Special Issue "Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Emma Ruiz Moreno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Health Institute, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Interests: nutritional epidemiology; dietary surveys; nutrition and dietetics; COVID-19

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The different states of emergency and lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to important changes in the lifestyles of populations, and consequently, eating habits may have been influenced. However, the control measures have differed between regions, in form and time, and so, therefore, have their consequences.

Monitoring all the changes in food consumption trends and their impact on diet quality (by region, period, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, etc.), is important in the field of nutritional epidemiology. Let us remember that changes that occur in eating habits and that are maintained over time can lead to changes in health or even permanently establish new habits in populations, with the consequences associated with them.

This Special Issue of Nutrients titled “Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic” welcomes the submission of manuscripts providing either original research or reviews of the current changes in the diets of populations due to the pandemic, with which the need to establish preventive health measures can be assessed.

Dr. Emma Ruiz Moreno
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Nutritional epidemiology
  • Dietary surveys
  • Dietary patterns
  • Nutrition and dietetics
  • Food

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Association of Differences in Dietary Behaviours and Lifestyle with Self-Reported Weight Gain during the COVID-19 Lockdown in a University Community from Chile: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13093213 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Domiciliary confinement of people is one of the main strategies to limit the impact of COVID-19. Lockdowns have led to changes in lifestyle, emotional health, and eating habits. We aimed to evaluate the association of differences in dietary behaviours and lifestyle with self-reported [...] Read more.
Domiciliary confinement of people is one of the main strategies to limit the impact of COVID-19. Lockdowns have led to changes in lifestyle, emotional health, and eating habits. We aimed to evaluate the association of differences in dietary behaviours and lifestyle with self-reported weight gain during the COVID-19 lockdown in Chile. In this cross-sectional analytical study, five previously validated surveys were condensed into a single 86-item online questionnaire. The survey was sent to 1000 potential participants of the university community; it was kept online for 28 days to be answered. Of the 639 respondents, the mean self-reported weight gain during confinement was 1.99 kg (standard deviation [SE]: 0.17) and 0.7 (SE: 0.06) units of body mass index (BMI) (both p < 0.001) and the median difference in body weight during lockdown was 3.3% (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.0–6.7). The differences of intake of most food groups before and during lockdown were associated with greater self-reported weight, BMI and percentage weight gain. Differences in lifestyle (odds ratio [OR] = 14.21, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 2.35–85.82) worsening eating habits (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 2.31–5.09), and more consumption of sweet or filled cookies and cakes during lockdown (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.42–3.13) were associated with self-reported weight gain. In conclusion, different dietary behaviours (mainly consumption of industrialized foods) during lockdown, as well as quality of life deterioration were the main factors associated with self-reported weight gain during lockdown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
An Online Cross-Sectional Survey of Complementary Feeding Practices during the COVID-19 Restrictions in Poland
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13093196 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 735
Abstract
This cross-sectional online survey performed in Poland aimed to improve understanding of how COVID-19 pandemic restrictions affected complementary feeding practices among parents of infants aged 4 to 12 months. Self-selected parents were recruited through the internet. The anonymous questionnaire was opened during two [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional online survey performed in Poland aimed to improve understanding of how COVID-19 pandemic restrictions affected complementary feeding practices among parents of infants aged 4 to 12 months. Self-selected parents were recruited through the internet. The anonymous questionnaire was opened during two intervals during COVID-19 restrictions. The primary outcome was an assessment of sources of information and infant feeding practices in the context of COVID-19 restrictions. Data from 6934 responders (92.2% mothers) were analyzed. Most responders received information from multiple sources, with other parents, family members, or friends being the most frequently reported (48.6%), followed by webinars and experts’ recommendations (40.8%). COVID-19 restrictions largely did not impact the method of feeding, changes in feeding patterns, or complementary feeding introduction, although the latter was more likely to be impacted in families with average versus the best financial situations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also most consistently showed that parents with a tertiary education and living in a city above 500 k were at higher odds of using webinars/experts’ recommendations, internet/apps, and professional expert guides and lower odds of claiming no need to deepen knowledge. This study clarifies major issues associated with complementary feeding practices during the implementation of COVID-19 restrictions in Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Influence of COVID-19 Pandemic Restrictions on College Students’ Dietary Quality and Experience of the Food Environment
