Special Issue "Magnesium in Human Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Sara Castiglioni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Clinal Sciences L. Sacco, Università di Milano,Milan, Italy
Interests: molecular and cellular biology;osteogenic and miogenic differentiation; magnesium; microgravity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Giovanna Farruggia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
Interests: fluorescent biosensor; magnesium; cell proliferation; flow cytometry; nanoparticles
Dr. Concettina Cappadone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: cancer; magnesium; MDR; cell cycle; bone; differentiation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnesium is an essential mineral for human health. Beside its structural role in the apatite crystals of the bones, magnesium is essential to all living cells, since it is fundamental for energy production and is a cofactor of enzymes involved in practically all metabolism. Magnesium antagonizes calcium and functions as a signal transducer asd well.

Magnesium is naturally present in many foods, including green leafy vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, and milk. However, in western countries, the daily dietary intake of magnesium is frequently found to be below the recommended level. This magnesium deficiency impacts cell, tissue, and organ functions, leading to many disorders including cardiovascular, neuronal, age-related, and neoplastic diseases.

Hypermagnesemia is a rare but serious electrolytic disorder, which can be fatal if not recognized and treated promptly. Hypermagnesemia occurs primarily in patients with acute or chronic kidney disease, but other pathological conditions, such as hypothyroidism and especially cortico-adrenal insufficiency, and the effect of various drugs, especially in already compromised patients, can allow the establishment of this condition.

This Special Issue entitled “Magnesium in Human Health and Disease” aims to collect high quality up-to-date original and review articles on the role of magnesium in human pathophysiologic conditions.

Dr. Sara Castiglioni
Prof. Giovanna Farruggia
Dr. Concettina Cappadone
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • magnesium homeostasis
  • magnesium transporters
  • magnesium channels
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • chronic diseases
  • age-related diseases
  • cancer

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hypomagnesemia Is a Risk Factor for Infections after Kidney Transplantation: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13041296 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Introduction: Magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency is a common finding in the early phase after kidney transplantation (KT) and has been linked to immune dysfunction and infections. Data on the association of hypomagnesemia and the rate of infections in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) [...] Read more.
Introduction: Magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency is a common finding in the early phase after kidney transplantation (KT) and has been linked to immune dysfunction and infections. Data on the association of hypomagnesemia and the rate of infections in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are sparse. Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of KTRs transplanted between 2005 and 2015. Laboratory data, including serum Mg2+ (median time of the Mg2+ measurement from KT: 29 days), rate of infections including mainly urinary tract infections (UTI), and common transplant-related viral infections (CMV, polyoma, EBV) in the early phase after KT were recorded. The primary outcome was the incidence of infections within one year after KT, while secondary outcomes were hospitalization due to infection, incidence rates of long-term (up to two years) infections, and all-cause mortality. Results: We enrolled 376 KTRs of whom 229 patients (60.9%) suffered from Mg2+ deficiency defined as a serum Mg2+ < 0.7 mmol/L. A significantly higher incidence rate of UTIs and viral infections was observed in patients with versus without Mg2+ deficiency during the first year after KT (58.5% vs. 47.6%, p = 0.039 and 69.9% vs. 51.7%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum Mg2+ deficiency remained an independent predictor of both UTIs and viral infections (odds ratio (OR): 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04–2.86, p = 0.035 and OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.23–3.41, p = 0.006). No group differences according to Mg2+ status in hospitalizations due to infections and infection incidence rates in the 12–24 months post-transplant were observed. In the Cox regression analysis, Mg2+ deficiency was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.70–1.89, p = 0.577). Conclusions: KTRs suffering from Mg2+ deficiency are at increased risk of UTIs and viral infections in the first year after KT. Interventional studies investigating the effect of Mg2+ supplementation on Mg2+ deficiency and viral infections in KTRs are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Magnesium Influences Membrane Fusion during Myogenesis by Modulating Oxidative Stress in C2C12 Myoblasts
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1049; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13041049 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) is essential to skeletal muscle where it plays a key role in myofiber relaxation. Although the importance of Mg in the mature skeletal muscle is well established, little is known about the role of Mg in myogenesis. We studied the effects [...] Read more.
