Special Issue "Highlights in Nutritional Epidemiology"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Luis A. Moreno
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
“Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development” (GENUD) Research Group, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: pediatric nutrition; childhood obesity; body composition; nutritional status; nutritional epidemiology; lifestyle behaviors
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The “Nutritional Epidemiology” section of the journal Nutrients aims to publish contributions on the impact of food consumption and nutritional status on different health outcomes. The current Special Issue, entitled “Highlights in Nutritional Epidemiology”, aims to present papers from excellent research groups working in this area. Papers should provide new knowledge obtained from descriptive cross-sectional studies or studies that contribute to preventing the appearance of nutrition-related diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease, and also other conditions like fragility or mental illness. Randomized clinical trials assessing the effect of food consumption and the effectiveness of health promotion interventions will attract special attention.

Prof. Dr. Luis A. Moreno
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutritional epidemiology
  • public health nutrition
  • health promotion
  • prevention
  • randomized clinical trials
  • nutrition-related non-communicable diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Effects of Different Allotments of Avocados on the Nutritional Status of Families: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4021; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114021 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Avocados are a nutrient-dense plant-food, but limited trial-derived evidence exists about the effects of avocado intake on family nutritional status. We investigated the impact of two levels of avocado allotment, plus a standard nutrition education intervention on the nutritional status of Hispanic/Latino families. [...] Read more.
Avocados are a nutrient-dense plant-food, but limited trial-derived evidence exists about the effects of avocado intake on family nutritional status. We investigated the impact of two levels of avocado allotment, plus a standard nutrition education intervention on the nutritional status of Hispanic/Latino families. Seventy-two families consisting of at least three members of ≥5 years of age and residing in the same home, free of severe chronic disease, not on specific diets, and self-identified of Hispanic heritage, were randomized to one of two levels of avocado allotment (low = 3/week/family or high = 14/week/family) for 6 months plus 12 bi-weekly nutrition education sessions. The primary outcomes included change in a family’s total energy and macro- and micronutrient intakes. Primary analysis was intention-to-treat with unpaired, two-sided t-tests to assess mean changes between groups at 6 months. At 6 months, the high avocado allotment group had a significant reduction in energy intake, carbohydrate, animal and vegetable protein, saturated and polyunsaturated fat, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, and vitamin D intakes (all p < 0.05). A high allotment of avocados significantly reduced self-reported energy intake by 29% kcal/family/day, compared to a 3% kcal/family/day reduction in families who received a low allotment. Culturally-appropriate plant-food interventions may alter the nutritional status of at-risk families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Highlights in Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Adherence to the Planetary Health Diet Index and Obesity Indicators in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3691; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13113691 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 32856
Abstract
The EAT-Lancet Commission has proposed a model diet to improve the health of human beings and that of the planet. Recently, we proposed the Planetary Health Diet Index (PHDI) to assess adherence of the population to this model diet. In this study, we [...] Read more.
The EAT-Lancet Commission has proposed a model diet to improve the health of human beings and that of the planet. Recently, we proposed the Planetary Health Diet Index (PHDI) to assess adherence of the population to this model diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate adherence to the PHDI and obesity outcomes using baseline data from 14,515 participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The dietary data were assessed using a 114-item FFQ. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were both used continuously and categorized. Linear and multinomial regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors were performed to assess the relationship between adherence to PHDI and outcomes. An inverse association was observed between adherence to PHDI and obesity indicators. Individuals with high adherence to the PHDI had lower BMI (β−0.50 95% CI−0.73:−0.27) and WC (β−1.70 95% CI−2.28:−1.12) values. They were also 24% less likely to be overweight (OR 0.76 95% CI 0.67:0.85) or obese (OR 0.76 95% CI 0.65:0.88), and they were 14% and 27% less likely to have increased WC (OR 0.86 95% CI 0.75:0.98) or substantially increased WC (OR 0.73 95% CI 0.64:0.83) than those with lower adherence. Our results showed that higher adherence to the PHDI may decrease obesity indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Highlights in Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Maternal Vitamin C and Iron Intake during Pregnancy and the Risk of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes in Children: A Birth Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 928; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13030928 - 13 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Our aim was to study the associations between maternal vitamin C and iron intake during pregnancy and the offspring’s risk of developing islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. The study was a part of the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) [...] Read more.