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2790; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082790 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions sent college students online and off campus, potentially reducing access to healthy food. The objective of this cross-sectional, internet-based study was to use qualitative and quantitative survey methods to evaluate whether COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Texas, USA affected college [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions sent college students online and off campus, potentially reducing access to healthy food. The objective of this cross-sectional, internet-based study was to use qualitative and quantitative survey methods to evaluate whether COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in Texas, USA affected college students’ ability to buy food, how/what they shopped for, how they prepared food, what they ate, how they felt about eating, and overall dietary quality (assessed using Healthy Eating Index [HEI] scores). Survey responses from 502 students (87.5% female; 59.6% nonwhite, mean age 27.5 ± 0.4 years, >50% graduate students) were analyzed. The qualitative analysis of open-ended questions revealed 110 codes, 17 subthemes, and six themes. Almost all students experienced changes in at least one area, the most common being changes in shopping habits. Participants with low or very low food security had lower HEI scores compared to food secure students (p = 0.047). Black students were more likely to report changes in their ability to buy food (p = 0.035). The COVID-19 restrictions varied in their impact on students’ ability to access sufficient healthy food, with some students severely affected. Thus, universities should establish procedures for responding to emergencies, including identifying at-risk students and mobilizing emergency funds and/or food assistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Use of Food Services by Consumers in the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. How the Eating Habits of Consumers Changed in View of the New Disease Risk Factors?
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2760; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082760 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020–2021 changed the eating habits of people around the world. The aim of this study is to understand the effects of COVID-19 on changing consumers’ eating habits, including their concerns about food service nutrition in case of new disease [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020–2021 changed the eating habits of people around the world. The aim of this study is to understand the effects of COVID-19 on changing consumers’ eating habits, including their concerns about food service nutrition in case of new disease risk factors. The survey conducted using the computer-assisted web-based interviewing method on a group of 1021 adult respondents in Poland. We collected information about consumer choices and habits related to use of food services during the pandemic. This research found that COVID-19 had an impact on consumers’ use of food services, both on-site and take-away. Using cluster analysis, we identified five main groups of food service consumers. It was found that almost half of the respondent group did not change their diet during the pandemic, 20% of respondents changed their diet to a positive one, and 20% to a diet that was negative. For respondents the most important forms of protection against COVID-19 in catering establishments were hand disinfection (70.3%), table disinfection (70.4%), wearing of masks and visors by staff (68.2%), and the possibility of cashless payments (64.6%). Based on cluster analysis (eight consumer clusters), we stated that majority of respondents did not see any threats to using catering service during the pandemic. Only a small group (8.1%) of respondents were afraid of the possibility of getting sick with COVID-19. This study presented the effects of COVID-19 on consumer eating behavior in catering and their concerns with food services uses. Discovering consumer concerns can reduce risk, increase food safety and improve eating habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Changes in Selected Food Groups Consumption and Quality of Meals in Japanese School Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2743; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082743 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
In 2020, a state of emergency was declared to control the devastating impact of coronavirus, leading to temporary school closures in Japan, meaning that school lunches were not provided to the majority of schoolchildren. Using questionnaires completed by participants’ guardians, we examined the [...] Read more.