Magnesium (Mg) is essential to skeletal muscle where it plays a key role in myofiber relaxation. Although the importance of Mg in the mature skeletal muscle is well established, little is known about the role of Mg in myogenesis. We studied the effects of low and high extracellular Mg in C2C12 myogenic differentiation. Non-physiological Mg concentrations induce oxidative stress in myoblasts. The increase of reactive oxygen species, which occurs during the early phase of the differentiation process, inhibits myoblast membrane fusion, thus impairing myogenesis. Therefore, correct Mg homeostasis, also maintained through a correct dietary intake, is essential to assure the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Magnesium Intake with Liver Fibrosis among Adults in the United States
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010142 - 02 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Liver fibrosis represents the consequences of chronic liver injury. Individuals with alcoholic or nonalcoholic liver diseases are at high risk of magnesium deficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the association between magnesium and calcium intakes and significant liver fibrosis, and whether the associations [...] Read more.
Liver fibrosis represents the consequences of chronic liver injury. Individuals with alcoholic or nonalcoholic liver diseases are at high risk of magnesium deficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the association between magnesium and calcium intakes and significant liver fibrosis, and whether the associations differ by alcohol drinking status. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017–2018, the study included 4166 participants aged >18 years who completed the transient elastography examination and had data available on magnesium intake. The median liver stiffness of 8.2 kPa was used to identify subjects with significant fibrosis (≥F2). The age-adjusted prevalence of significant fibrosis was 12.81%. Overall total magnesium intake was marginally associated with reduced odds of significant fibrosis (p trend = 0.14). The inverse association of total magnesium intake with significant fibrosis was primarily presented among those who had daily calcium intake <1200 mg. There were no clear associations for significant fibrosis with calcium intake. Findings suggest that high total magnesium alone may reduce risk of significant fibrosis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Magnesium Absorption in Intestinal Cells: Evidence of Cross-Talk between EGF and TRPM6 and Novel Implications for Cetuximab Therapy
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113277 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Hypomagnesemia is very commonly observed in cancer patients, most frequently in association with therapy with cetuximab (CTX), a monoclonal antibody targeting the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). CTX-induced hypomagnesemia has been ascribed to renal magnesium (Mg) wasting. Here, we sought to clarify whether [...] Read more.
Hypomagnesemia is very commonly observed in cancer patients, most frequently in association with therapy with cetuximab (CTX), a monoclonal antibody targeting the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). CTX-induced hypomagnesemia has been ascribed to renal magnesium (Mg) wasting. Here, we sought to clarify whether CTX may also influence intestinal Mg absorption and if Mg supplementation may interfere with CTX activity. We used human colon carcinoma CaCo-2 cells as an in vitro model to study the mechanisms underlying Mg transport and CTX activity. Our findings demonstrate that TRPM6 is the key channel that mediates Mg influx in intestinal cells and that EGF stimulates such influx; consequently, CTX downregulates TRPM6-mediated Mg influx by interfering with EGF signaling. Moreover, we show that Mg supplementation does not modify either the CTX IC50 or CTX-dependent inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that reduced Mg absorption in the intestine may contribute to the severe hypomagnesemia that occurs in CTX-treated patients, and Mg supplementation may represent a safe and effective nutritional intervention to restore Mg status without impairing the CTX efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Mg2+ Extrusion Attenuates Glutamate Excitotoxicity in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2768; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092768 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Magnesium plays important roles in the nervous system. An increase in the Mg2+ concentration in cerebrospinal fluid enhances neural functions, while Mg2+ deficiency is implicated in neuronal diseases in the central nervous system. We have previously demonstrated that high concentrations of [...] Read more.
