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Special Issue "Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zohaib Khurshid
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paulo J. Palma
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
2. Center for Innovation and Research in Oral Sciences (CIROS), Faculty of Medicine University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: Endodontics; Regenerative tissue; Biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Farshid Sefat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical & Electronics Engineering, University of Bradford, Chesham Building, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: tissue engineering; dental biomaterials; oral tissue engineering; implant dentistry; electrospinning; bone and cartilage cell engineering; biomaterials fabrication and characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to cover the advancements of molecular sciences in the better of medicine and dentistry. On the molecular level, we seek to study how disease can be detected in the early phase prevention from dental diseases, and treatment modalities.

Development of biomolecules with bio-regenerative properties is a critically important regenerative therapy. One of the focuses of biomolecules science is to engineer substances to be used in therapeutic procedures, able to interact with the components of living systems and promote specific treatment goals in order to improve the expected clinical outcomes.

By exploring the genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics of the dental tissues with or without disease help in generating biomarkers bank for detection and the preparation of novel biomaterials for treating them, we can reduce the cost of dental treatments and improve the quality of life (QoL).

We invite authors to submit original research articles, review articles, short communications, editorial, perspective, clinical trials, animal studies for the following topics and scopes:

  • Dental tissues and diseases
  • Molecular techniques
  • Proteomics
  • Genomics
  • Transcriptomic
  • Endodontics
  • Periodontology
  • Dental caries
  • Implant dentistry
  • Salivary Biomarkers
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers
  • Orthodontics tooth movement
  • Oral Oncology
  • Genetic disorders
  • Dental Materials
  • Biosensor technology in dentistry
  • COVID-19 and Salivary Immunoglobulins

Dr. Zohaib Khurshid
Prof. Dr. Paulo J. Palma
Dr. Farshid Sefat
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dental tissues and diseases
  • Molecular techniques
  • Proteomics
  • Genomics
  • Transcriptomic
  • Endodontics
  • Periodontology
  • Dental caries
  • Implant dentistry
  • Salivary Biomarkers
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers
  • Orthodontics tooth movement
  • Oral Oncology
  • Genetic disorders
  • Dental Materials
  • Biosensor technology in dentistry
  • COVID-19 and Salivary Immunoglobulins

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Lyophilised Platelet-Rich Fibrin: Physical and Biological Characterisation
Molecules 2021, 26(23), 7131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26237131 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Background: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has gained popularity in craniofacial surgery, as it provides an excellent reservoir of autologous growth factors (GFs) that are essential for bone regeneration. However, the low elastic modulus, short-term clinical application, poor storage potential and limitations in emergency therapy [...] Read more.
Background: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has gained popularity in craniofacial surgery, as it provides an excellent reservoir of autologous growth factors (GFs) that are essential for bone regeneration. However, the low elastic modulus, short-term clinical application, poor storage potential and limitations in emergency therapy use restrict its more widespread clinical application. This study fabricates lyophilised PRF (Ly-PRF), evaluates its physical and biological properties, and explores its application for craniofacial tissue engineering purposes. Material and methods: A lyophilisation method was applied, and the outcome was evaluated and compared with traditionally prepared PRF. We investigated how lyophilisation affected PRF’s physical characteristics and biological properties by determining: (1) the physical and morphological architecture of Ly-PRF using SEM, and (2) the kinetic release of PDGF-AB using ELISA. Results: Ly-PRF exhibited a dense and homogeneous interconnected 3D fibrin network. Moreover, clusters of morphologically consistent cells of platelets and leukocytes were apparent within Ly-PRF, along with evidence of PDGF-AB release in accordance with previously reports. Conclusions: The protocol established in this study for Ly-PRF preparation demonstrated versatility, and provides a biomaterial with growth factor release for potential use as a craniofacial bioscaffold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Synergistic Effect of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate and Platelet-Rich Fibrin Attenuate Markers for Inflammation and Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing NF-κB/MAPK Signaling Pathway in Chronic Periodontitis
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26216578 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Background: Periodontitis is characterized by excessive osteoclastic activity, which is closely associated with inflammation. It is well established that MAPK/NF-kB axis is a key signaling pathway engaged in osteoclast differentiation. It is stated that that biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) [...] Read more.
