Special Issue "The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio Brunetti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: insulin signaling; insulin resistance; type 2 diabetes mellitus; nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Diego Russo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: thyroid; insulin sensitivity; polyphenols; nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition strictly associated with obesity, in which peripheral insulin target tissues (namely, skeletal muscle, liver, and fat) fail to respond properly to normal levels of circulating insulin. As the cardinal feature of metabolic syndrome, IR can be linked to type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cardiovascular disease, infertility, maternal and obstetric complications of pregnancy, cancer, and cognitive impairment. Among the factors that modulate insulin action in target tissues, nutrition and diet are of paramount importance. Plant-based diets rich in polyphenols, such as the Mediterranean and Asian diets, ameliorate insulin sensitivity and can provide both short- and long-term health benefits in insulin-resistant populations, representing a potential nutritional approach to curb the epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Polyphenols are a large and heterogeneous group of molecules, which act as caloric restriction mimickers, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Although the underlying molecular mechanism(s) that trigger insulin action remain poorly understood, initial differences between the polyphenol subclasses have been disclosed. While phenolic compounds in extra-virgin olive oil, such as oleuropein and its degradation product oleacein, reduce the hepatic expression of SREBP-1, FAS, and p-ERK, thus implying improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, flavan-3-ols, resveratrol, and other polyphenols may stimulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake by activating the AMPK–SIRT1–PGC-1α pathway. This Special Issue of Nutrients aims at providing insights into the role of diet and nutraceuticals on insulin sensitivity and their implications for metabolic functions. Submissions may include original clinical and preclinical research, including animal model studies and in vitro cell-based systems, as well as comprehensive reviews outlining the dietary and nutraceutical modulation of insulin action/signaling with a major impact on IR markers.

Prof. Antonio Brunetti
Prof. Diego Russo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Insulin sensitivity
  • Insulin signaling
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Dietary compounds

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3042; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12103042 - 04 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Growing evidence shows that dietary composition has a marked impact on the risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), certain types of endocrine cancer and many other intertwined metabolic and reproductive disorders, all featured by insulin resistance (IR) [...] [...] Read more.
Growing evidence shows that dietary composition has a marked impact on the risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), certain types of endocrine cancer and many other intertwined metabolic and reproductive disorders, all featured by insulin resistance (IR) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)

Research

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Article
Butaphosphan Effects on Glucose Metabolism Involve Insulin Signaling and Depends on Nutritional Plan
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1856; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12061856 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Butaphosphan is an organic phosphorus compound used in several species for the prevention of rapid catabolic states, however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. This study aimed at determining the effects of butaphosphan on energy metabolism of mice receiving a normal or hypercaloric [...] Read more.
Butaphosphan is an organic phosphorus compound used in several species for the prevention of rapid catabolic states, however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. This study aimed at determining the effects of butaphosphan on energy metabolism of mice receiving a normal or hypercaloric diet (HCD) and submitted or not to food restriction. Two experiments were conducted: (1) during nine weeks, animals were fed with HCD (n = 28) ad libitum, and at the 10th week, were submitted to food restriction and received butaphosphan (n = 14) or saline injections (n = 14) (twice a day, for seven days) and; (2) during nine weeks, animals were fed with a control diet (n = 14) or HCD (n = 14) ad libitum, and at the 10th week, all animals were submitted to food restriction and received butaphosphan or saline injections (twice a day, for seven days). In food restriction, butaphosphan preserved epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, increased glucose, NEFA, and the HOMA index. In mice fed HCD and submitted to food restriction, the butaphosphan preserved epididymal WAT mass. Control diet influences on PI3K, GCK, and Irs1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, butaphosphan increased blood glucose and reduced fat mobilization in overweight mice submitted to caloric restriction, and these effects are influenced by diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Article
The Impact of an Early Lifestyle Intervention on Pregnancy Outcomes in a Cohort of Insulin-Resistant Overweight and Obese Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1496; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051496 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
Obese women are more likely to have decreased insulin sensitivity and are at increased risk for many adverse pregnancy outcomes. An early lifestyle intervention (LI) may have the potential to reduce the impact of insulin resistance (IR) on perinatal outcomes. We report post [...] Read more.
