involved in the inhibition of tumour growth are unclear. One possible mechanism is the induction of apoptosis which is characterised by cell shrinkage, protein fragmentation, and DNA [...] Read more.
Cereal phenolic extracts have previously been investigated for their potential anticancer properties; however, the exact mechanisms involved in the inhibition of tumour growth are unclear. One possible mechanism is the induction of apoptosis which is characterised by cell shrinkage, protein fragmentation, and DNA degradation followed by rapid engulfment of cell debris by macrophages. This study examines the ability of phenolic extracts from four cereals: rice, barley, oats and sorghum to induce apoptosis on colorectal cancer cells SW480. Wholegrain extracts from pigmented varieties of red rice, purple rice, black sorghum, and brown sorghum showed a significant reduction in cancer cell proliferation. Morphological observation using APOPercentage™ dye indicated positive for apoptosis. Further analyses of Yunlu29 (rice), Shawaya Short Black 1 and IS1136 (sorghum) showed expression of p53 and confirmed activation of multiple caspases, specifically for caspase 3 and 7. Purple rice, on the other hand, did not upregulate caspase 3 and 7, hence, suggestive of cell cycle arrest. Therefore, phenolic compounds present in cereals such as pigmented rice and sorghum may suppress cancer cell proliferation through the activation of the apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Effects of Defoliation on Phenolic Concentrations, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Grape Skin Extracts of the Varieties Blaufränkisch and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2444; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24132444 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Vitis vinifera L. has been highlighted by its many positive effects on human health, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity due to its rich phytochemical content. Removing six basal leaves has great potential to influence the production of phytochemicals. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Vitis vinifera L. has been highlighted by its many positive effects on human health, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity due to its rich phytochemical content. Removing six basal leaves has great potential to influence the production of phytochemicals. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of different terms of defoliation on the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of grape skin extracts of the Blaufränkisch and Merlot varieties. The total phenolic concentration, total and individual anthocyanin concentration, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity on gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogens have been determined. The study was conducted on three treatments (control treatment without defoliation, defoliation immediately after bloom and defoliation before the start of the véraison phase). The results showed statistically significant enhancement of the total phenolic concentration as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activity in both studied cultivars. Defoliation just after blooming was the preferable defoliation term in the Merlot variety for achieving the highest total anthocyanin concentration, antioxidant activity and significant increase of antibacterial activity against all four investigated bacteria. Defoliation before the start of the véraison phase was the preferable defoliation term for achieving the highest total anthocyanin concentration in the Blaufränkisch variety. In general, treatment of defoliation immediately after bloom was more beneficial compared with the defoliation before the start of the véraison phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Polyphenol Effects on Splenic Cytokine Response in Post-Weaning Contactin 1-Overexpressing Transgenic Mice
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24122205 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Background: In mice, postnatal immune development has previously been investigated, and evidence of a delayed maturation of the adaptive immune response has been detected. Methods: In this study, the effects of red grape polyphenol oral administration on the murine immune response were explored [...] Read more.
Background: In mice, postnatal immune development has previously been investigated, and evidence of a delayed maturation of the adaptive immune response has been detected. Methods: In this study, the effects of red grape polyphenol oral administration on the murine immune response were explored using pregnant mice (TAG/F3 transgenic and wild type (wt) mice) as the animal model. The study was performed during pregnancy as well as during lactation until postnatal day 8. Suckling pups from polyphenol-administered dams as well as day 30 post-weaning pups (dietary-administered with polyphenols) were used. Polyphenol effects were evaluated, measuring splenic cytokine secretion. Results: Phorbol myristate acetate-activated splenocytes underwent the highest cytokine production at day 30 in both wt and TAG/F3 mice. In the latter, release of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was found to be higher than in the wt counterpart. In this context, polyphenols exerted modulating activities on day 30 TAG/F3 mice, inducing release of interleukin (IL)-10 in hetero mice while abrogating release of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-4 in homo and hetero mice. Conclusion: Polyphenols are able to prevent the development of an inflammatory/allergic profile in postnatal TAG/F3 mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Profile of Bioactive Compounds in the Morphological Parts of Wild Fallopia japonica (Houtt) and Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) and Their Antioxidative Activity
