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Special Issue "Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecular Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Farshid Sefat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical & Electronics Engineering, University of Bradford, Chesham Building, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: tissue engineering; dental biomaterials; oral tissue engineering; implant dentistry; electrospinning; bone and cartilage cell engineering; biomaterials fabrication and characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Jithendra Ratnayake
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
Interests: biomaterials; regenerative medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Tan Sui
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Interests: materials characterisation; micromechanics; synchrotron X-ray; advanced microscopy; natural and bioinspired materials; engineering alloys; advanced energy materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials are materials or devices that have been extensively used for the repair, replacement, regeneration, and rehabilitation of the living tissues or organs of the human body since the 20th century. Biomaterials have played a vital role in the development and advancement of various industries, including pharmaceutical, prosthesis, and biomedical engineering. In addition, the demand for biomaterials has sharply increased in the 21st century due to factors such as improved healthcare facilities, quality of life, and increased life expectancy and proportion of aging populations. To meet this increased demand for biomaterials, the development of new biomaterials as well as further characterization of existing biomaterials through superior-quality interdisciplinary research holds immense importance. Similarly, there is a huge need for further research in this field to satisfy the clinical requirements of these sustainable materials.

This Special Issue aims to provide a platform for the most promising findings on a wide range of biomaterials, including but not limited to hydrogels, biomolecules, natural and synthetic polymers, adhesives, resin base composites, hydrocolloids, bioceramics, and alloys for various medical and dental applications, such as tissue engineering scaffolds (corneal regeneration, neural regeneration, facial tissue regeneration, soft and hard tissue regeneration), dental prosthesis, implants, and restorative dentistry. Our focus will be to publish high-quality research on synthesis, characterization, macromolecular interactions, biocompatibility analysis, and applications of a diverse range of biomaterials in dentistry and medicine.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit your manuscript to this Special Issue.

Dr. Zohaib Khurshid
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar
Dr. Farshid Sefat
Dr. Jithendra Ratnayake
Dr. Tan Sui
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Proteins and peptides
  • Macromolecule interaction
  • Polymer-based scaffolds
  • Ceramic and its surface modifications
  • Titanium implants
  • PEEK and PEKK material
  • Zirconium
  • Cardiac stent
  • Bone graft
  • Bone implants
  • Dental implants
  • Periodontal regeneration
  • Enamel remineralization
  • Dentine mineralization
  • Dental biomaterials
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Scaffold synthesis and characterization
  • Neurodegenerative medicine
  • Adhesives and resins as biomaterials
  • Hydrocolloids
  • Hydrogels

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Thymoquinone against Different Dental Pathogens: An In Vitro Study
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6451; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26216451 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Thymoquinone (TQ) on four different oral microorganisms. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Broth microdilution, and Well diffusion tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of TQ against Streptococcus salivarius, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Thymoquinone (TQ) on four different oral microorganisms. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Broth microdilution, and Well diffusion tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of TQ against Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus over 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. Chlorhexidine 0.12% was selected as a positive control. The inhibitory effect of TQ on bacterial growth was most noticeable with S. salivarius, while the least affected was S. aureus. TQ’s MBC and MIC for S. oralis and S. aureus were comparable 2 mg/mL and 3 mg/mL, respectively. S. salivarius was most resistant to TQ and displayed a value of 5 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. The viable count of different strains after exposure to TQ’s MBC values was most noticeable with S. aureus followed by S. oralis and S. mutans, while S. salivarius was least affected. This study emphasized the promising antimicrobial effect of TQ against the four main oral microorganisms. It has a potential preventive effect against dental caries as well as other oral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
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Article
Comparison of Fracture Load of the Four Translucent Zirconia Crowns
Molecules 2021, 26(17), 5308; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26175308 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Recently, translucent zirconia has become the most prevalent material used as a restorative material. This study aimed to compare the crown fracture load of the four most common different translucent zirconia brands available in the market at 1.5 mm thickness. Standardized tooth preparations [...] Read more.