Obese women are more likely to have decreased insulin sensitivity and are at increased risk for many adverse pregnancy outcomes. An early lifestyle intervention (LI) may have the potential to reduce the impact of insulin resistance (IR) on perinatal outcomes. We report post hoc analysis of an open-label randomized control trial that includes IR women with body-mass index ≥25 randomly assigned to a LI with a customized low glycemic index diet or to standard care (SC) involving generic counseling about healthy diet and physical activity. Women were evaluated at 16, 20, 28, and 36 weeks of gestation, at which times perinatal outcomes were collected and analyzed. An oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) showed that women in the LI group had lower plasma glucose levels at 120 min at 16–18 weeks of gestation, and at 60 and 120 min at 24–28 weeks. More importantly, these women had a lower rate of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants (p = 0.04). Interestingly, the caloric restriction and low-glycemic index diet did not increase the rate of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) babies in the LI group. A lifestyle intervention started early in pregnancy on overweight and obese women had the potential to restore adequate glucose tolerance and mitigate the detrimental role of IR on neonatal outcomes, especially on fetal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Article
Metabolic and Cognitive Effects of Ranolazine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Data from an in vivo Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020382 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Ranolazine, an anti-ischemic drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, has been shown to possess hypoglycemic properties in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Ranolazine, an anti-ischemic drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, has been shown to possess hypoglycemic properties in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ranolazine on glucose metabolism and cognitive function in a T2DM model of Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ). The control group received a normal caloric diet (NCD) and sodium citrate buffer. Metformin, an effective hypoglycemic drug, was employed as a positive control. Animals were divided into the following groups: HFD/STZ + Ranolazine, HFD/STZ + Metformin, HFD/STZ + Vehicle, NCD + Vehicle, NCD + Ranolazine, and NCD + Metformin. Rats received ranolazine (20 mg/kg), metformin (300 mg/kg), or water, for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatments, all animals underwent to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and behavioral tests, including passive avoidance, novel object recognition, forced swimming, and elevate plus maze tests. Interleukin-6 plasma levels in the six treatment groups were assessed by Elisa assay. Body mass composition was estimated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Glucose responsiveness significantly improved in the HFD/STZ + Ranolazine (p < 0.0001) and HFD/STZ + Metformin (p = 0.003) groups. There was a moderate effect on blood glucose levels in the NCD + Ranolazine and NCD + Metformin groups. Lean body mass was significantly increased in the HFD/STZ + Ranolazine and HFD/STZ + Metformin animals, compared to HFD/STZ + Vehicle animals. Ranolazine improved learning and long-term memory in HFD/STZ + Ranolazine compared to HFD/STZ + Vehicle (p < 0.001) and ameliorated the pro-inflammatory profile of diabetic mice. These results support the hypothesis of a protective effect of ranolazine against cognitive decline caused by T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Article
Effects of Sucralose Ingestion versus Sucralose Taste on Metabolic Responses to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Participants with Normal Weight and Obesity: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12010029 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5865
Abstract
Here, we tested the hypothesis that sucralose differentially affects metabolic responses to labeled oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in participants with normal weight and obesity. Participants (10 with normal weight and 11 with obesity) without diabetes underwent three dual-tracer OGTTs preceded, in a [...] Read more.
Here, we tested the hypothesis that sucralose differentially affects metabolic responses to labeled oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in participants with normal weight and obesity. Participants (10 with normal weight and 11 with obesity) without diabetes underwent three dual-tracer OGTTs preceded, in a randomized order, by consuming sucralose or water, or by tasting and expectorating sucralose (e.g., sham-fed; sweetness control). Indices of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity (SI) were estimated using oral minimal models of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide kinetics. Compared with water, sucralose ingested (but not sham-fed) resulted in a 30 ± 10% increased glucose area under the curve in both weight groups. In contrast, the insulin response to sucralose ingestion differed depending on the presence of obesity: decreased within 20–40 min of the OGTT in normal-weight participants but increased within 90–120 min in participants with obesity. Sham-fed sucralose similarly decreased insulin concentrations within 60 min of the OGTT in both weight groups. Sucralose ingested (but not sham-fed) increased SI in normal-weight participants by 52 ± 20% but did not affect SI in participants with obesity. Sucralose did not affect glucose rates of appearance or β-cell function in either weight group. Our data underscore a physiological role for taste perception in postprandial glucose responses, suggesting sweeteners should be consumed in moderation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Article
The Effect of a Low Glycemic Index Pulse-Based Diet on Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Resistance, Bone Resorption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors during Bed Rest
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2012; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11092012 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
We determined the effects of a low glycemic-index pulse-based diet (i.e., containing lentils, chick peas, beans, and split peas) compared to a typical hospital diet on insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index from the insulin and glucose response to a two-hour oral [...] Read more.