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24071436 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the content of triterpenoids and polyphenols, and antioxidative activity in leaves, stalks, and roots of plants from the species Fallopia as well as to present the main relationship between them. Polyphenolic compounds and triterpenoids were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the content of triterpenoids and polyphenols, and antioxidative activity in leaves, stalks, and roots of plants from the species Fallopia as well as to present the main relationship between them. Polyphenolic compounds and triterpenoids were identified with liquid chromatography-photodiode detector-mass spectrometry/quadrupole time of flight (LC-MS-Q/TOF; qualitatively) and quantified with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode detector (UPLC-PDA (quantitatively), and their antioxidative activity was determined with radical scavenging capacity (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Generally, the wild Fallopia japonica Houtt. species had 1.2 times higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity than Fallopia sachalinensis. Contents of polyphenolic compounds determined in leaves, stalks, and roots were on average 17.81, 10.60, and 9.02 g/100 g of dry weight (DW), whereas the average contents of triterpenoids reached 0.78, 0.70, and 0.50 g/100 g DW, respectively. The leaves were a better source of polymeric procyanidins, phenolic acids, flavones, and flavonols, as well as oleanolic and ursolic acids than the other morphological parts of the tested plants. However, the roots were an excellent source of flavan-3-ols (monomeric and oligomer) and stilbenes, such as resveratrol, and their derivatives. The results obtained showed significant differences between plants of the wild Fallopia species and their morphological parts, and enabled selecting the most valuable morphological part of the tested plants to be used for food enrichment and nutraceuticals production. Therefore, the leaves seem to be the best as potential food additives for health, due to the above-average content of polyphenolic compounds and triterpenoids. In turn, roots, with their high contents of stilbenes and polyphenolic compounds, represent a good material for the medical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The principal component analysis of the plants of wild Fallopia species and their morphological parts confirmed significant differences in their chemical composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
EGCG-Derivative G28 Shows High Efficacy Inhibiting the Mammosphere-Forming Capacity of Sensitive and Resistant TNBC Models
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1027; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24061027 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Recent studies showed that Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), a lipogenic enzyme overexpressed in several carcinomas, plays an important role in drug resistance. Furthermore, the enrichment of Breast Cancer Stem Cell (BCSC) features has been found in breast tumors that progressed after chemotherapy. Hence, [...] Read more.
Recent studies showed that Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), a lipogenic enzyme overexpressed in several carcinomas, plays an important role in drug resistance. Furthermore, the enrichment of Breast Cancer Stem Cell (BCSC) features has been found in breast tumors that progressed after chemotherapy. Hence, we used the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 (231) to evaluate the FASN and BCSC population role in resistance acquisition to chemotherapy. For this reason, parental cell line (231) and its derivatives resistant to doxorubicin (231DXR) and paclitaxel (231PTR) were used. The Mammosphere-Forming Assay and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme activity assay showed an increase in BCSCs in the doxorubicin-resistant model. Moreover, the expression of some transcription factors involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that confers BCSC characteristics, was upregulated after chemotherapy treatment. FASN inhibitors C75, (−)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), and its synthetic derivatives G28, G56 and G37 were used to evaluate the effect of FASN inhibition on the BCSC-enriched population in our cell lines. G28 showed a noticeable antiproliferative effect in adherent conditions and, interestingly, a high mammosphere-forming inhibition capacity in all cell models. Our preliminary results highlight the importance of studying FASN inhibitors for the treatment of TNBC patients, especially those who progress after chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Protective Effects of Kuding Tea (Ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng) Polyphenols on UVB-Induced Skin Aging in SKH1 Hairless Mice
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1016; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24061016 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
In this study, the protective effects of Kuding tea polyphenols (KTPs) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin injury of SKH1 hairless mice were studied. The ion precipitation method was used for extraction of polyphenols from Kuding tea. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that KTPs contains [...] Read more.
In this study, the protective effects of Kuding tea polyphenols (KTPs) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin injury of SKH1 hairless mice were studied. The ion precipitation method was used for extraction of polyphenols from Kuding tea. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that KTPs contains chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, and isochlorogenic acid C. SKH1 hairless mice were induced skin aging using 2.0 mW/s intensity of 90 mJ/cm2 UV light once a day for seven weeks. The 2.5% and 5% KTPs solution was smeared on 2 cm2 of back skin of skin aging mice twice a day. Mouse experiments showed that KTP strongly increased the serum levels of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and catalase (CAT) and reduced those of malondialdehyde, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mice with UVB-induced skin damage. KTP also increased the levels of type 1 collagen (Col I), hydroxyproline, and hyaluronic acid and reduced those of Col III and hydrogen peroxide in the damaged skin tissues of mice. Pathological observations of tissues stained with H & E, Masson’s trichrome, Verhoeff, and toluidine blue showed that KTPs could protect skin cells, collagen, and elastin and decrease the number of mast cells, thus inhibiting skin damage. Quantitative PCR and western blot assays showed that KTP upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, copper/zinc-SOD, manganese-SOD, CAT, and glutathione peroxidase and downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. In addition, the same concentration of KTP had stronger protective effects than vitamin C. The results of this study demonstrate that KTPs have good skin protective effects, as they are able to inhibit UVB-induced skin damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Influence of Diet Enriched with Cocoa Bean Extracts on Physiological Indices of Laboratory Rats
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 825; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24050825 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Cocoa bean is a rich source of polyphenols, mainly flavonoids which have a wide range of biological properties. The aim of the study was to determine the physiological indices of laboratory rats as a response to diets containing water extracts of raw or [...] Read more.