In 2020, a state of emergency was declared to control the devastating impact of coronavirus, leading to temporary school closures in Japan, meaning that school lunches were not provided to the majority of schoolchildren. Using questionnaires completed by participants’ guardians, we examined the relationship between household income and the quality of meals in Japanese schoolchildren before, during, and after the state of emergency. Participants (1111 children, 10–14 years old) were chosen to form a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population. “Well-balanced dietary intake” was defined as the intake of (i) meat, fish, or eggs and (ii) vegetables. The desired prevalence was defined as equal to or more than twice a day. Household income was divided into quartiles. “Well-balanced dietary intake” was lower in all households during the state of emergency compared with before. The proportion of those with a “well-balanced dietary intake” at least twice a day was notably low in both Q3 and Q4 during the state of emergency compared with before the declared state of emergency; relative risk increase (95% CI) were Q1: −19.0% (−19.6% to −18.4%), p < 0.001, Q2: −21.3% (−22.1% to −20.6%) p < 0.001, Q3: −25.4% (−26.1% to −24.7%), p < 0.001, and Q4: −34.8% (−35.6% to −34.0%), p < 0.001. The interaction p (vs. Q1) of Q2, Q3, and Q4 were all <0.001. Guardians from low-income households had significantly higher rates of having less: time, psychological room, and financial position to prepare meals during the state of emergency. Our results suggest that schoolchildren’s quality of meals worsened during the state of emergency, especially in low-income households, because school lunches were not provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Quality of Life of Vegetarians during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2651; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082651 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic can negatively impact quality of life (QoL) due to higher levels of stress, social isolation, and uncertainties. In this scenario, distinct population groups might react differently. Vegetarians, who follow a non-conventional dietary pattern, could be more [...] Read more.
Health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic can negatively impact quality of life (QoL) due to higher levels of stress, social isolation, and uncertainties. In this scenario, distinct population groups might react differently. Vegetarians, who follow a non-conventional dietary pattern, could be more vulnerable to the abrupt changes in normal life routine and economic instability. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating if the current pandemic situation somehow affected vegetarians’ QoL. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Brazil between 28 July and 14 September 2020 to evaluate the QoL in vegetarians during the pandemic period. Vegetarian adults replied to an online survey that included the VEGQOL and WHOQOL-BREF instruments to evaluate QoL and questions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 1282 individuals participated. Only 3.8% had tested positive for COVID-19, but 39.9% affirmed having a family member who tested positive for the disease. Almost half (46.3%) of the sample had an income drop due to the pandemic. Results of QoL scores in the different subcategories of vegetarians were similar to previously published data. Individuals who had already tested positive for COVID-19 had lower QoL scores than those who did not test positive, but only in the VEGQOL. QoL was lower for the participants who declared that Sars-Cov-2 had already infected a family member for almost all the parameters evaluated. On the other hand, an income drop affected QoL only partially. Studying how vegetarians are influenced by such conditions contributes to the generation of relevant data that can be used to support healthcare and public policies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Differences in Adolescents’ Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) Scores before and during Pandemic in a Population-Based Sample: Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1663; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051663 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is known to influence the dietary habits of adults, but results for adolescents in studies are ambiguous. The present work aimed to analyze the differences in the scores of the Adolescents’ Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) before and during the pandemic [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is known to influence the dietary habits of adults, but results for adolescents in studies are ambiguous. The present work aimed to analyze the differences in the scores of the Adolescents’ Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) before and during the pandemic in the Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The PLACE-19 Study was conducted during the pandemic among a population of 2448 students recruited from secondary schools in all regions of Poland using a random quota sampling. The participants were required to complete an AFHC consisting of 23 items pertaining to food purchase, preparation, and consumption habits. Current habits (during the pandemic) and previous habits were assessed and scored separately. The total (p = 0.001), purchase (p < 0.001), and consumption scores (p = 0.014) indicated that the AFHC scores during the pandemic were higher than before. For questions on purchase habits, a lower number of respondents reported eating in a restaurant, eating takeaway meals, having lunch away from home, or buying pastries, cakes or crisps. For questions on preparation habits, an greater number of respondents reported that they usually avoided eating fried food and tried to keep their overall sugar intake down, but fewer respondents said they tried to have low-fat desserts. For questions on consumption habits, a lower number of respondents reported that they usually ate a dessert or pudding if one were available and a larger number said they made sure to eat at least one serving of vegetables or salad a day and at least three servings of fruit most days. Based on the obtained results, it may be stated that although there was an increase in the AFHC scores during the pandemic, a similar share of respondents showed improved or worsened food habits, and a similar share changed their food habits from healthy to unhealthy and from unhealthy to healthy. At the same time, a majority of changes were associated with purchase habits, which were probably forced by lockdowns and the resultant restrictions in eating out or grocery shopping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Eating Motives and Other Factors Predicting Emotional Overeating during COVID-19 in a Sample of Polish Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1658; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051658 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1111
Abstract
We hypothesised that the higher levels of emotion-related predictors (eating motive in the form of affect regulation and COVID-19-related stress) would be associated with higher emotional overeating, after accounting for the effects of demographic variables (gender and BMI) and other eating motives (visual- [...] Read more.