Magnesium plays important roles in the nervous system. An increase in the Mg2+ concentration in cerebrospinal fluid enhances neural functions, while Mg2+ deficiency is implicated in neuronal diseases in the central nervous system. We have previously demonstrated that high concentrations of glutamate induce excitotoxicity and elicit a transient increase in the intracellular concentration of Mg2+ due to the release of Mg2+ from mitochondria, followed by a decrease to below steady-state levels. Since Mg2+ deficiency is involved in neuronal diseases, this decrease presumably affects neuronal survival under excitotoxic conditions. However, the mechanism of the Mg2+ decrease and its effect on the excitotoxicity process have not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that inhibitors of Mg2+ extrusion, quinidine and amiloride, attenuated glutamate excitotoxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. A toxic concentration of glutamate induced both Mg2+ release from mitochondria and Mg2+ extrusion from cytosol, and both quinidine and amiloride suppressed only the extrusion. This resulted in the maintenance of a higher Mg2+ concentration in the cytosol than under steady-state conditions during the ten-minute exposure to glutamate. These inhibitors also attenuated the glutamate-induced depression of cellular energy metabolism. Our data indicate the importance of Mg2+ regulation in neuronal survival under excitotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnesium Levels Modify the Effect of Lipid Parameters on Carotid Intima Media Thickness
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2631; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092631 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Classical risk factors of atherosclerosis in the general population show paradoxical effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Thus, low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels have been associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Magnesium (Mg) is a divalent cation whose homeostasis is altered in [...] Read more.
Classical risk factors of atherosclerosis in the general population show paradoxical effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Thus, low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels have been associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Magnesium (Mg) is a divalent cation whose homeostasis is altered in CKD. Furthermore, Mg levels have been associated with cardiovascular health. The present study aims to understand the relationships of Mg and lipid parameters with atherosclerosis in CKD. In this analysis, 1754 participants from the Observatorio Nacional de Atherosclerosis en Nefrologia (NEFRONA) cohort were included. Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was determined in six arterial territories, and associated factors were investigated by linear regression. cIMT correlated positively with being male, Caucasian, a smoker, diabetic, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and with increased age, BMI, and triglyceride levels, and negatively with levels of HDL cholesterol. First-order interactions in linear regression analysis showed that Mg was an effect modifier on the influence of lipidic parameters. Thus, cIMT predicted values were higher when triglycerides or LDL levels were high and Mg levels were low. On the contrary, when Mg levels were high, this effect disappeared. In conclusion, Mg acts as an effect modifier between lipidic parameters and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Therefore, Mg levels, together with lipidic parameters, should be taken into account when assessing atherosclerotic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnesium Deficiency Questionnaire: A New Non-Invasive Magnesium Deficiency Screening Tool Developed Using Real-World Data from Four Observational Studies
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2062; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12072062 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Due to the high estimated prevalence of magnesium deficiency, there is a need for a rapid, non-invasive assessment tool that could be used by patients and clinicians to confirm suspected hypomagnesemia and substantiate laboratory testing. This study analyzed data from four large observational [...] Read more.
Due to the high estimated prevalence of magnesium deficiency, there is a need for a rapid, non-invasive assessment tool that could be used by patients and clinicians to confirm suspected hypomagnesemia and substantiate laboratory testing. This study analyzed data from four large observational studies of hypomagnesemia in pregnant women and women with hormone-related conditions across Russia. Hypomagnesemia was assessed using a 62-item magnesium deficiency questionnaire (MDQ-62) and a serum test. The diagnostic utility (sensitivity/specificity) of MDQ-62 was analyzed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). A logistic regression model was applied to develop a shorter, optimized version of MDQ-62. A total of 765 pregnant women and 8836 women with hormone-related conditions were included in the analysis. The diagnostic performance of MDQ-62 was “fair” (AUROC = 0.7−0.8) for women with hormone-related conditions and “poor” for pregnant women (AUROC = 0.6−0.7). The optimized MDQ-23 (23 questions) and MDQ-10 (10 questions) had similar AUROC values; for all versions of the questionnaire, there was a significant negative correlation between score and changes in total serum magnesium levels (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons; correlation coefficients ranged from −0.1667 to −0.2716). This analysis confirmed the value of MDQ in identifying women at risk of hypomagnesemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Variations in Magnesium Concentration Are Associated with Increased Mortality: Study in an Unselected Population of Hospitalized Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1836; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12061836 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Dysmagnesemia is a serious disturbance of microelement homeostasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of serum magnesium concentrations in hospitalized patients according to gender, age, and result of hospitalization. The study was conducted from February 2018 to January 2019 [...] Read more.