Background: Periodontitis is characterized by excessive osteoclastic activity, which is closely associated with inflammation. It is well established that MAPK/NF-kB axis is a key signaling pathway engaged in osteoclast differentiation. It is stated that that biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) have significant antiostoeclastogenic effects in chronic periodontitis. Objective: We aimed to elucidate the synergetic effect of PRF/BCP involvement of the nuclear factor kappa–light–chain–enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in osteoclast differentiation in chronic periodontitis. Methods: We induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients with chronic periodontitis. We assessed osteoclast generation by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, proinflammatory cytokines were investigated by ELISA and NF-κB, and IKB by immunoblot, respectively. MAPK proteins and osteoclast transcription factors were studied by Western blot analysis and osteoclast transcriptional genes were assessed by RT-PCR. Results: The results showed that the potent inhibitory effect of PRF/BCP on osteoclastogenesis was evidenced by decreased TRAP activity and the expression of transcription factors, NFATc1, c-Fos, and the osteoclast marker genes, TRAP, MMP-9, and cathepsin-K were found to be reduced. Further, the protective effect of PRF/BCP on inflammation-mediated osteoclastogenesis in chronic periodontitis was shown by decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, NF-kB, IKB, and MAPK proteins. Conclusions: PRF/BCP may promote a synergetic combination that could be used as a strong inhibitor of inflammation-induced osteoclastogenesis in chronic periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
The Growth Factors and Cytokines of Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome May Potentially Aid in Oral Cancer Proliferation
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26185683 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Background: Growth factors and cytokines responsible for the regenerative potential of the dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell secretome (DPMSC-S) are implicated in oral carcinogenesis. The impact and effects of these secretory factors on cancer cells must be understood in order to ensure their [...] Read more.
Background: Growth factors and cytokines responsible for the regenerative potential of the dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell secretome (DPMSC-S) are implicated in oral carcinogenesis. The impact and effects of these secretory factors on cancer cells must be understood in order to ensure their safe application in cancer patients. Objective: We aimed to quantify the growth factors and cytokines in DPMSC-S and assess their effect on oral cancer cell proliferation. Materials and methods: DPMSCs were isolated from patients with healthy teeth (n = 5) that were indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. The cells were characterized using flow cytometry and conditioned medium (DPMSC-CM) was prepared. DPMSC-CM was subjected to a bead-based array to quantify the growth factors and cytokines that may affect oral carcinogenesis. The effect of DPMSC-CM (20%, 50%, 100%) on the proliferation of oral cancer cells (AW123516) was evaluated using a Ki-67-based assay at 48 h. AW13516 cultured in the standard growth medium acted as the control. Results: VEGF, HCF, Ang-2, TGF-α, EPO, SCF, FGF, and PDGF-BB were the growth factors with the highest levels in the DPMSC-CM. The highest measured pro-inflammatory cytokine was TNF-α, followed by CXCL8. The most prevalent anti-inflammatory cytokine in the DPMSC-CM was IL-10, followed by TGF-β1 and IL-4. Concentrations of 50% and 100% DPMSC-CM inhibited Ki-67 expression in AW13516, although the effect was non-significant. Moreover, 20% DPMSC-CM significantly increased Ki-67 expression compared to the control. Conclusions: The increased Ki-67 expression of oral cancer cells in response to 20% DPMSC-CM indicates the potential for cancer progression. Further research is needed to identify their effects on other carcinogenic properties, including apoptosis, stemness, migration, invasion, adhesion, and therapeutic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Assessment of Growth Factors, Cytokines, and Cellular Markers in Saliva of Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 2964; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26102964 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
We proposed to perform a comparative analysis of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokine receptors on the salivary cells in the saliva obtained from trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and normal subjects. Saliva was collected from TN and healthy subjects. Salivary cells were isolated by centrifugation. [...] Read more.