We determined the effects of a low glycemic-index pulse-based diet (i.e., containing lentils, chick peas, beans, and split peas) compared to a typical hospital diet on insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index from the insulin and glucose response to a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test, insulin resistance assessed by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), bone resorption assessed by 24 h excretion of urinary n-telopeptides(Ntx) and cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure, arterial stiffness and heart rate variability) during bed rest. Using a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design with one-month washout, six healthy individuals (30 ± 12 years) consumed the diets during four days of bed rest. The Matsuda index, HOMA-IR, urinary Ntx and cardiovascular risk factors were determined at baseline and after the last day of bed rest. Compared to the typical hospital diet, the pulse-based diet improved the Matsuda index (indicating increased insulin sensitivity; baseline to post-bed rest: 6.54 ± 1.94 to 6.39 ± 2.71 hospital diet vs. 7.14 ± 2.36 to 8.75 ± 3.13 pulse-based diet; p = 0.017), decreased HOMA-IR (1.38 ± 0.54 to 1.37 ± 0.50 hospital diet vs. 1.48 ± 0.54 to 0.88 ± 0.37 pulse-based diet; p = 0.022), and attenuated the increase in Ntx (+89 ± 75% hospital diet vs. +33 ± 20% pulse-based diet; p = 0.035). No differences for changes in cardiovascular risk factors were found between the two diet conditions, with the exception of decreased diastolic blood pressure during day three of bed rest in the pulse-based versus hospital diet (61 ± 9 vs. 66 ± 7 mmHg; p = 0.03). A pulse-based diet was superior to a hospital diet for maintaining insulin sensitivity, preventing insulin resistance, attenuating bone resorption and decreasing diastolic blood pressure during four days of bed rest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Article
Oleacein Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity and Ameliorates Some Biochemical Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11081829 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Oleacein is one of the most abundant polyphenolic compounds of olive oil, which has been shown to play a protective role against several metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Herein, we investigated the effects of oleacein on certain markers of [...] Read more.
Oleacein is one of the most abundant polyphenolic compounds of olive oil, which has been shown to play a protective role against several metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Herein, we investigated the effects of oleacein on certain markers of adipogenesis and insulin-resistance in vitro, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and in vivo in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. During the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, oleacein strongly inhibited lipid accumulation, and decreased protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), while increasing Adiponectin levels. In vivo, treatment with oleacein of C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice fed with HFD for 5 and 13 weeks prevented the increase in adipocyte size and reduced the inflammatory infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes in adipose tissue. These effects were accompanied by changes in the expression of adipose tissue-specific regulatory elements such as PPARγ, FAS, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1 (SREBP-1), and Adiponectin, while the expression of insulin-sensitive muscle/fat glucose transporter Glut-4 was restored in HFD-fed mice treated with oleacein. Collectively, our findings indicate that protection against HFD-induced adiposity by oleacein in mice is mediated by the modulation of regulators of adipogenesis. Protection against HFD-induced obesity is effective in improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Article
Sulforaphane Prevents Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Blocking Serine Palmitoyltransferase 3-Mediated Ceramide Biosynthesis
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11051185 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Sulforaphane (SFA), a naturally active isothiocyanate compound from cruciferous vegetables used in clinical trials for cancer treatment, was found to possess potency to alleviate insulin resistance. But its underlying molecular mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed whether SFA could [...] Read more.
Sulforaphane (SFA), a naturally active isothiocyanate compound from cruciferous vegetables used in clinical trials for cancer treatment, was found to possess potency to alleviate insulin resistance. But its underlying molecular mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In this study, we assessed whether SFA could improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo by regulating ceramide production. The effects of SFA on glucose metabolism and expression levels of key proteins in the hepatic insulin signaling pathway were evaluated in insulin-resistant human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells. The results showed that SFA dose-dependently increased glucose uptake and intracellular glycogen content by regulating the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. SFA also reduced ceramide contents and downregulated transcription of ceramide-related genes. In addition, knockdown of serine palmitoyltransferase 3 (SPTLC3) in HepG2 cells prevented ceramide accumulation and alleviated insulin resistance. Moreover, SFA treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, inhibited SPTLC3 expression and hepatic ceramide production and reduced hepatic triglyceride content in vivo. We conclude that SFA recovers glucose homeostasis and improves insulin sensitivity by blocking ceramide biosynthesis through modulating SPTLC3, indicating that SFA may be a potential candidate for prevention and amelioration of hepatic insulin resistance via a ceramide-dependent mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Article
Identification of Education Models to Improve Health Outcomes in Arab Women with Pre-Diabetes
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11051113 - 18 May 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
Few evaluations of interventions to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi Arabia (SA) have been undertaken. The present study evaluates the impact of a 6-month intensive lifestyle modification intervention delivered in primary care. Females from SA with prediabetes, aged [...] Read more.
