Special Issue "Impact of Diet Composition on Insulin Resistance"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Diabetes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 February 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Silvia V. Conde
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: metabolic diseases; autonomic nervous system; carotid body; hypercaloric diets; insulin resistance; obesity; adipose tissue; catecholamines; purines
Dr. Fatima O. Martins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: metabolic diseases; obesity; insulin resistance; adenosine; liver; brain; adipose tissue; hypercaloric diets; intestinal permeability; gut

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Insulin resistance is a key player in the pathology of cardiometabolic diseases - obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. These diseases are commonly associated with a peripheral insulin resistance, but an important role of insulin is played at brain circuitries that control food behaviour and autonomic activity. Brain insulin resistance is also associated with cognition impairment and Alzheimer Disease, neurodegenerative diseases.

Disruptions in diet composition, e.g. hypercaloric diets, and patterns, as well as nutritional status contribute to the genesis of insulin resistance. In contrast, hypocaloric diets, different feed regimens and some nutrients have beneficial impacts on insulin resistance and disease development.

This special issue “Impact of diet composition on insulin resistance” is developed to compile studies that highlight the beneficial or deleterious impact of different nutritional plans on insulin sensitivity and metabolism and that unravel mechanistic links between diet composition and nutritional status and the development of insulin resistance, both periphery and centrally.

This special issue will benefit scientific and healthcare communities with important information about food behaviours/nutritional status impact on whole body metabolism and will open new doors to tackle insulin-resistance associated diseases by modulating appropriately and in a personalized way the nutritional strategies. 

Dr. Silvia V. Conde
Dr. Fatima O. Martins
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Insulin resistance
  • Hypercaloric diets
  • Gut-brain axis
  • Intestinal permeability
  • Obesity
  • Fat
  • Sugar
  • Brain insulin resistance
  • Food behavior
  • Satiety