Cocoa bean is a rich source of polyphenols, mainly flavonoids which have a wide range of biological properties. The aim of the study was to determine the physiological indices of laboratory rats as a response to diets containing water extracts of raw or roasted cocoa beans of Forastero variety, as well as purified monomeric flavan-3-ols fraction isolated from them. The influence of these extracts on selected parameters was studied during 4 weeks feeding. The samples of rats feces were collected throughout the experiment and after its completion, biological samples (intestines content, blood, and organs) were retrieved individually from each rat and subjected to analyses. The observed changes in the gastrointestinal tract functioning indices and metabolism indicators, determined throughout the study and after its completion, confirm to some extent the biological activity of polyphenol extracts of cocoa beans. The differences in the results obtained for the analyzed parameters of the gastrointestinal tract revealed that the cocoa bean extracts differently affected the physicochemical properties of rats’ intestines. The results indicate the beneficial effects of the applied nutrition treatment on the activity of cecal enzymes and the content of volatile fatty acids in the gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Relationship between Cocoa Intake and Healthy Status: A Pilot Study in University Students
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 812; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24040812 - 23 Feb 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Due to its polyphenol content, cocoa’s potential health effects are attracting much attention, showing, among other things, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective actions. However, there is very limited information regarding the effect of cocoa on human immunity. This study aimed to establish the [...] Read more.
Due to its polyphenol content, cocoa’s potential health effects are attracting much attention, showing, among other things, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective actions. However, there is very limited information regarding the effect of cocoa on human immunity. This study aimed to establish the relationship between cocoa consumption and health status, focusing on physical activity habits and allergy prevalence in young people. For this, a sample of 270 university students was recruited to complete a food frequency questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a lifestyle and health status questionnaire. The results were analysed by classifying the participants into tertiles defined according to their cocoa consumption: low (LC), moderate (MC), and high (HC) consumers. The consumption of cocoa inversely correlated with physical activity and the MC group had significantly less chronic disease frequency than the LC group. The percentage of allergic people in the MC and HC groups was lower than that in the LC group and, moreover, the cocoa intake, especially moderate consumption, was also associated with a lower presence of allergic symptoms. Thus, from these results a positive effect of cocoa intake on allergy can be suggested in the young population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Effect of Steaming Processing on Phenolic Profiles and Cellular Antioxidant Activities of Castanea mollissima
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 703; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24040703 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
The intention of this study was to investigate the effect of steaming processing on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities in chestnuts. Steaming processing at different times and temperatures depicted diverse impacts on free and bound fractions. Though, bound phenolics were stable but long [...] Read more.
The intention of this study was to investigate the effect of steaming processing on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities in chestnuts. Steaming processing at different times and temperatures depicted diverse impacts on free and bound fractions. Though, bound phenolics were stable but long time steaming at higher temperatures tended to improve the levels of phenolics, flavonoids as well as antioxidant activities in chestnut kernels, by up to 60.11% of the original value. Seven phenolic compounds including ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringate, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were found to change during thermal processes. Significant relationships (p < 0.05) were identified between total phenolics and total antioxidant activities. However, the consistency of chlorogenic acid (p < 0.01) only with cellular antioxidant activity indicated poor bio-accessibility of the phytochemicals in chestnuts. However, this situation could be partly improved by steaming. Steaming could improve the cellular accessibility of free phytochemicals, particularly, increasing the bio-accessibility by 41.96%. This study provided valuable information on dynamic changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of chestnuts under a steaming process, which could offer possible guidance for the chestnut processing industry in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Recovery of Antimicrobials and Bioaccessible Isoflavones and Phenolics from Soybean (Glycine max) Meal by Aqueous Extraction
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24010074 - 26 Dec 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Soybeans display strategic potential in food security as a source of protein and functional bioactives for human consumption. Polyphenols and other bioactive compounds can be recovered after an aqueous extraction from soybean meal, a byproduct of soy oil refining. The objective of the [...] Read more.
Soybeans display strategic potential in food security as a source of protein and functional bioactives for human consumption. Polyphenols and other bioactive compounds can be recovered after an aqueous extraction from soybean meal, a byproduct of soy oil refining. The objective of the present study was to compile and quantify compounds from soybean oil refinery by-products, providing information about valuable bioactive phytochemicals, their bioaccessibility and potential bioactivities. Genistin, daidzin, glycitin and malonylgenistin were the predominant isoflavones, and the overall bioaccessibility of their glycosidic forms was of nearly 75%. Sixteen phenolics were identified and caffeic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic chlorogenic acid and hesperidin were the most predominant. Approximately 30% of gallic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and myricetin were released and the antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract was enhanced after simulated in vitro gastro intestinal digestion. The ability of aqueous soybean meal extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation was higher than natural and synthetic food antioxidants. Antimicrobial activity against several foodborne pathogens and antitumoral activity towards human glioblastoma cell line were also observed, but the aqueous extract showed no cytotoxicity to healthy murine cells. Compounds derived from the aqueous soybean meal extract have the potential to be used as health promoting agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Nutraceutical Oils Produced by Olives and Citrus Peel of Tuscany Varieties as Sources of Functional Ingredients
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24010065 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
The essential oils extracted from the peels of two Tuscany Citrus of the Massa province have been characterised. Moreover, the flavedo of these species has been used in the production of two Citrus olive oils (COOs) obtained with an innovative method [...] Read more.