Few evaluations of interventions to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi Arabia (SA) have been undertaken. The present study evaluates the impact of a 6-month intensive lifestyle modification intervention delivered in primary care. Females from SA with prediabetes, aged 18–55 years, were recruited with 190 participants eligible following screening and randomly allocated to receive a 3-month one-on-one, intensive lifestyle modification (intervention group (IG) n = 95) or standard guidance (control group (CG) n = 95). Participants completed questionnaires including demographic, dietary and physical activity data. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A total of 123 (74 IG (age 40.6 ± 9.8 years; body mass index (BMI) 31.2 ± 7.0 kg/m2) and 49 CG (age 40.6 ± 12.7 years; BMI 32.3 ± 5.4 kg/m2)) participants completed the study. After 6 months, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; primary endpoint) significantly improved in the IG than CG completers in between-group comparisons (p < 0.001). Comparison between groups showed significant improvements in overall energy intake, total and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in favour of IG (p-values < 0.001, 0.04 and <0.001, respectively). BMI and weight change were not clinically significant in between group comparisons. A 6-month, intense one-on-one intervention in lifestyle modification significantly improves glycaemic and cardio metabolic profile of females living in SA with pre-diabetes delivered in a primary care setting. Longer duration studies, using the same intervention, may determine whether a meaningful weight loss secondary to improved diet can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Review

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Review
Cardio-Metabolic Effects of High-Fat Diets and Their Underlying Mechanisms—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051505 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
The majority of the epidemiological evidence over the past few decades has linked high intake of fats, especially saturated fats, to increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, findings of some recent studies (e.g., the PURE study) have contested this association. High [...] Read more.
The majority of the epidemiological evidence over the past few decades has linked high intake of fats, especially saturated fats, to increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, findings of some recent studies (e.g., the PURE study) have contested this association. High saturated fat diets (HFD) have been widely used in rodent research to study the mechanism of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Two separate but somewhat overlapping models—the diacylglycerol (DAG) model and the ceramide model—have emerged to explain the development of insulin resistance. Studies have shown that lipid deposition in tissues such as muscle and liver inhibit insulin signaling via the toxic molecules DAG and ceramide. DAGs activate protein kinase C that inhibit insulin-PI3K-Akt signaling by phosphorylating serine residues on insulin receptor substrate (IRS). Ceramides are sphingolipids with variable acyl group chain length and activate protein phosphatase 2A that dephosphorylates Akt to block insulin signaling. In adipose tissue, obesity leads to infiltration of macrophages that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit insulin signaling by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS proteins. For cardiovascular disease, studies in humans in the 1950s and 1960s linked high saturated fat intake with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. More recently, trials involving Mediterranean diet (e.g., PREDIMED study) have indicated that healthy monounsaturated fats are more effective in preventing cardiovascular mortality and coronary artery disease than are low-fat, low-cholesterol diets. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Mediterranean diets are potential mediators of these benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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Review
Mediterranean Diet Nutrients to Turn the Tide against Insulin Resistance and Related Diseases
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1066; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12041066 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 5769
Abstract
Insulin resistance (IR), defined as an attenuated biological response to circulating insulin, is a fundamental defect in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and is also linked to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cognitive impairment, [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance (IR), defined as an attenuated biological response to circulating insulin, is a fundamental defect in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and is also linked to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cognitive impairment, endothelial dysfunction, chronic kidney disease (CKD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and some endocrine tumors, including breast cancer. In obesity, the unbalanced production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines can lead to the development of IR and its related metabolic complications, which are potentially reversible through weight-loss programs. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), characterized by high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, red wine, vegetables and other polyphenol-rich elements, has proved to be associated with greater improvement of IR in obese individuals, when compared to other nutritional interventions. Also, recent studies in either experimental animal models or in humans, have shown encouraging results for insulin-sensitizing nutritional supplements derived from MedDiet food sources in the modulation of pathognomonic traits of certain IR-related conditions, including polyunsaturated fatty acids from olive oil and seeds, anthocyanins from purple vegetables and fruits, resveratrol from grapes, and the EVOO-derived, oleacein. Although the pharmacological properties and clinical uses of these functional nutrients are still under investigation, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the metabolic benefits appear to be compound-specific and, in some cases, point to a role in gene expression through an involvement of the nuclear high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
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