Special Issue "The Role of Diet and Nutrition in Preventing Abdominal Obesity"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Obesity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Elvira Verduci
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Health Sciences, Università di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy
2. Department of Pediatrics, Vittore Buzzi Children’s Hospital, 20154 Milan, Italy
Interests: pediatrics; nutrition; childhood obesity; metabolic syndrome; gut microbiota
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “L. Sacco”, University of Milan, Via Grassi 74, 20157 Milan, Italy
2. Faculty of Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milano MI, Italy
Interests: pediatrics; infectious diseases; COVID-19; telemedicine; nutrition; obesity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to WHO data, 41 million children under 5 years and over 340 million children and adolescents aged 5–19 are overweight or obese worldwide. Obesity burden is mainly due to westernized diet creating an “obesogenic environment” that promotes unhealthy habits. Adiposity excess induces a chronic, low‐grade inflammation that leads to a spectrum of metabolic alterations known as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is not just a simple cluster of comorbidities but represents an important cardiovascular risk factor itself.

Given the limited efficacy of treatment, encouraging healthy eating and lifestyle is a crucial key in preventing obesity.

Since obesity is an emerging and serious public health concern, the aim of this Special Issue is to explore the role of nutrient intake, dietary pattern, and functional nutrients in preventing abdominal obesity, known to be an important cardiovascular risk.

Prof. Elvira Verduci
Prof. Gianvincenzo Zuccotti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Abdominal obesity
  • Nutrient intake
  • Dietary pattern
  • Obesity prevention

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Role of BMI, Body Fat Mass and Visceral Fat in Executive Function in Individuals with Overweight and Obesity
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072259 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Evidence accumulated to date suggests that excess weight in the adult population is associated with a wide range of impairments in executive function. However, most studies have only examined the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the cognitive function of individuals with [...] Read more.
Evidence accumulated to date suggests that excess weight in the adult population is associated with a wide range of impairments in executive function. However, most studies have only examined the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the cognitive function of individuals with overweight and obesity. This study examined the potential associations of markers of adiposity (BMI, body fat, and visceral fat) with five domains of executive function including cognitive flexibility, inhibition, monitoring, planning, and working memory in a sample of 87 adult with overweight (n = 34) and obesity (n = 53). The results show that obese people had poorer working memory than those with overweight. After controlling for educational levels and physical activity, the results suggest that neither the waist–hip index not visceral fat were associated with cognitive function. In overweight, body fat was negatively associated with executive components of inhibition (p = 0.05) and monitoring (p = 0.02). In the obesity subgroup, body fat was negatively associated with inhibition (0.02) and working memory (0.04). The results provide evidence of the importance of adiposity for cognitive function. The implications for understanding the influence of markers of adiposity in adults with overweight and obesity are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Nutrition in Preventing Abdominal Obesity)
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Article
Milk-Fat Intake and Differences in Abdominal Adiposity and BMI: Evidence Based on 13,544 Randomly-Selected Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1832; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13061832 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between milk-fat intake and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, in 13,544 U.S. adults. A lesser objective was to measure the degree to which the association was influenced by multiple potential confounding variables. This [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between milk-fat intake and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, in 13,544 U.S. adults. A lesser objective was to measure the degree to which the association was influenced by multiple potential confounding variables. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2011–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quantity of milk-fat regularly consumed was the exposure variable. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), a measure of abdominal obesity, and body mass index (BMI) were the outcome variables. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a strong predictor of visceral abdominal fat, when measured by computed tomography, and has been shown to predict cardiometabolic disorders better than BMI. After controlling for age, race, gender, physical activity, leisure computer use and gaming, alcohol habits, and cigarette use, significantly lower BMIs were associated with consistent non-fat and full-fat milk consumption (F = 4.1, p = 0.0063). A significantly lower SAD was associated only with regular consumption of non-fat milk (F = 5.0, p = 0.0019). No significant differences were detected between the other milk-fat groups or milk abstainers. In this nationally representative sample, only 19.6% of adults regularly consumed low-fat milk. In conclusion, consistent non-fat milk intake was predictive of lower levels of abdominal adiposity compared to consumption of higher levels of milk-fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Nutrition in Preventing Abdominal Obesity)
Article
Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) in Children and Adolescents with Obesity: No Association with Daily Energy Intake but Promising Tool to Identify Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 413; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020413 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
(1) Background. Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been recently identified as a new cardiometabolic risk marker reflecting abdominal fat distribution and dyslipidaemia. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the relationship between VAI, daily energy intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in [...] Read more.
(1) Background. Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been recently identified as a new cardiometabolic risk marker reflecting abdominal fat distribution and dyslipidaemia. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the relationship between VAI, daily energy intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a cohort of obese Caucasian children and adolescents, aged 8 to 15 years. (2) Methods. Consecutive Italian children and adolescents with obesity, according to World Health Organization were enrolled. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured. Fasting blood samples have been analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose levels. MetS was diagnosed using identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria according to age. Homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), A body shape index (ABSI) and VAI were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses with sex, age and each anthropometric parameter (body mass index (BMI) z-score, ABSI, waist-to-height ratio (WHR)) or VAI was performed to predict MetS. Receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis was used to define the optimal VAI cut-off to identify MetS. Multiple regression was performed to predict the BMI z-score and VAI from daily energy intake after adjusting for age and sex. (3) Results. Six hundred and thirty-seven (313 boys and 324 girls) children and adolescents with obesity with median age 11 (interquartile range 10–13) years were included in the analysis. MetS was diagnosed in 79 patients. VAI correlated with BMI, WHR, ABSI, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, systolic blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and triglycerides-to-HDL ratio (p < 0.050). Optimal VAI cut-off (AUC) values to identify MetS were 1.775 (0.774), 1.685 (0.776) and 1.875 (0.797) in the whole population, boys and girls, respectively. Energy intake was positively associated with BMI z-score but no association was found with VAI. (4) Conclusion. VAI is a promising tool to identify MetS in children and adolescents with obesity and should be used in the management of abdominal obesity together with dietary assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Nutrition in Preventing Abdominal Obesity)
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Article
Higher Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein and Chemerin Concentrations Were Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Features in Pediatric Subjects with Abdominal Obesity during a Lifestyle Intervention
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020289 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Background: Elevated circulating plasma levels of both lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and chemerin are reported in patients with obesity, but few studies are available on lifestyle intervention programs. We investigated the association of both LBP and chemerin plasma levels with metabolic syndrome (MetS) outcomes [...] Read more.
Background: Elevated circulating plasma levels of both lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and chemerin are reported in patients with obesity, but few studies are available on lifestyle intervention programs. We investigated the association of both LBP and chemerin plasma levels with metabolic syndrome (MetS) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity Methods: Twenty-nine patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial were selected. The lifestyle intervention with a 2-month intensive phase and a subsequent 10-month follow-up consisted of a moderate calorie-restricted diet, recommendations to increase physical activity levels, and nutritional education. Results: Weight loss was accompanied by a significant reduction in MetS prevalence (−43%; p = 0.009). Chemerin (p = 0.029) and LBP (p = 0.033) plasma levels were significantly reduced at 2 months and 12 months, respectively. At the end of intervention, MetS components were associated with both LBP (p = 0.017) and chemerin (p < 0.001) plasma levels. Conclusions: We describe for the first time a reduction in both LBP and chemerin plasma levels and its association with MetS risk factors after a lifestyle intervention program in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. Therefore, LBP and chemerin plasma levels could be used as biomarkers for the progression of cardiovascular risk in pediatric populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Nutrition in Preventing Abdominal Obesity)
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Review