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
The Effect of Probiotics (MCP® BCMC® Strains) on Hepatic Steatosis, Small Intestinal Mucosal Immune Function, and Intestinal Barrier in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13093192 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) currently consists of lifestyle modifications such as a low-fat diet, weight loss, and exercise. The gut microbiota forms part of the gut–liver axis and serves as a potential target for NAFLD treatment. We investigated the effect [...] Read more.
Treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) currently consists of lifestyle modifications such as a low-fat diet, weight loss, and exercise. The gut microbiota forms part of the gut–liver axis and serves as a potential target for NAFLD treatment. We investigated the effect of probiotics on hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and biochemical blood tests in patients with NAFLD. At the small intestinal mucosal level, we examined the effect of probiotics on the expression of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as the tight junction protein zona occluden-1 (ZO-1). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD patients (n = 39) who were supplemented with either a probiotics sachet (MCP® BCMC® strains) or a placebo for a total of 6 months. Multi-strain probiotics (MCP® BCMC® strains) containing six different Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species at a concentration of 30 billion CFU were used. There were no significant changes at the end of the study in terms of hepatic steatosis (probiotics: −21.70 ± 42.6 dB/m, p = 0.052 vs. placebo: −10.72 ± 46.6 dB/m, p = 0.29) and fibrosis levels (probiotics: −0.25 ± 1.77 kPa, p = 0.55 vs. placebo: −0.62 ± 2.37 kPa, p = 0.23) as measured by transient elastography. Likewise, no significant changes were found for both groups for the following parameters: LiverFAST analysis (steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation scores), alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose. In the immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, no significant expression changes were seen for CD4+ T lymphocytes in either group (probiotics: −0.33 ± 1.67, p = 0.35 vs. placebo: 0.35 ± 3.25, p = 0.63). However, significant reductions in the expression of CD8+ T lymphocytes (−7.0 ± 13.73, p = 0.04) and ZO-1 (Z-score = −2.86, p = 0.04) were found in the placebo group, but no significant changes in the probiotics group. In this pilot study, the use of probiotics did not result in any significant clinical improvement in NAFLD patients. However, at the microenvironment level (i.e., the small intestinal mucosa), probiotics seemed to be able to stabilize the mucosal immune function and to protect NAFLD patients against increased intestinal permeability. Therefore, probiotics might have a complementary role in treating NAFLD. Further studies with larger sample sizes, a longer duration, and different probiotic strains are needed to evaluate the real benefit of probiotics in NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Diet Composition on Insulin Resistance)
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Article
Distinct Impact of Natural Sugars from Fruit Juices and Added Sugars on Caloric Intake, Body Weight, Glycaemia, Oxidative Stress and Glycation in Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2956; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13092956 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Although fruit juices are a natural source of sugars, there is a controversy whether their sugar content has similar harmful effects as beverages’ added-sugars. We aimed to study the role of fruit juice sugars in inducing overweight, hyperglycaemia, glycation and oxidative stress in [...] Read more.
Although fruit juices are a natural source of sugars, there is a controversy whether their sugar content has similar harmful effects as beverages’ added-sugars. We aimed to study the role of fruit juice sugars in inducing overweight, hyperglycaemia, glycation and oxidative stress in normal and diabetic animal models. In diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, we compared the effects of four different fruit juices (4-weeks) with sugary solutions having a similar sugar profile and concentration. In vitro, the sugary solutions were more susceptible to AGE formation than fruit juices, also causing higher postprandial glycaemia and lower erythrocytes’ antioxidant capacity in vivo (single intake). In GK rats, ad libitum fruit juice consumption (4-weeks) did not change body weight, glycaemia, oxidative stress nor glycation. Consumption of a matched volume of sugary solutions aggravated fasting glycaemia but had a moderate impact on caloric intake and oxidative stress/glycation markers in tissues of diabetic rats. Ad libitum availability of the same sugary solutions impaired energy balance regulation, leading to higher caloric intake than ad libitum fruit juices and controls, as well as weight gain, fasting hyperglycaemia, insulin intolerance and impaired oxidative stress/glycation markers in several tissues. We demonstrated the distinct role of sugars naturally present in fruit juices and added sugars in energy balance regulation, impairing oxidative stress, glycation and glucose metabolism in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Diet Composition on Insulin Resistance)
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Article
Comparative Assessment of the Acute Effects of Whey, Rice and Potato Protein Isolate Intake on Markers of Glycaemic Regulation and Appetite in Healthy Males Using a Randomised Study Design
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072157 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2619
Abstract
Global protein consumption has been increasing for decades due to changes in demographics and consumer shifts towards higher protein intake to gain health benefits in performance nutrition and appetite regulation. Plant-derived proteins may provide a more environmentally sustainable alternative to animal-derived proteins. This [...] Read more.
Global protein consumption has been increasing for decades due to changes in demographics and consumer shifts towards higher protein intake to gain health benefits in performance nutrition and appetite regulation. Plant-derived proteins may provide a more environmentally sustainable alternative to animal-derived proteins. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate, for the first time, the acute effects on glycaemic indices, gut hormones, and subjective appetite ratings of two high-quality, plant-derived protein isolates (potato and rice), in comparison to a whey protein isolate in a single-blind, triple-crossover design study with nine male participants (30.8 ± 9.3 yrs). Following a 12 h overnight fast, participants consumed an equal volume of the three isocaloric protein shakes on different days, with at least a one-week washout period. Glycaemic indices and gut hormones were measured at baseline, then at 30, 60, 120, 180 min at each visit. Subjective palatability and appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) over the 3 h, at each visit. This data showed significant differences in insulin secretion with an increase in whey (+141.8 ± 35.1 pmol/L; p = 0.011) and rice (−64.4 ± 20.9 pmol/L; p = 0.046) at 30 min compared to potato protein. A significantly larger total incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was observed with whey versus potato and rice with p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in average appetite perception between the different proteins. In conclusion, this study suggests that both plant-derived proteins had a lower insulinaemic response and improved glucose maintenance compared to whey protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Diet Composition on Insulin Resistance)
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