Dysmagnesemia is a serious disturbance of microelement homeostasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of serum magnesium concentrations in hospitalized patients according to gender, age, and result of hospitalization. The study was conducted from February 2018 to January 2019 at the Central Clinical Hospital in Warsaw. Laboratory test results from 20,438 patients were included in this retrospective analysis. When a lower reference value 0.65 mmol/L was applied, hypermagnesemia occurred in 196 patients (1%), hypomagnesemia in 1505 patients (7%), and normomagnesemia in 18,711 patients (92%). At a lower reference value of 0.75 mmol/L, hypomagnesemia was found in 25% and normomagnesemia in 74% of patients. At a lower reference value of 0.85 mmol/L, hypomagnesemia was found in 60% and normomagnesemia in 39% of patients. Either hypo- or hyper-magnesemia was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. This risk is the highest in patients with hypermagnesemia (40.1% of deaths), but also increases inversely with magnesium concentration below 0.85 mmol/L. Serum magnesium concentration was not gender-dependent, and there was a slight positive correlation with age (p < 0.0001, r = 0.07). Large fluctuations in serum magnesium level were associated with increased mortality (p = 0.0017). The results indicate that dysmagnesemia is associated with severe diseases and generally severe conditions. To avoid misdiagnosis, an increase of a lower cut-off for serum magnesium concentration to at least 0.75 mmol/L is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Circulating Ionized Magnesium as a Measure of Supplement Bioavailability: Results from a Pilot Study for Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051245 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3236
Abstract
Oral supplementation may improve the dietary intake of magnesium, which has been identified as a shortfall nutrient. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate appropriate methods for assessing responses to the ingestion of oral magnesium supplements, including ionized magnesium in whole blood (iMg [...] Read more.
Oral supplementation may improve the dietary intake of magnesium, which has been identified as a shortfall nutrient. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate appropriate methods for assessing responses to the ingestion of oral magnesium supplements, including ionized magnesium in whole blood (iMg2+) concentration, serum total magnesium concentration, and total urinary magnesium content. In a single-blinded crossover study, 17 healthy adults were randomly assigned to consume 300 mg of magnesium from MgCl2 (ReMag®, a picosized magnesium formulation) or placebo, while having a low-magnesium breakfast. Blood and urine samples were obtained for the measurement of iMg2+, serum total magnesium, and total urine magnesium, during 24 h following the magnesium supplement or placebo dosing. Bioavailability was assessed using area-under-the-curve (AUC) as well as maximum (Cmax) and time-to-maximum (Tmax) concentration. Depending on normality, data were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation or median (range), and differences between responses to MgCl2 or placebo were measured using the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Following MgCl2 administration versus placebo administration, we observed significantly greater increases in iMg2+ concentrations (AUC = 1.51 ± 0.96 vs. 0.84 ± 0.82 mg/dL•24h; Cmax = 1.38 ± 0.13 vs. 1.32 ± 0.07 mg/dL, respectively; both p < 0.05) but not in serum total magnesium (AUC = 27.00 [0, 172.93] vs. 14.55 [0, 91.18] mg/dL•24h; Cmax = 2.38 [1.97, 4.01] vs. 2.24 [1.98, 4.31] mg/dL) or in urinary magnesium (AUC = 201.74 ± 161.63 vs. 139.30 ± 92.84 mg•24h; Cmax = 26.12 [12.91, 88.63] vs. 24.38 [13.51, 81.51] mg/dL; p > 0.05). Whole blood iMg2+ may be a more sensitive measure of acute oral intake of magnesium compared to serum and urinary magnesium and may be preferred for assessing supplement bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Magnesium: Biochemistry, Nutrition, Detection, and Social Impact of Diseases Linked to Its Deficiency
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13041136 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Magnesium plays an important role in many physiological functions. Habitually low intakes of magnesium and in general the deficiency of this micronutrient induce changes in biochemical pathways that can increase the risk of illness and, in particular, chronic degenerative diseases. The assessment of [...] Read more.