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Review
The Health Benefits of Dietary Fibre
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12103209 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4721
Abstract
Background: Dietary fibre consists of non-digestible forms of carbohydrate, usually as polysaccharides that originate from plant-based foods. Over recent decades, our diet within Westernised societies has changed radically from that of our hominid ancestors, with implications for our co-evolved gut microbiota. This includes [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary fibre consists of non-digestible forms of carbohydrate, usually as polysaccharides that originate from plant-based foods. Over recent decades, our diet within Westernised societies has changed radically from that of our hominid ancestors, with implications for our co-evolved gut microbiota. This includes increased ingestion of ultra-processed foods that are typically impoverished of dietary fibre, and associated reduction in the intake of fibre-replete plant-based foods. Over recent decades, there has been a transformation in our understanding of the health benefits of dietary fibre. Objective: To explore the current medical literature on the health benefits of dietary fibre, with a focus on overall metabolic health. Data Sources: We performed a narrative review, based on relevant articles written in English from a PubMed search, using the terms ‘dietary fibre and metabolic health’. Results: In the Western world, our diets are impoverished of fibre. Dietary fibre intake associates with overall metabolic health (through key pathways that include insulin sensitivity) and a variety of other pathologies that include cardiovascular disease, colonic health, gut motility and risk for colorectal carcinoma. Dietary fibre intake also correlates with mortality. The gut microflora functions as an important mediator of the beneficial effects of dietary fibre, including the regulation of appetite, metabolic processes and chronic inflammatory pathways. Conclusions: Multiple factors contribute to our fibre-impoverished modern diet. Given the plethora of scientific evidence that corroborate the multiple and varied health benefits of dietary fibre, and the risks associated with a diet that lacks fibre, the optimization of fibre within our diets represents an important public health strategy to improve both metabolic and overall health. If implemented successfully, this strategy would likely result in substantial future health benefits for the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet and Nutrition in Preventing Abdominal Obesity)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: visceral abdominal vat; energy metabolism
Authors: Simona Bertoli
Affiliation: International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status (ICANS), Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

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