We proposed to perform a comparative analysis of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokine receptors on the salivary cells in the saliva obtained from trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and normal subjects. Saliva was collected from TN and healthy subjects. Salivary cells were isolated by centrifugation. The expression of the cell surface marker was analyzed by flow cytometry. A cytometric bead array was done to measure the levels of cytokines and growth factors on the flow cytometer. Saliva from TN subjects showed lower growth factor levels of Angiopoietin-2, bFGF, HGF, SCF, TGF-α, and VEGF and higher cytokine levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, CCL2, IL-17A, IL-6, and CXCL8, as well as higher expression levels of chemokine receptors CCR1 (CD191), CR3 (CD11b), CCR2 (CD192), CXCR5 (CD185), and CCR5 (CD196) in the cells from TN saliva. A certain set of cytokines and growth factors in the saliva, as well as chemokine receptors on salivary cells, could be a useful tool in the diagnostics and prognostics of trigeminal neuralgia. Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the significant pathological conditions in the class of chronic diseases around the world. Many targeted approaches are being tried by various research groups to utilize the information of the inflammatory microenvironment to resolve the pathology of chronic TN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Physiological and Immunological Changes Associated with Oral Microbiota When Using a Thermoplastic Retainer
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1948; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26071948 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Background: The study examined the oral microbiota, physiological and immunological changes in patients using thermoplastic retainers during three months of use. Methods: The study included several steps. Firstly, 10 swabs were collected from the buccal and palatal surfaces of the teeth [...] Read more.
Background: The study examined the oral microbiota, physiological and immunological changes in patients using thermoplastic retainers during three months of use. Methods: The study included several steps. Firstly, 10 swabs were collected from the buccal and palatal surfaces of the teeth of the patients, approximately 2 mL of saliva was collected from the same patients and 2 mL of saliva was collected from 10 healthy people to measure the pH and secretory IgA level. This was followed by the isolation and identfication of the bacterial isolates in the patient samples. Then, isolate susceptibility toward chlorhexidine (CHX) and their adhesion ability to thermoplastic retainer surfaces was measured. In addition to that the study estimated the numbers of Lactobacillus and Streptooccus mutans colonies during three months and finally, a comparsion of pH acidity and IgA level between the patients and healthy people was performed. The results showed the predominant bacteria during the three months were Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus spp. followed by different rates of other bacteria. Raoultella ornithinolytica showed more resistance to CHX while Lactobacillus spp. showed more sensitivity. Streptococcus mutans colony levels were higher than Lactobacillus spp. colonies during the three months, also S. mutans had the highest value in adherence to retainer thermoplastic. Finally, pH acidity showed a highly significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in the third month, like IgA levels (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: According to the results obtained from the current study, the researchers noted that the thermoplastic retainers helped change the oral cavity environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Promotes Osteo-/Odontogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells from the Apical Papilla through Activating the BMP–Smad Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1580; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26061580 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) are desirable sources of dentin regeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural component of green tea, shows potential in promoting the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells. However, whether EGCG regulates the odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs and how [...] Read more.
Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) are desirable sources of dentin regeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural component of green tea, shows potential in promoting the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells. However, whether EGCG regulates the odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs and how this occurs remain unknown. SCAPs from immature human third molars (16–20 years, n = 5) were treated with a medium containing different concentrations of EGCG or bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), with or without LDN193189 (an inhibitor of the canonical BMP pathway). Cell proliferation and migration were analyzed using a CCK-8 assay and wound-healing assay, respectively. Osteo-/odontogenic differentiation was evaluated via alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red S staining, and the expression of osteo-/odontogenic markers using qPCR and Western blotting. We found that EGCG (1 or 10 μM) promoted the proliferation of SCAPs, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition, and upregulated the expression of osteo-/odontogenic markers including dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), dentin matrix protein-1 (Dmp-1), bone sialoprotein (Bsp), and Type I collagen (Col1), along with the elevated expression of BMP2 and phosphorylation level of Smad1/5/9 (p < 0.01). EGCG at concentrations below 10 μM had no significant influence on cell migration. Moreover, EGCG-induced osteo-/odontogenic differentiation was significantly attenuated via LDN193189 treatment (p < 0.01). Furthermore, EGCG showed the ability to promote mineralization comparable with that of recombinant BMP2. Our study demonstrated that EGCG promotes the osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs through the BMP–Smad signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Collagenated Porcine Heterologous Bone Grafts: Histomorphometric Evaluation of Bone Formation Using Different Physical Forms in a Rabbit Cancellous Bone Model
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26051339 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4906
Abstract
Collagenated porcine-derived bone graft materials exhibit osteoconductive properties and the development of different formulations intends to enhance bone regeneration. This study aims to evaluate bone healing in a rabbit cancellous bone defect in response to grafting with different physicochemical forms of heterologous porcine [...] Read more.
Collagenated porcine-derived bone graft materials exhibit osteoconductive properties and the development of different formulations intends to enhance bone regeneration. This study aims to evaluate bone healing in a rabbit cancellous bone defect in response to grafting with different physicochemical forms of heterologous porcine bone. Twenty-six adult male New Zealand White rabbits received two critical size femoral bone defects per animal (n = 52), each randomly assigned to one of the five tested materials (Apatos, Gen-Os, mp3, Putty, and Gel 40). Animals were sacrificed at 15- and 30-days post-surgery. Qualitative and quantitative (new bone, particle and connective tissue percentages) histological analyses were performed. Histomorphometry showed statistically significant differences in all evaluated parameters between mp3 and both Putty and Gel 40 groups, regardless of the timepoint (p < 0.05). Moreover, statistical differences were observed between Apatos and both Putty (p = 0.014) and Gel 40 (p = 0.007) groups, at 30 days, in regard to particle percentage. Within each group, regarding new bone formation, mp3 showed significant differences (p = 0.028) between 15 (40.93 ± 3.49%) and 30 (52.49 ± 11.04%) days. Additionally, intragroup analysis concerning the percentage of particles revealed a significant reduction in particle occupied area from 15 to 30 days in mp3 and Gen-Os groups (p = 0.009). All mp3, Gen-Os and Apatos exhibited promising results in terms of new bone formation, thus presenting suitable alternatives to be used in bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Characteristics of Periodontal Tissues in Prosthetic Treatment with Fixed Dental Prostheses
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26051331 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various types of fixed prostheses on periodontal tissues and explore the association of gingival biotype and gum recession in relation to prosthesis types. The study participants (N = 95) were divided [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various types of fixed prostheses on periodontal tissues and explore the association of gingival biotype and gum recession in relation to prosthesis types. The study participants (N = 95) were divided into three groups based on the type of dental prosthesis: Group-I: cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) ceramic prosthesis fabricated by the conventional method (n = 35); Group-II: consisted of patients with Co-Cr ceramic prostheses fabricated by a computer-aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique (n = 30); and Group-III: zirconia-based prostheses fabricated by the CAD/CAM technique (n = 30). Following the use of prostheses, periodontal examinations were performed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Modified Approximal Plaque Index (MAPI). In addition, the gingival biotype was examined using a probe transparency method. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 20 (IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA), was used to analyze the results, and the significance level was set at p = 0.05. It showed the MAPI results after the use of prosthetic rehabilitation for 12 months of periodontitis in 87.9% ± 15.4 of patients in Group-I, in 80.6% ± 17.97 in those in Group-II, and in 62.5% ± 21.4 in those in Group-III (p < 0.01). The CPI index results indicated a high prevalence of periodontal disease in all groups. The number of people with healthy periodontium constituted 17.1% of patients in Group-I, 24.2% in Group-II, and 37.1% in Group-III. Our study concluded that prosthetic treatment with periodontal diseases showed better outcomes while using dental prostheses fabricated by the CAD/CAM technique compared to the conventionally fabricated dental prostheses. The thin gingival biotype is more often associated with gingival recession than the thick biotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
The Effect of Partial Corticotomy on the Rate of Maxillary Canine Retraction: Clinical and Radiographic Study
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4837; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25204837 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate, clinically and radiographically, the effect of partial corticotomy of the buccal plate distal to the canine on the rate of maxillary canine retraction. A clinical trial with the split-mouth design was conducted among twenty orthodontic patients, recommended for [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate, clinically and radiographically, the effect of partial corticotomy of the buccal plate distal to the canine on the rate of maxillary canine retraction. A clinical trial with the split-mouth design was conducted among twenty orthodontic patients, recommended for first premolar extraction with an age range from 13 to 21 years, selected from patients seeking orthodontic treatment in private dental clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. After extraction of the maxillary right and left first premolar, partial corticotomy was performed distal to the canine on the right side. The canine retraction was carried out with a power chain on both sides extended between the canine and the maxillary first molar. The data collected from the current study were tabulated and statistically analyzed using an independent sample t-test with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side (p < 0.05). Under the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the technique of partial corticotomy of the buccal plate distal to the canine is a straightforward surgical procedure enhancing the rate of canine retraction significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Global Dental Publications in PubMed Databases between 2009 and 2019—A Bibliometric Analysis
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4747; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25204747 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the publications in the field of dentistry on the PubMed database over a span of 10 years, from 2009 to 2019. Articles published between January 2009 to December 2019 were searched for in the MEDLINE [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the publications in the field of dentistry on the PubMed database over a span of 10 years, from 2009 to 2019. Articles published between January 2009 to December 2019 were searched for in the MEDLINE database via PubMed. Data analysis was done using R-base packages, including the specialized R-packages Bibliometrix and String. For descriptive statistics and sequence charting, SPSS version 23.0 was used. A total of 104,975 articles were extracted, with a total of 153,530 authors in the given time frame. The proportion of articles steadily increased from 2009, plateauing at its peak from 2010 to 2016, and then seeing a decline from 2017 to 2019. Journal articles (60.58%), comparative studies (16.05%) and case reports (10.8%) were recorded as the most reported type of publication globally, accounting for 81.43% of the total documents extracted. All the articles came from 81 countries, with the USA reporting the greatest number of published articles (45,911). Dentistry proves to be a multi-faceted arena and many researchers and authors around the globe are contributing to the burgeoning literature over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Article
Cytomorphometric Analysis of Inflammation Dynamics in the Periodontium Following the Use of Fixed Dental Prostheses
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4650; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25204650 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Cytomorphometry is used in the sampling of biological materials and diagnostic procedures. The use of cytological studies in periodontal diseases is not well described in the literature. Our study aimed to quantitatively assess the inflammation dynamics using cytomorphometric analysis of the periodontium before [...] Read more.