Magnesium plays an important role in many physiological functions. Habitually low intakes of magnesium and in general the deficiency of this micronutrient induce changes in biochemical pathways that can increase the risk of illness and, in particular, chronic degenerative diseases. The assessment of magnesium status is consequently of great importance, however, its evaluation is difficult. The measurement of serum magnesium concentration is the most commonly used and readily available method for assessing magnesium status, even if serum levels have no reliable correlation with total body magnesium levels or concentrations in specific tissues. Therefore, this review offers an overview of recent insights into magnesium from multiple perspectives. Starting from a biochemical point of view, it aims at highlighting the risk due to insufficient uptake (frequently due to the low content of magnesium in the modern western diet), at suggesting strategies to reach the recommended dietary reference values, and at focusing on the importance of detecting physiological or pathological levels of magnesium in various body districts, in order to counteract the social impact of diseases linked to magnesium deficiency. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Magnesium Oxide in Constipation
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020421 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Magnesium oxide has been widely used as a laxative for many years in East Asia, yet its prescription has largely been based on empirical knowledge. In recent years, several new laxatives have been developed, which has led to a resurgence in interest and [...] Read more.
Magnesium oxide has been widely used as a laxative for many years in East Asia, yet its prescription has largely been based on empirical knowledge. In recent years, several new laxatives have been developed, which has led to a resurgence in interest and increased scientific evidence surrounding the use of magnesium oxide, which is convenient to administer, of low cost, and safe. Despite these advantages, emerging clinical evidence indicates that the use of magnesium oxide should take account of the most appropriate dose, the serum concentration, drug–drug interactions, and the potential for side effects, especially in the elderly and in patients with renal impairment. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence base for the clinical use of magnesium oxide for treating constipation and provide a pragmatic guide to its advantages and disadvantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Magnesium in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 320; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020320 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency is probably the most underestimated electrolyte imbalance in Western countries. It is frequent in obese patients, subjects with type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both in adulthood and in childhood. This narrative review aims to offer insights into the [...] Read more.
Magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency is probably the most underestimated electrolyte imbalance in Western countries. It is frequent in obese patients, subjects with type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both in adulthood and in childhood. This narrative review aims to offer insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms linking Mg2+ deficiency with obesity and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Literature highlights critical issues about the treatment of Mg2+ deficiency, such as the lack of a clear definition of Mg2+ nutritional status, the use of different Mg2+ salts and dosage and the different duration of the Mg2+ supplementation. Despite the lack of agreement, an appropriate dietary pattern, including the right intake of Mg2+, improves metabolic syndrome by reducing blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. This occurs through the modulation of gene expression and proteomic profile as well as through a positive influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the metabolism of vitamins B1 and D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Mg2+ Transporters in Digestive Cancers
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010210 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
Despite magnesium (Mg2+) representing the second most abundant cation in the cell, its role in cellular physiology and pathology is far from being elucidated. Mg2+ homeostasis is regulated by Mg2+ transporters including Mitochondrial RNA Splicing Protein 2 (MRS2), Transient [...] Read more.
Despite magnesium (Mg2+) representing the second most abundant cation in the cell, its role in cellular physiology and pathology is far from being elucidated. Mg2+ homeostasis is regulated by Mg2+ transporters including Mitochondrial RNA Splicing Protein 2 (MRS2), Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M, Member 6/7 (TRPM6/7), Magnesium Transporter 1 (MAGT1), Solute Carrier Family 41 Member 1 (SCL41A1), and Cyclin and CBS Domain Divalent Metal Cation Transport Mediator (CNNM) proteins. Recent data show that Mg2+ transporters may regulate several cancer cell hallmarks. In this review, we describe the expression of Mg2+ transporters in digestive cancers, the most common and deadliest malignancies worldwide. Moreover, Mg2+ transporters’ expression, correlation and impact on patient overall and disease-free survival is analyzed using Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. Finally, we discuss the role of these Mg2+ transporters in the regulation of cancer cell fates and oncogenic signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Effectively Prescribing Oral Magnesium Therapy for Hypertension: A Categorized Systematic Review of 49 Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010195 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Trials and meta-analyses of oral magnesium for hypertension show promising but conflicting results. An inclusive collection of 49 oral magnesium for blood pressure (BP) trials were categorized into four groups: (1) Untreated Hypertensives; (2) Uncontrolled Hypertensives; (3) Controlled Hypertensives; (4) Normotensive subjects. Each [...] Read more.