Our aim was to study the associations between maternal vitamin C and iron intake during pregnancy and the offspring’s risk of developing islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. The study was a part of the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) prospective birth cohort including children genetically at risk of type 1 diabetes born between 1997–2004. The diets of 4879 mothers in late pregnancy were assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The outcomes were islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusted for energy, family history of diabetes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype and sex was used for statistical analyses. Total intake of vitamin C or iron from food and supplements was not associated with the risk of islet autoimmunity (vitamin C: HR 0.91: 95% CI (0.80, 1.03), iron: 0.98 (0.87, 1.10)) or type 1 diabetes (vitamin C: 1.01 (0.87, 1.17), iron: 0.92 (0.78, 1.08)), neither was the use of vitamin C or iron supplements associated with the outcomes. In conclusion, no association was found between maternal vitamin C or iron intake during pregnancy and the risk of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Highlights in Nutritional Epidemiology)
Article
Association between Different Types of Plant-Based Diets and Risk of Dyslipidemia: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010220 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
We evaluated the associations among different types of plant-based diet indices, risk of dyslipidemia, and individual lipid disorders in Asian populations with different dietary patterns from Western populations. Participants included 4507 Korean adults aged ≥40 years without dyslipidemia and related chronic diseases at [...] Read more.
We evaluated the associations among different types of plant-based diet indices, risk of dyslipidemia, and individual lipid disorders in Asian populations with different dietary patterns from Western populations. Participants included 4507 Korean adults aged ≥40 years without dyslipidemia and related chronic diseases at baseline (2001–2002). Dietary intakes were assessed using an average of validated food frequency questionnaires measured twice. We calculated three plant-based diet indices: overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), and unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI). During a follow-up of 14 years, 2995 incident dyslipidemia cases occurred. Comparing the highest with lowest quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident dyslipidemia were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69–0.88) for PDI, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.56–0.70) for hPDI, and 1.48 (95% CI, 1.30–1.69) for uPDI (P-trend < 0.0001 for all). Associations between PDI and individual lipid disorders differed by sex. The PDI was inversely associated with risk of developing hypertriglyceridemia in men and with risk of developing low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women. The hPDI was inversely associated with risk of all lipid disorders, whereas the uPDI was positively associated with individual lipid disorders. The quality of plant foods is important for prevention of dyslipidemia in a population that consumes diets high in plant foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Highlights in Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Identification of Dish-Based Dietary Patterns for Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner and Their Diet Quality in Japanese Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010067 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
We identified dish-based dietary patterns for breakfast, lunch, and dinner and assessed the diet quality of each pattern. Dietary data were obtained from 392 Japanese adults aged 20–69 years in 2013, using a 4 d dietary record. K-means cluster analysis was conducted [...] Read more.
We identified dish-based dietary patterns for breakfast, lunch, and dinner and assessed the diet quality of each pattern. Dietary data were obtained from 392 Japanese adults aged 20–69 years in 2013, using a 4 d dietary record. K-means cluster analysis was conducted based on the amount of each dish group, separately for breakfasts (n = 1462), lunches (n = 1504), and dinners (n = 1500). The diet quality of each dietary pattern was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015) and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). The extracted dietary patterns were as follows: ‘bread-based’ and ‘rice-based’ for breakfast; ‘bread’, ‘rice-based’, ‘ramen’, ‘udon/soba’, and ‘sushi/rice bowl dishes’ for lunch; and ‘miscellaneous’, ‘meat dish and beer’, and ‘hot pot dishes’ for dinner. For breakfast, the HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 total scores were higher in the ‘rice-based’ pattern than the ‘bread-based’ pattern. For lunch, the HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 total scores were relatively high in the ‘rice-based’ pattern and low in the ‘ramen’ pattern. For dinner, the HEI-2015 total score was the highest in the ‘meat dish and beer’ pattern, and the NRF9.3 total score was higher in the ‘hot pot dishes’ than the ‘miscellaneous’ pattern. These results suggested that breakfast, lunch, and dinner have distinctive dietary patterns with different diet qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Highlights in Nutritional Epidemiology)
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