Cytomorphometry is used in the sampling of biological materials and diagnostic procedures. The use of cytological studies in periodontal diseases is not well described in the literature. Our study aimed to quantitatively assess the inflammation dynamics using cytomorphometric analysis of the periodontium before and after the use of fixed dental prostheses. Following ethics approval, a total of 105 subjects were divided in 3 groups as gingivitis (n = 23), periodontitis (n = 58), and healthy periodontium (control) (n = 24). The fixed dental prostheses (crowns and fixed partial dentures) were fabricated from cobalt-chrome metal-ceramic prostheses using the conventional method (C/M-CoCr), cobalt-chrome metal-ceramic prostheses by the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique (C/C-CoCr), and zirconia-based ceramic prostheses by the CAD/CAM technique (C/C-Zr) among subjects with gingivitis and periodontitis. The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was obtained from subjects before and after the use of the prostheses. The total count of epithelial cells and the connective tissue cells or polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in GCF were studied using cytomorphometric analysis. The Statistical Package Tor the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 20 (IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the results and the significance level was set at p = 0.05. The data for before and after the use of the prostheses were compared using independent t-Tests. Similarly, the results after the use of prostheses in gingivitis, periodontitis, and control in each type of prostheses were compared using One-way ANOVA with post hoc using Scheffe. The total epithelial cells and the PMNs were determined along with the epithelium/leukocyte index. Regardless of the prostheses type used, no significant change in the parameters was identified among patients with a healthy periodontium, before and after prosthetic treatment. In all study groups, a statistically increase (p value < 0.05) was observed in the oral epithelial cell counts and a statistically decrease (p < 0.05) in the PMNs count following the use of the fixed prostheses. Data on cytomorphometric analysis could enable the selection of the most appropriate prostheses for use in patients with periodontal pathologies. When choosing prostheses, changes in the composition of GCF could be considered as a useful criterion for their use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Review

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Review
Therapeutic Potential of Dental Pulp Stem Cells According to Different Transplant Types
Molecules 2021, 26(24), 7423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26247423 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Stem cells are unspecialised cells capable of perpetual self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation into more specialised daughter cells. They are present in many tissues and organs, including the stomatognathic system. Recently, the great interest of scientists in obtaining stem cells from human teeth is [...] Read more.
Stem cells are unspecialised cells capable of perpetual self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation into more specialised daughter cells. They are present in many tissues and organs, including the stomatognathic system. Recently, the great interest of scientists in obtaining stem cells from human teeth is due to their easy availability and a non-invasive procedure of collecting the material. Three key components are required for tissue regeneration: stem cells, appropriate scaffold material and growth factors. Depending on the source of the new tissue or organ, there are several types of transplants. In this review, the following division into four transplant types is applied due to genetic differences between the donor and the recipient: xenotransplantation, allotransplantation, autotransplantation and isotransplantation (however, due to the lack of research, type was not included). In vivo studies have shown that Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs)can form a dentin-pulp complex, nerves, adipose, bone, cartilage, skin, blood vessels and myocardium, which gives hope for their use in various biomedical areas, such as immunotherapy and regenerative therapy. This review presents the current in vivo research and advances to provide new biological insights and therapeutic possibilities of using DPSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Review
Effect of Different Surface Treatment Methods on Bond Strength of Dental Ceramics to Dental Hard Tissues: A Systematic Review
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26051223 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
For long-term successful use of ceramic materials in dental procedures, it is necessary to ensure reliable bonding of restorations to dental substrates. This can be achieved by the application of a proper luting cement and through additional surface conditioning. The present systematic review [...] Read more.
For long-term successful use of ceramic materials in dental procedures, it is necessary to ensure reliable bonding of restorations to dental substrates. This can be achieved by the application of a proper luting cement and through additional surface conditioning. The present systematic review summarizes the most up-to-date evidence on the use of different surface modification methods to enhance the bond strength of dental ceramics to the hard tissues of the teeth. The authors of the review searched the Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE databases to identify relevant articles published between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2020. A total of 4892 records were identified, and after screening, the full text of 159 articles was evaluated, which finally resulted in the inclusion of 19 studies. The available reports were found to be heterogeneous in terms of materials and methodology, and therefore, only within-studies comparison was performed instead of comparison between studies. A statistically significant difference in the bond strength between the samples treated with different methods of surface conditioning, or between conditioned and nonconditioned samples, was revealed by most of the studies. Predominantly, the studies showed that a combination of mechanical and chemical methods was the most effective way of enhancing bond strength. Artificial aging and luting cement were also identified as the factors significantly influencing bond strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Review
Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF): A Diagnostic Tool for the Detection of Periodontal Health and Diseases
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26051208 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
The methodologies applicable for the evaluation of periodontal associated diseases are constantly evolving to provide quick, realistic, and scientifically proven results. Trends in the past followed a clinical evaluation of periodontal tissues and radiographic-based reports that formed the foundation for detection of diseases [...] Read more.