The essential oils extracted from the peels of two Tuscany Citrus of the Massa province have been characterised. Moreover, the flavedo of these species has been used in the production of two Citrus olive oils (COOs) obtained with an innovative method in which the citrus peels are cryomacerated and then pressed with the olives. The presence of functional compounds, such as carotenoids, naringenin and minor phenolics, classifies these COOs as nutraceuticals with the potential to develop enriched foods able to promote a healthy diet. Moreover, the increased presence of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, compared to the unflavoured oil, further highlights the nutritional value to the two COOs, being these phenolic compounds recognized as good possible therapeutic candidates for the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases as the Parkinson’s disease. In this perspective, the citrus peels, rich in bioactive compounds, have been valued transforming their waste nature in an innovative resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Comparison of Phenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Different Maturity Stages of Ribes stenocarpum Maxim
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23123148 - 30 Nov 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
Differences in the content of nine phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Ribes stenocarpum Maxim (RSM) fruits at different stages of maturity were investigated, and the extraction process of polyphenols from RSM was also optimized using Box-Behnken design method. Results showed that the [...] Read more.
Differences in the content of nine phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Ribes stenocarpum Maxim (RSM) fruits at different stages of maturity were investigated, and the extraction process of polyphenols from RSM was also optimized using Box-Behnken design method. Results showed that the content of the nine phenols varied considerably at different ripening stages; catechin, chlorogenic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were abundant in immature fruits but decreased with fruit ripening, whereas the levels of rosemary acid and querctin acid were low in immature fruits and increased with time, reaching the highest value after the fruit was completely mature. The phenols extracted from RSM fruits possessed good antioxidant activities for effective and rapid scavenging of DPPH and ABTS free radicals, as well as intracellular ROS. Analysis of the phenols content at different maturity stages indicated that the unripe fruits had significantly higher polyphenols content than mature fruits. Consequently, unripe fruits possessed higher antioxidant activities. According to the overall results of the extraction process optimization, the selected optimal conditions for extracting polyphenols from RSM were as follows: extraction time, 95 min; solvent concentration, 60%; ratio of sample to solvent, 1:25. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Capacities, and Inhibitory Effects on Digestive Enzymes of Different Kiwifruits
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2957; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23112957 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
In order to obtain high-quality kiwifruits with health-promoting characteristics, physicochemical properties, phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacities, and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase), of fourteen different types of kiwifruit obtained from China were systematically investigated and compared. Noticeable variations in the [...] Read more.
In order to obtain high-quality kiwifruits with health-promoting characteristics, physicochemical properties, phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacities, and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase), of fourteen different types of kiwifruit obtained from China were systematically investigated and compared. Noticeable variations in the fruits’ physicochemical properties and phenolic profiles were observed among them. The total phenolic content of Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongshi, A. chinensis cv. Jinshi, and A. chinensis cv. Jinlong were 16.52 ± 0.26 mg GAE/g DW (dry weight), 13.38 ± 0.20 mg GAE/g DW, and 11.02 ± 0.05 mg GAE/g DW, respectively, which were much higher than those of the other tested kiwifruits. According to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, phenolic compounds, including procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, (−)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin-3-rhamnoside, were found to be the major compounds in kiwifruits, while procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Furthermore, all the tested kiwifruits exerted remarkable antioxidant capacities and inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase. Indeed, A. chinensis cv. Hongshi, Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinshi, and Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinlong exhibited much better antioxidant capacities and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes than those of the other tested kiwifruits. Particularly, A. polygama showed the highest inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase. Therefore, Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongshi, Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinshi, and Actinidia chinensis cv. Jinlong, as well as A. polygama could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants and natural inhibitors against pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase, which is helpful for meeting the growing demand for high-quality kiwifruits with health-promoting characteristics in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Analytical Profiling of Proanthocyanidins from Acacia mearnsii Bark and In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2891; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23112891 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
The proanthocyanidins from ethanol extracts (80%, v/v) of Acacia mearnsii (A. mearnsii) bark on chemical-based and cellular antioxidant activity assays as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities were studied. About 77% of oligomeric proanthocyanidins in ethanol extracts of [...] Read more.