Recently, translucent zirconia has become the most prevalent material used as a restorative material. This study aimed to compare the crown fracture load of the four most common different translucent zirconia brands available in the market at 1.5 mm thickness. Standardized tooth preparations for a full ceramic crown were designed digitally with software (AutoCAD) by placing a 1.0 mm chamfer margin and 1.5 mm occluso-cervical curvature for the crown sample manufacturing. Stylized crowns were chosen to control the thickness of the crown. The axial and occlusal thickness were standardized to 1.5 mm thickness except at the central pit, which was 1.3 mm thick. The STL file for the tooth dies was prepared using software (3Shape TRIOS® Patient Monitoring, Copenhagen, Denmark). The tooth dies were printed with a resin material (NextDent Model 2.0, Vertex-Dental B.V., Soesterberg, The Netherlands) using a 3D printing software (3D Sprint® Client Version 3.0.0.2494) from a 3D printer (NextDent™ 5100, Vertex-Dental B.V., Soesterberg, The Netherlands). The printing layer thickness was 50 µm. Then, a total of twenty-eight (N = 28) stylized crowns were milled out of AmannGirrbach (Amann Girrbach GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany) (n = 7), Cercon HT (Dentsply Sirona, Bensheim, Germany) (n = 7), Cercon XT (Dentsply Sirona, Bensheim, Germany) (n = 7), and Vita YZ XT (Zahnfabrik, Bäd Sackingen, Germany) (n = 7). Following sintering the crowns, sandblasting was performed and they were bonded to the tooth dies with the resin cement (RelyX U-200, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) and permitted to self-cure under finger pressure for 6 min. The crowns were loaded on the occlusal surface in a universal testing machine (MTS Centurion) with a stainless-steel ball indenter (7 mm radius) with a loading rate of 1 mm/min to contact the stylized crowns on each of the four cusps until failure. A rubber sheet (1.5 mm thickness) was positioned between the crown and indenter, which helped with the load distribution. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 (IBM Company, Chicago, USA). The fracture loads were analyzed using Dunnett’s T3 test, and the number of cracks was analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test among the groups. The significant level was set at p value = 0.05. The mean fracture loads were 3086.54 ± 441.74 N, 4804.94 ± 70.12 N, 3317.76 ± 199.80 N, and 2921.87 ± 349.67 N for AmannGirrbac, Cercon HT, Cercon XT, and Vita YZ XT, respectively. The mean fracture loads for the surfaces with the greatest number of cracks (excluding the occlusal surfaces) were on the lingual surface for AmannGirrbach and Cercon HT, on the distal and mesial for Cercon XT, and on the buccal for Vita YZ XT. We found that the AmannGirrbach had the most overall cracks. Cercon XT had the greatest number of occlusal cracks and appeared to be the most shattered. Cercon HT had the least number of cracks. In conclusion, Cercon HT presented the best strength properties, the highest fracture load, and no visible cracks. AmannGirrbach presented the lowest strength properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
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Article
Cytotoxic Evaluation and Determination of Organic and Inorganic Eluates from Restorative Materials
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4912; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26164912 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Over the last years, diverse commercial resin-based composites have dominated as dental filling materials. The purpose of the present study was to determine organic and inorganic eluates from five restorative materials using GC/MS and ICP–OES and to compare the effect on cell survival [...] Read more.
Over the last years, diverse commercial resin-based composites have dominated as dental filling materials. The purpose of the present study was to determine organic and inorganic eluates from five restorative materials using GC/MS and ICP–OES and to compare the effect on cell survival of human gingival fibroblasts of a conventional and a bioactive resin. Five commercially available restorative materials were employed for this study: ActivaTM Bioactive Restorative, ENA HRi, Enamel plus HRi Biofunction, Fuji II LC Capsule, and Fuji IX Capsule. Disks that were polymerized with a curing LED light or left to set were immersed in: 1 mL methanol or artificial saliva for GC/MS analysis, 5mL deionized water for ICP–OES, and 5mL of culture medium for cell viability. Cell viability was investigated with a modified staining sulforhodamine B assay.The following organic substances were detected: ACP, BHT, BPA, 1,4-BDDMA, CQ, DBP, DMABEE, HEMA, MCE, MeHQ, MOPA, MS, TMPTMA, and TPSb and the ions silicon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, and barium. Activa Bioactive Restorative was found to be biocompatible. Elution of organic substances depended on material’s composition, the nature of the solvent and the storage time. Ions’ release depended on material’s composition and storage time. The newly introduced bioactive restorative was found to be more biocompatible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
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Article
A Potassium Based Fluorine Containing Bioactive Glass for Use as a Desensitizing Toothpaste
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26144327 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Potassium releasing bioactive glasses (BAGs) may offer improved relief for dentine hypersensitivity compared to conventional sodium containing BAGs by releasing K+ ions for nerve desensitization and occluding dentinal tubules to prevent fluid flow within dentinal tubules. Potassium oxide was substituted for sodium [...] Read more.