The methodologies applicable for the evaluation of periodontal associated diseases are constantly evolving to provide quick, realistic, and scientifically proven results. Trends in the past followed a clinical evaluation of periodontal tissues and radiographic-based reports that formed the foundation for detection of diseases involving the structures supporting the teeth. As the confines and limitations of conventional strategies became obvious over the passage of time, hand in hand variety of techniques have evolved and experimentally justified. These improvisations are based on an improved understanding of the periodontal-pathogenic cascade. Periodontal pathogenesis and a paradigm shift from disease understanding to disease prevention and treatment entail few prerequisites that demand the objectivity of diagnostics procedure that includes sensitivity and specificity along with an explanation of the intensity of the disease, Gingival crevicular fluid an oral bio-fluid resides in the close proximity with gingival tissues have been widely used to understand and differentiate the periodontal health and diseased status. The biomarkers present in the GCF can be a reliable tool to detect the minute changes seen in the disease processes. The GCF consists of various host and bacterial-derived products as well as biomarkers which in turn can be evaluated for the diagnosis, prognosis as well as management of the periodontal disease. Thus, the review aims at describing GCF as a potential oral biofluid helpful in differentiating periodontal health and disease status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Review
Potential of Lyophilized Platelet Concentrates for Craniofacial Tissue Regenerative Therapies
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 517; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26030517 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
Objective: The use of platelet concentrates (PCs) in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and craniofacial surgery has been reported. While PCs provide a rich reservoir of autologous bioactive growth factors for tissue regeneration, their drawbacks include lack of utility for long-term application, low [...] Read more.
Objective: The use of platelet concentrates (PCs) in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and craniofacial surgery has been reported. While PCs provide a rich reservoir of autologous bioactive growth factors for tissue regeneration, their drawbacks include lack of utility for long-term application, low elastic modulus and strength, and limited storage capability. These issues restrict their broader application. This review focuses on the lyophilization of PCs (LPCs) and how this processing approach affects their biological and mechanical properties for application as a bioactive scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus, was conducted from 1946 until 2019 using a combination of search terms relating to this topic. Results: Ten manuscripts were identified as being relevant. The use of LPCs was mostly studied in in vitro and in vivo craniofacial bone regeneration models. Notably, one clinical study reported the utility of LPCs for guided bone regeneration prior to dental implant placement. Conclusions: Lyophilization can enhance the inherent characteristics of PCs and extends shelf-life, enable their use in emergency surgery, and improve storage and transportation capabilities. In light of this, further preclinical studies and clinical trials are required, as LPCs offer a potential approach for clinical application in craniofacial tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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Review
Systemic Manifestations of the Periodontal Disease: A Bibliometric Review
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4508; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25194508 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
This bibliometric review aimed to identify and analyze the top 100 most-cited publications on the systemic manifestations of periodontal disease (PD). A literature search was performed using the Web of Science (WoS) ‘All Databases’, without any restriction of language, publication year, or study [...] Read more.
This bibliometric review aimed to identify and analyze the top 100 most-cited publications on the systemic manifestations of periodontal disease (PD). A literature search was performed using the Web of Science (WoS) ‘All Databases’, without any restriction of language, publication year, or study design. Of 4418 articles, the top 100 were included based on their citation count. After downloading the full texts, their bibliometric information was extracted and analyzed. The citation counts for the top 100 articles ranged from 156 to 4191 (median 217). The most productive years were 2003 and 2005, with 20 articles on the list. Majority of the articles were published in the Journal of Periodontology (n = 25). The top 100 articles were generated primarily from the USA (n = 61). Most of the publications were clinical trials (n = 27) and focused on the cardiovascular manifestations of PD (n = 31). Most of the articles were within the evidence level V (n = 41). A total of 58 studies received funding and the most frequently used keyword in the top articles was “periodontal disease” (n = 39). The current citation analysis presents insights into the current trends in the systemic manifestations of periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Molecular Sciences in Regenerative Dentistry)
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