The proanthocyanidins from ethanol extracts (80%, v/v) of Acacia mearnsii (A. mearnsii) bark on chemical-based and cellular antioxidant activity assays as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities were studied. About 77% of oligomeric proanthocyanidins in ethanol extracts of A. mearnsii bark were found by using normal-phase HPLC. In addition, HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analyses indicated that proanthocyanidins from A. mearnsii bark exhibited with a degree of polymerization ranging from 1 to 11. These results of combined antioxidant activity assays, as well as carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities of proanthocyanidins from A. mearnsii bark, indicated an encouraging antioxidant capacity for the high polyphenol content and a potential for use as alternative drugs for lowering the glycemic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Preventive Effect of Raw Liubao Tea Polyphenols on Mouse Gastric Injuries Induced by HCl/Ethanol via Anti-Oxidative Stress
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2848; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23112848 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Liubao tea is a type of traditional Chinese tea, belonging to the dark teas. This study is a basic research of the contained polyphenols (active substances) and detected preventive effects of polyphenols of raw Liubao tea (PRLT) on mouse gastric injuries induced by [...] Read more.
Liubao tea is a type of traditional Chinese tea, belonging to the dark teas. This study is a basic research of the contained polyphenols (active substances) and detected preventive effects of polyphenols of raw Liubao tea (PRLT) on mouse gastric injuries induced by HCl/ethanol. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to analyze the components of PRLT. Furthermore, a mouse gastric injury model was established to observe the preventive effects. PRLT was shown to contain gallic acid, EGC (epigallocatechin), catechin, caffeine, EC (epicatechin), EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), GCG (gallocatechin gallate), and ECG (epicatechin gallate). The results of the in vivo study indicate that PRLT can inhibit the observed increase of gastric juice volume and decrease of gastric juice pH caused by gastric injury. PRLT can decrease the serum levels of IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-12 (interleukin-12), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-γ) in mice with gastric injuries. Moreover, it can also increase the serum levels of SS (somatostatin) and VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and reduce the serum levels of both SP (substance P) and ET-1 (endothelin-1). PRLT was also shown to increase SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GSH (glutathione) levels and decrease MDA (malondialdehyde) level. The detection of mRNA and protein in gastric tissues indicates that PRLT could also up-regulate the expression of Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and down-regulate the expression of both iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2). Thus, PRLT possess a good preventive effect on gastric injury, which is directly related to the contained active substance. PRLT show good anti-oxidative and preventive effect in gastric injury and offer promising application value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
The Flavonoid Kaempferol Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes by Suppressing Hepatic Glucose Production
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23092338 - 13 Sep 2018
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3130
Abstract
In diabetes mellitus, the excessive rate of glucose production from the liver is considered a primary contributor for the development of hyperglycemia, in particular, fasting hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated whether kaempferol, a flavonol present in several medicinal herbs and foods, can [...] Read more.
In diabetes mellitus, the excessive rate of glucose production from the liver is considered a primary contributor for the development of hyperglycemia, in particular, fasting hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated whether kaempferol, a flavonol present in several medicinal herbs and foods, can be used to ameliorate diabetes in an animal model of insulin deficiency and further explored the mechanism underlying the anti-diabetic effect of this flavonol. We demonstrate that oral administration of kaempferol (50 mg/kg/day) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice significantly improved hyperglycemia and reduced the incidence of overt diabetes from 100% to 77.8%. This outcome was accompanied by a reduction in hepatic glucose production and an increase in glucose oxidation in the muscle of the diabetic mice, whereas body weight, calorie intake, body composition, and plasma insulin and glucagon levels were not altered. Consistently, treatment with kaempferol restored hexokinase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic mice while suppressed hepatic pyruvate carboxylase activity and gluconeogenesis. These results suggest that kaempferol may exert antidiabetic action via promoting glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and inhibiting gluconeogenesis in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Identification of Antiglycative Compounds in Japanese Red Water Pepper (Red Leaf Variant of the Persicaria hydropiper Sprout)
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2319; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23092319 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Glycation, the nonenzymatic reaction between proteins and excess blood sugar, is implicated in multiple disorders and occurs via the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the red-leaf variant of the Persicaria hydropiper sprout [...] Read more.
Glycation, the nonenzymatic reaction between proteins and excess blood sugar, is implicated in multiple disorders and occurs via the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the red-leaf variant of the Persicaria hydropiper sprout (Japanese red water pepper, Benitade) is one of the potent plants that inhibit formation of AGEs. In this study, we aimed to identify antiglycative compounds in Benitade. Benitade extracts were prepared with hot water, then fractionated by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antiglycative efficacy of each fraction was evaluated by measuring the formation of fluorescent AGEs (Ex 370 nm/Em 440 nm). Two fractions, which contained peaks at 26.4 min and 31.8 min, showed potent antiglycative efficacy. When we hydrolyzed these peaks, they shifted to 32.5 and 41.4 min, which are the same retention times as cyanidin and quercetin, respectively. Based on thin-layer chromatography, both compounds contained galactose. Finally, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses were performed to determine the structure of those compounds. Overall, we identified two glycosides, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside (idaein) and quercetin 3-O-galactoside (hyperin), as representative antiglycative compounds in Benitade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Effect of Storage Conditions on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Litchi Pericarp
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23092276 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of litchi pericarp during storage at 4 °C for seven days and at room temperature (RT) for 72 h were evaluated in this study. The contents of total phenolic and procyanidin decreased by 20.2% and 24.2% [...] Read more.
Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of litchi pericarp during storage at 4 °C for seven days and at room temperature (RT) for 72 h were evaluated in this study. The contents of total phenolic and procyanidin decreased by 20.2% and 24.2% at 4 °C and by 37.8% and 47.8% at RT, respectively. Interestingly, the corresponding reductions of anthocyanins were 41.3% and 73%, respectively. Four phenolic compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, procyanidin B2, and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-l-rhamnosidase were detected in litchi pericarp. Their contents after storage at 4 °C and at RT were decreased by 22.1–49.7% and 27.6–48.7%, respectively. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of litchi pericarp decreased by 17.6% and 58.7% at 4 °C, and by 23.4% and 66.0% at RT, respectively. The results indicated that storage at 4 °C preserved more phenolics and retained higher antioxidant activity in litchi pericarp compared to storage at RT, suggesting that storage at 4 °C should be considered as a more effective method for slowing down the degradation of litchi pericarp phenolics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Polyphenols from Acorn Leaves (Quercus liaotungensis) Protect Pancreatic Beta Cells and Their Inhibitory Activity against α-Glucosidase and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23092167 - 28 Aug 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Acorn leaves, which possess potential pharmacologic effects, are traditionally consumed as food in China. Phytochemical investigations of acorn leaves yielded one new and 25 known polyphenols, and their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Three antidiabetes assays were conducted. Compound 2 considerably [...] Read more.
Acorn leaves, which possess potential pharmacologic effects, are traditionally consumed as food in China. Phytochemical investigations of acorn leaves yielded one new and 25 known polyphenols, and their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Three antidiabetes assays were conducted. Compound 2 considerably increased the survival of pancreatic beta cells by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione in MIN6 cells damaged by H2O2. The preliminary mechanism by which compound 2 protects pancreatic beta cells was through the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 HO-1 pathway. Most of the tested isolates showed strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. The IC50 values of most compounds were much lower than those of the positive control. The results suggest that polyphenols from acorn leaves are potential functional food ingredients that can be used as antidiabetic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Raspberry Polyphenolic Extract Regulates Obesogenic Signals in Hepatocytes
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23092103 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of raspberry polyphenolic extract on the immune-metabolic molecular mechanisms activated by obesity-related signals in hepatocytes (HB-8965®). Alterations in endosomal/lysosomal activity (neutral red uptake assay, NR), the expression of selected [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of raspberry polyphenolic extract on the immune-metabolic molecular mechanisms activated by obesity-related signals in hepatocytes (HB-8965®). Alterations in endosomal/lysosomal activity (neutral red uptake assay, NR), the expression of selected genes involved with lipid oxidation, and metabolism and inflammation processes in the liver were studied. Hepatocytes were treated with plasma collected from Wistar rats that were fed a high-fat diet (HF), raspberry polyphenolic extract (PP), serine-type protease inhibitors as an agonist of TLR4 (TD) or a combination of PP with HF or TD treatments. The PP added to the experimental treatments modulated hepatic immune-metabolic mechanisms through the upregulation of STAT1, ANGPTL4, and CD44, as well as considerably reducing the NR uptake and downregulation of COX-2 and the multifunctional protein AhR. The kinetic analysis of AhR expression revealed that HF-related molecular mechanisms activated AhR mRNA expression earlier than PP initiated the regulatory effect. In conclusion, PP might be considered a valuable dietary agent that regulates obesity-related signals in hepatocytes. Moreover, taking AhR kinetic behavior into consideration, it can be assumed that PP might modulate the severity of the HF-induced downstream metabolic signaling of AhR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Nontargeted Metabolomics for Phenolic and Polyhydroxy Compounds Profile of Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Products Based on LC-MS/MS Analysis
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1985; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23081985 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
In the present study, nontargeted metabolomics was used to screen the phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds in pepper products. A total of 186 phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds, including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, catechin derivatives, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, isoflavones and 3-O-p-coumaroyl quinic acid [...] Read more.
In the present study, nontargeted metabolomics was used to screen the phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds in pepper products. A total of 186 phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds, including anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, catechin derivatives, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, isoflavones and 3-O-p-coumaroyl quinic acid O-hexoside, quinic acid (polyhydroxy compounds), etc. For the selected 50 types of phenolic compound, except malvidin 3,5-diglucoside (malvin), l-epicatechin and 4′-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone, other compound contents were present in high contents in freeze-dried pepper berries, and pinocembrin was relatively abundant in two kinds of pepper products. The score plots of principal component analysis indicated that the pepper samples can be classified into four groups on the basis of the type pepper processing. This study provided a comprehensive profile of the phenolic and polyhydroxy compounds of different pepper products and partly clarified the factors responsible for different metabolite profiles in ongoing studies and the changes of phenolic compounds for the browning mechanism of black pepper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Antioxidant Activity of Selected Polyphenolics in Yeast Cells: The Case Study of Montenegrin Merlot Wine
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1971; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23081971 - 07 Aug 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Screens of antioxidant activity (AA) of various natural products have been a focus of the research community worldwide. This work aimed to differentiate selected samples of Merlot wines originated from Montenegro, with regard to phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity studied by survival rate, [...] Read more.