We hypothesised that the higher levels of emotion-related predictors (eating motive in the form of affect regulation and COVID-19-related stress) would be associated with higher emotional overeating, after accounting for the effects of demographic variables (gender and BMI) and other eating motives (visual- and attitude-related predictors: liking, pleasure, visual appeal; body- and health-related predictors: need and hunger, health, weight control). Participants (N = 868; Mage = 33.53 years, SD = 11.98) completed: the Eating Motivation Survey, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, a COVID-19-related stress measure and a socio-demographic survey. The final step of the regression with emotional overeating was significant; affect regulation and COVID-19-related stress were significantly related to emotional overeating (ΔF p < 0.001, Adj. ΔR2 = 0.13). During the COVID-19 pandemic, eating can, on the one hand, help to cope with the current difficult situation and the negative emotions associated with it; on the other hand, frequent use of this tendency can lead to rigid regulation of affect and use of this mechanism as the dominant mechanism. Therefore, limited social contact, related disruptions in daily activities and stress resulting from COVID-19 should generate appropriate interventions, not necessarily focusing only on emotional eating, but also on the resources of the individual. It is worth encouraging specialists to implement alternative methods of contact with their patients, e.g., online. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
COVID-19 Pandemic and Remote Education Contributes to Improved Nutritional Behaviors and Increased Screen Time in a Polish Population-Based Sample of Primary School Adolescents: Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051596 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic has influenced the nutrition of individuals, including the diet followed, food availability, and food security. However, thus far, only a few studies have been published regarding the diet and activity of children and adolescents. The aim of the [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic has influenced the nutrition of individuals, including the diet followed, food availability, and food security. However, thus far, only a few studies have been published regarding the diet and activity of children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic and remote education in this period on the diet and physical activity in a Polish population-based sample of primary school adolescents. In June 2020, the Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study was conducted on a population recruited based on stratified random sampling from all regions (schools sampled from counties, and counties from voivodeships). The sample consisted of a total of 1334 adolescents aged 10–16 years. The study assessed the diet and physical activity of the participants using a validated questionnaire which included questions about the period of remote education and the period before the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were asked about the following: consumption of fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, water, French fries, and fast food; eating meals in front of the television; and the number of days they are physically active and the number of hours they spend watching television. The obtained data were analyzed by stratifying the respondents by the gender, age, size of the city and total COVID-19 morbidity in the voivodeship. It was observed that, during the pandemic and the resultant remote education, the proportion of respondents who declared the recommended intake of fruits and vegetables had increased compared to that before the pandemic—a higher proportion consumed at least three portions of fruit per day (19.0% before pandemic vs. 27.4% during pandemic; p < 0.0001), as well as three and four or more portions of vegetables per day (11.9% vs. 14.5% and 7.5% vs. 11.1%; p = 0.0004). At the same time, the proportion of respondents consuming at least three cups of water per day had increased (41.1% vs. 47.9%; p = 0.0020), whereas the proportion of respondents who never or rarely eat their meals in front of the television had decreased (35.6% vs. 28.9%; p < 0.0001), and the proportion watching television for more than 2 h a day had increased (78.3% vs. 88.4%; p < 0.0001). Based on the results, it may be concluded that, during the period of remote education due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the dietary behaviors of the studied population of Polish adolescents were more beneficial, which included a higher intake of fruit, vegetables, and water, compared to before the pandemic. In spite of the increasing screen time, including eating in front of the television, there was no reduction in the number of days the respondents were physically active. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Effect of COVID-19 Lockdown on Dietary Habits and Lifestyle of Food Science Students and Professionals from Spain
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051494 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, forcing countries around the world to confine their population to halt the rapid spread of the virus. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in dietary habits and lifestyle [...] Read more.