Trials and meta-analyses of oral magnesium for hypertension show promising but conflicting results. An inclusive collection of 49 oral magnesium for blood pressure (BP) trials were categorized into four groups: (1) Untreated Hypertensives; (2) Uncontrolled Hypertensives; (3) Controlled Hypertensives; (4) Normotensive subjects. Each group was tabulated by ascending magnesium dose. Studies reporting statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) from both baseline and placebo (if reported) were labeled “Decrease”; all others were deemed “No Change.” Results: Studies of Untreated Hypertensives (20 studies) showed BP “Decrease” only when Mg dose was >600 mg/day; <50% of the studies at 120–486 mg Mg/day showed SBP or DBP decreases but not both while others at this Mg dosage showed no change in either BP measure. In contrast, all magnesium doses (240–607 mg/day) showed “Decrease” in 10 studies on Uncontrolled Hypertensives. Controlled Hypertensives, Normotensives and “magnesium-replete” studies showed “No Change” even at high magnesium doses (>600 mg/day). Where magnesium did not lower BP, other cardiovascular risk factors showed improvement. Conclusion: Controlled Hypertensives and Normotensives do not show a BP-lowering effect with oral Mg therapy, but oral magnesium (≥240 mg/day) safely lowers BP in Uncontrolled Hypertensive patients taking antihypertensive medications, while >600 mg/day magnesium is required to safely lower BP in Untreated Hypertensives; <600 mg/day for non-medicated hypertensives may not lower both SBP and DBP but may safely achieve other risk factor improvements without antihypertensive medication side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Magnesium Status and Stress: The Vicious Circle Concept Revisited
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3672; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12123672 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6198
Abstract
Magnesium deficiency and stress are both common conditions among the general population, which, over time, can increase the risk of health consequences. Numerous studies, both in pre-clinical and clinical settings, have investigated the interaction of magnesium with key mediators of the physiological stress [...] Read more.
Magnesium deficiency and stress are both common conditions among the general population, which, over time, can increase the risk of health consequences. Numerous studies, both in pre-clinical and clinical settings, have investigated the interaction of magnesium with key mediators of the physiological stress response, and demonstrated that magnesium plays an inhibitory key role in the regulation and neurotransmission of the normal stress response. Furthermore, low magnesium status has been reported in several studies assessing nutritional aspects in subjects suffering from psychological stress or associated symptoms. This overlap in the results suggests that stress could increase magnesium loss, causing a deficiency; and in turn, magnesium deficiency could enhance the body’s susceptibility to stress, resulting in a magnesium and stress vicious circle. This review revisits the magnesium and stress vicious circle concept, first introduced in the early 1990s, in light of recent available data. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Headaches and Magnesium: Mechanisms, Bioavailability, Therapeutic Efficacy and Potential Advantage of Magnesium Pidolate
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092660 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Magnesium deficiency may occur for several reasons, such as inadequate intake or increased gastrointestinal or renal loss. A large body of literature suggests a relationship between magnesium deficiency and mild and moderate tension-type headaches and migraines. A number of double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials [...] Read more.
Magnesium deficiency may occur for several reasons, such as inadequate intake or increased gastrointestinal or renal loss. A large body of literature suggests a relationship between magnesium deficiency and mild and moderate tension-type headaches and migraines. A number of double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials have shown that magnesium is efficacious in relieving headaches and have led to the recommendation of oral magnesium for headache relief in several national and international guidelines. Among several magnesium salts available to treat magnesium deficiency, magnesium pidolate may have high bioavailability and good penetration at the intracellular level. Here, we discuss the cellular and molecular effects of magnesium deficiency in the brain and the clinical evidence supporting the use of magnesium for the treatment of headaches and migraines. Full article
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