Screens of antioxidant activity (AA) of various natural products have been a focus of the research community worldwide. This work aimed to differentiate selected samples of Merlot wines originated from Montenegro, with regard to phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity studied by survival rate, total sulfhydryl groups and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase and catalase in H2O2–stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In this study, DPPH assay was also performed. Higher total phenolic content leads to an enhanced AA under both conditions. The same trend was observed for catechin and gallic acid, the most abundant phenolics in the examined wine samples. Finally, the findings of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model were in a good agreement (r2 = 0.978) with the experimental data. All tested samples exhibited a protective effect in H2O2–stressed yeast cells. Pre-treatment with examined wines increased survival in H2O2–stressed cells and shifted antioxidative defense towards GPx–mediated defense. Finally, sensitivity analysis of obtained ANN model highlights the complexity of the impact that variations in the concentrations of specific phenolic components have on the antioxidant defense system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
Alpha-Mangostin-Rich Extracts from Mangosteen Pericarp: Optimization of Green Extraction Protocol and Evaluation of Biological Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1852; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23081852 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
Since α-mangostin in mangosteen fruits was reported to be the main compound able to provide natural antioxidants, the microwave-assisted extraction process to obtain high-quality α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. [...] Read more.
Since α-mangostin in mangosteen fruits was reported to be the main compound able to provide natural antioxidants, the microwave-assisted extraction process to obtain high-quality α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The parameters examined included extraction time, microwave power, and solvent percentage. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of optimized and non-optimized extracts was evaluated. Ethyl acetate as a green solvent exhibited the highest concentration of α-mangostin, followed by dichloromethane, ethanol, and water. The highest α-mangostin concentration in mangosteen pericarp of 121.01 mg/g dry matter (DM) was predicted at 3.16 min, 189.20 W, and 72.40% (v/v). The verification of experimental results under these optimized conditions showed that the α-mangostin value for the mangosteen pericarp was 120.68 mg/g DM. The predicted models were successfully developed to extract α-mangostin from the mangosteen pericarp. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and the experimental α-mangostin values, indicating that the developed models are accurate. The analysis of the extracts for secondary metabolites showed that the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) increased significantly in the optimized extracts (OE) compared to the non-optimized extracts (NOE). Additionally, trans-ferulic acid and catechin were abundant among the compounds identified. In addition, the optimized extract of mangosteen pericarp with its higher α-mangostin and secondary metabolite concentrations exhibited higher antioxidant activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 20.64 µg/mL compared to those of the NOE (28.50 µg/mL). The OE exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the microwave-assisted extraction process of α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp was successfully optimized, indicating the accuracy of the models developed, which will be usable in a larger-scale extraction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Article
The Use of Juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) Supplementation for Suppression of NF-κB Pathway in the Hypothalamus after High-Fat Diet in Wistar Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23071814 - 21 Jul 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Obesity is associated with modern diets that are rich in saturated fatty acids. These dietary patterns are linked to low-grade proinflammatory mechanisms, such as the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway rapidly activated through high-fat diets. Juçara is a berry rich in [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with modern diets that are rich in saturated fatty acids. These dietary patterns are linked to low-grade proinflammatory mechanisms, such as the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway rapidly activated through high-fat diets. Juçara is a berry rich in anthocyanins and unsaturated fatty acids, which prevents obesity and associated comorbidities. We evaluated the effect of different doses of freeze-dried juçara pulp on NF-κB pathway after the consumption of short-term high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats with ad libitum access to food and water were divided into four groups: Control diet (C), high-fat diet (HFC), high-fat diet with 0.25% juçara (HFJ 0.25%), and high-fat diet with 0.5% juçara (HFJ 0.5%). Energy intake and body weight gain were increased in HFC and HFJ 0.5% groups compared to C group. The hypothalamus weight reduced in the HFC group compared to C and HFJ 0.25% groups. Cytokines, MYD88, TRAF6, and pNF-κBp50 levels in the hypothalamus, serum triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and free fatty acid levels were improved in the HFJ 0.25% group. In summary, the HFJ 0.25% group had better protective effects than those in the HFJ 0.5%. Therefore, 0.25% juçara can be used to protect against central inflammation through the high-fat diet-induced NF-κB pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Review

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Review
Resveratrol: A Fair Race Towards Replacing Sulfites in Wines
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2378; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25102378 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
In recent years, significant efforts to produce healthier wines has led to the replacement or reduction of the addition of sulfites, using alternative substances or techniques. Resveratrol and related biophenols seem to be of great interest, since beyond their protective nature and contrary [...] Read more.