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, forcing countries around the world to confine their population to halt the rapid spread of the virus. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in dietary habits and lifestyle during the COVID-19 lockdown a specific population with academic and professional knowledge in food sciences from Spain. An online questionnaire, based on 41 items, including sociodemographic data, dietary habits, food-related behaviors, and lifestyle were distributed using academic and institutional mailing lists and social media. Results showed a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, legumes, eggs, fish, and yogurt together with a decrease in consumption of alcoholic beverages between before and during the lockdown period. Nevertheless, an increase in consumption of some fruitive foods and an increase in self-reported weight were also observed, although in lower percentages than in other populations. A worse sleep quality and an increase in working hours and sitting time were also reported. Overall, trends towards healthier dietary habits were observed within the study sample during COVID-19 confinement period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Composition and Nutritional Quality of the Diet in Spanish Households during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1443; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051443 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims [...] Read more.
In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Review

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Review
Nutrition in the Actual COVID-19 Pandemic. A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1924; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13061924 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4035
Abstract
The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked world health authorities generating a global health crisis. The present study discusses the main finding in nutrition sciences associated with COVID-19 in the literature. We conducted a consensus critical review using primary sources, scientific [...] Read more.
The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked world health authorities generating a global health crisis. The present study discusses the main finding in nutrition sciences associated with COVID-19 in the literature. We conducted a consensus critical review using primary sources, scientific articles, and secondary bibliographic indexes, databases, and web pages. The method was a narrative literature review of the available literature regarding nutrition interventions and nutrition-related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main search engines used in the present research were PubMed, SciELO, and Google Scholar. We found how the COVID-19 lockdown promoted unhealthy dietary changes and increases in body weight of the population, showing obesity and low physical activity levels as increased risk factors of COVID-19 affection and physiopathology. In addition, hospitalized COVID-19 patients presented malnutrition and deficiencies in vitamin C, D, B12 selenium, iron, omega-3, and medium and long-chain fatty acids highlighting the potential health effect of vitamin C and D interventions. Further investigations are needed to show the complete role and implications of nutrition both in the prevention and in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)

Other

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Brief Report
Lifestyle Changes and Body Mass Index during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: An Italian Online-Survey
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13041117 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Background. COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a period of contingency measures, including total or partial lockdowns all over the world leading to several changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours. This retrospective cohort study aimed at investigating Italian adult population lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic “Phase 1” [...] Read more.
Background. COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a period of contingency measures, including total or partial lockdowns all over the world leading to several changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours. This retrospective cohort study aimed at investigating Italian adult population lifestyle changes during COVID-19 pandemic “Phase 1” lockdown (8 March–4 May 2020) and discriminate between positive and negative changes and BMI (body mass index) variations (ΔBMI). Methods. A multiple-choice web-form survey was used to collect retrospective data regarding lifestyle/eating behaviours during “Phase 1” in the Italian adult population. According to changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours, the sample was divided into three classes of changes: “negative change”, “no change”, “positive change”. For each class, correlations with ΔBMI were investigated. Results. Data were collected from 1304 subjects (973F/331M). Mean ΔBMI differed significantly (p < 0.001) between classes, and was significantly related to water intake, alcohol consumption, physical activity, frequency of “craving or snacking between meals”, dessert/sweets consumption at lunch. Conclusions. During “Phase 1”, many people faced several negative changes in lifestyle/eating behaviours with potential negative impact on health. These findings highlight that pandemic exacerbates nutritional issues and most efforts need to be done to provide nutrition counselling and public health services to support general population needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Nutrition, and Dietary Patterns during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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