Potassium releasing bioactive glasses (BAGs) may offer improved relief for dentine hypersensitivity compared to conventional sodium containing BAGs by releasing K+ ions for nerve desensitization and occluding dentinal tubules to prevent fluid flow within dentinal tubules. Potassium oxide was substituted for sodium oxide on a molar basis in a fluoride containing BAG used in toothpastes for treating dentine hypersensitivity. The BAG powders were then immersed in an artificial saliva at pH 7 and tris buffer and the pH rise and ion release behavior were characterized by ICP-OES and ISE. The potassium and sodium containing BAGs were characterized by XRD, DSC, FTIR and NMR. Both BAGs presented amorphous diffraction patterns and the glass transition temperature of the potassium glass was higher than that of the sodium glass. The 31P MAS-NMR spectra indicated a peak at 2.7 ppm corresponding to apatite and a small peak at −103 ppm indicated crystallization to fluorapatite. Both BAGs dissolved and formed apatite at similar rates, although the dissolution of the potassium glass was slightly slower and it released less fluoride as a result of partial nanocrystallization to fluorapatite upon quenching. The potassium release from the potassium ions could potentially result in nerve deactivation when used in toothpastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
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Article
Fracture Load of CAD/CAM Fabricated Cantilever Implant-Supported Zirconia Framework: An In Vitro Study
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26082259 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
The fracture resistance of computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing CAD/CAM fabricated implant-supported cantilever zirconia frameworks (ISCZFs) is affected by the size/dimension and the micro cracks produced from diamond burs during the milling process. The present in vitro study investigated the fracture load for [...] Read more.
The fracture resistance of computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing CAD/CAM fabricated implant-supported cantilever zirconia frameworks (ISCZFs) is affected by the size/dimension and the micro cracks produced from diamond burs during the milling process. The present in vitro study investigated the fracture load for different cross-sectional dimensions of connector sites of implant-supported cantilever zirconia frameworks (ISCZFs) with different cantilever lengths (load point). A total of 48 ISCZFs (Cercon, Degudent; Dentsply, Deutschland, Germany) were fabricated by CAD/CAM and divided into four groups based on cantilever length and reinforcement of distal-abutment: Group A: 9 mm cantilever; Group B: 9 mm cantilever with reinforced distal-abutment; Group C: 12 mm cantilever; Group D: 12 mm cantilever with reinforced distal-abutment (n = 12). The ISCZFs were loaded using a universal testing machine for recording the fracture load. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Tukey’s test were used for the statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Significant variations were found between the fracture loads of the four ISCZFs (p = 0.000); Group-C and B were found with the weakest and the strongest distal cantilever frameworks with fracture load of 670.39 ± 130.96 N and 1137.86 ± 127.85 N, respectively. The mean difference of the fracture load between groups A (810.49 + 137.579 N) and B (1137.86 ± 127.85 N) and between C (670.39 ± 130.96 N) and D (914.58 + 149.635 N) was statistically significant (p = 0.000). Significant variations in the fracture load between the ISCZFs with different cantilever lengths and thicknesses of the distal abutments were found. Increasing the thickness of the distal abutment only by 0.5 mm reinforces the distal abutments by significantly increasing the fracture load of the ISCZFs. Therefore, an increase in the thickness of the distal abutments is recommended in patients seeking implant-supported distal cantilever fixed prostheses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
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Review

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Review
Bone Grafts and Substitutes in Dentistry: A Review of Current Trends and Developments
Molecules 2021, 26(10), 3007; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26103007 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
After tooth loss, bone resorption is irreversible, leaving the area without adequate bone volume for successful implant treatment. Bone grafting is the only solution to reverse dental bone loss and is a well-accepted procedure required in one in every four dental implants. Research [...] Read more.
After tooth loss, bone resorption is irreversible, leaving the area without adequate bone volume for successful implant treatment. Bone grafting is the only solution to reverse dental bone loss and is a well-accepted procedure required in one in every four dental implants. Research and development in materials, design and fabrication technologies have expanded over the years to achieve successful and long-lasting dental implants for tooth substitution. This review will critically present the various dental bone graft and substitute materials that have been used to achieve a successful dental implant. The article also reviews the properties of dental bone grafts and various dental bone substitutes that have been studied or are currently available commercially. The various classifications of bone grafts and substitutes, including natural and synthetic materials, are critically presented, and available commercial products in each category are discussed. Different bone substitute materials, including metals, ceramics, polymers, or their combinations, and their chemical, physical, and biocompatibility properties are explored. Limitations of the available materials are presented, and areas which require further research and development are highlighted. Tissue engineering hybrid constructions with enhanced bone regeneration ability, such as cell-based or growth factor-based bone substitutes, are discussed as an emerging area of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Medical and Dental Biomaterials)
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