In recent years, significant efforts to produce healthier wines has led to the replacement or reduction of the addition of sulfites, using alternative substances or techniques. Resveratrol and related biophenols seem to be of great interest, since beyond their protective nature and contrary to sulfites they can positively affect consumer health. These bioactive phytochemicals are naturally produced in grapes as evolutionary acquired mechanisms against pathogens and UV irradiation. However, despite the efforts made so far attempting to develop economic and industrially adopted isolation techniques, available quantities of these biophenols for commercial use are still quite limited. Therefore, such molecules are still not able to meet the needs of industrial use due to their prohibitive marketable cost. In this review we summarize the efforts that have been made to biosynthesize these molecules through alternative, innovative ways. Increasing interest in modern biotechnological approaches has shed light on the exploitation of metabolically engineered microbial factories, instead of plants, to produce molecules of industrial interest. Such approaches, also reviewed here, are expected to lower the cost and appear promising to produce enough surplus to attract further oenological experimentation upon yielding functional wines. This development is expected to attract further industrial attention, continuing the race to partially or totally replace the external addition of sulfites. We also review important physicochemical properties of resveratrol in relation to enriching wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Review
Genistein as Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Menopausal Symptoms and Other Related Diseases
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3892; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24213892 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
Plant-derived compounds have recently attracted greater interest in the field of new therapeutic agent development. These compounds have been widely screened for their pharmacological effects. Polyphenols, such as soy-derived isoflavones, also called phytoestrogens, have been extensively studied due to their ability to inhibit [...] Read more.
Plant-derived compounds have recently attracted greater interest in the field of new therapeutic agent development. These compounds have been widely screened for their pharmacological effects. Polyphenols, such as soy-derived isoflavones, also called phytoestrogens, have been extensively studied due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenesis. These compounds are chemically similar to 17β-estradiol, and mimic the binding of estrogens to its receptors, exerting estrogenic effects in target organs. Genistein is an isoflavone derived from soy-rich products and accounts for about 60% of total isoflavones found in soybeans. Genistein has been reported to exhibit several biological effects, such as anti-tumor activity (inhibition of cell proliferation, regulation of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis), improvement of glucose metabolism, impairment of angiogenesis in both hormone-related and hormone-unrelated cancer cells, reduction of peri-menopausal and postmenopausal hot flashes, and modulation of antioxidant effects. Additionally, epidemiological and clinical studies have reported health benefits of genistein in many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis, and aid in the amelioration of typical menopausal symptoms, such as anxiety and depression. Although the biological effects are promising, certain limitations, such as low bioavailability, biological estrogenic activity, and effects on target organs, have limited the clinical applications of genistein to some extent. Moreover, studies report that modification of its molecular structure may eliminate the biological estrogenic activity and its effects on target organs. In this review, we summarize the potential benefits of genistein on menopause symptoms and menopause-related diseases like cardiovascular, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Review
Biosynthesis, Chemistry, and Pharmacology of Polyphenols from Chinese Salvia Species: A Review
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules24010155 - 02 Jan 2019
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 2918
Abstract
Salvia species find widespread application in food and pharmaceutical products owing to their large polyphenol content. The main polyphenols in Chinese Salvia species are phenolic acids and flavonoids, which exhibit anti-oxygenation, anti-ischemia-reperfusion injury, anti-thrombosis, anti-tumour, and other therapeutic effects. However, there are few [...] Read more.
Salvia species find widespread application in food and pharmaceutical products owing to their large polyphenol content. The main polyphenols in Chinese Salvia species are phenolic acids and flavonoids, which exhibit anti-oxygenation, anti-ischemia-reperfusion injury, anti-thrombosis, anti-tumour, and other therapeutic effects. However, there are few peer-reviewed studies on polyphenols in Chinese Salvia species, especially flavonoids. This review is a systematic, comprehensive collation of available information on the biosynthesis, chemistry, and pharmacology of Chinese Salvia species. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because this review provides a detailed literary resource on the currently available information on various polyphenolic components of Chinese Salvia species, including their bioactivities and structures. In addition, the study provides information that would encourage further investigation of this plant material as a natural resource with potential for a broad range of applications in various industries, such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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Review
Dietary Polyphenols and Periodontitis—A Mini-Review of Literature
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1786; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules23071786 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and [...] Read more.
Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and botanicals have been shown to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and reduced osteoclast and alveolar bone loss activities in animal models of periodontitis. Polyphenol-containing beverages and foods especially green tea and its active catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cranberries, pomegranates, and fruit and vegetable extracts have reported bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against microbial species such as P. gingivalis and shown total bacterial burden in clinical studies. These polyphenols also exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which have the potential to impact various biological mechanisms for reducing the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The main objective of this mini-review is to focus on the mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in improving the pathophysiology underlying chronic inflammatory diseases like periodontitis based on pre-clinical and clinical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polyphenols and Health)
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