Special Issue "Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition in Women".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Annunziata Lapolla
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua, Italy
Interests: diabetes; obesity; gestational diabetes; diabetes in pregnancy; obesity in pregnancy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ewa Wender-Ozegowska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Head of the Department of Reproduction, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
Interests: hyperglycemia, obesity and hypertension in pregnancy; rheumatologic disorders and pregnancy; reccurent pregnancy loss; ultrasound in pregnancy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pregnancy is a particular time of a women's life when nutritional status influences her health and pregnancy outcomes and the health of her fetus-neonate.

Physicians and other healthcare providers need to be aware of nutritional needs during pregnancy, as they differ significantly from non-pregnant populations.

We are organizing a Special Issue (SI) on the new insights into the role of maternal nutrition in pregnancy. We invite manuscripts (original research or review articles) about the influence of maternal weight on pregnancy outcome, the role of nutrition during pregnancy in different groups of patients ( malnourished, obese), as well as in various pathological situations (like diabetes, hypertension).

We are going to discuss current recommendations concerning nutrition during pregnancy. We want to cover pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic options, evidence-based treatment algorithms, and novel experimental therapies. We encourage the authors to focus on prevention and reducing complications strategies. In the field of environmental research, we seek papers about social, economic, and cultural changes in public health and their influence on nutrition during pregnancy, especially in the rapidly growing group of obese women. 

We are also planning to invite authors that would present the latest achievements in molecular biologies, such as assessing gut microbiome in pregnancy. Papers combining a high academic standard with a practical focus are especially welcome.

Prof. Dr. Annunziata Lapolla
Prof. Dr. Ewa Wender-Ozegowska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pathophysiology of pregnancy
  • nutrition and its role in pregnancy
  • epidemiology of nutritional problems
  • obesity
  • education
  • complications
  • lifestyle

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Relationship between Eating Habits, Physical Activity and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Pregnant Women: Sociodemographic Inequalities
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14030557 (registering DOI) - 27 Jan 2022
Abstract
Pregnant women must maintain or acquire healthy habits during pregnancy to protect both their own health and their child’s. Such habits include an adequate eating pattern along with good adherence to the intake of certain supplements, practice of moderate physical activity and avoiding [...] Read more.
Pregnant women must maintain or acquire healthy habits during pregnancy to protect both their own health and their child’s. Such habits include an adequate eating pattern along with good adherence to the intake of certain supplements, practice of moderate physical activity and avoiding the consumption of toxic products such as tobacco and alcohol. The objective of this study is to assess the interrelation between such habits and their association with sociodemographic variables. To such end, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of pregnant women who attended the scheduled morphology echography consultation at the 20th gestational week in their reference public hospital in the city of Seville (Spain). Results: Younger pregnant women and with lower educational levels are the ones that present the worst eating habits and the highest smoking rate. Pregnant women with lower educational levels are the least active. Non-smoking pregnant women present better eating habits than those who smoke. Pregnant women with lower educational levels are those who accumulate more unhealthy habits during pregnancy. This should be taken into account when planning the health care provided to pregnant women and in public health intersectoral policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
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Article
Modeling the Predictive Value of Evidence-Based Referral Criteria to Support Healthy Gestational Weight Gain among an Australian Pregnancy Cohort
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020381 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Globally, there has been a renewed focus on addressing gestational weight gain (GWG). In Australia, the Department of Health pregnancy care guidelines recommend women be offered routine weighing and receive brief nutritional and physical activity support during antenatal care visits. Women gaining weight [...] Read more.
Globally, there has been a renewed focus on addressing gestational weight gain (GWG). In Australia, the Department of Health pregnancy care guidelines recommend women be offered routine weighing and receive brief nutritional and physical activity support during antenatal care visits. Women gaining weight outside the Institute of Medicine (IOM)’s weight gain reference values are further recommended to be referred to a dietitian. However, professional and organizational barriers, including an absence of weight gain referral pathways and limited workforce resources, exist with the translation and scaling of these recommendations into practice. This study aimed to explore patterns of GWG among a cohort of Australian pregnant women and to determine if pregnancy weight gains of above or below 2 kg or 5 kg in the second and third trimester can be used to predict total GWG outside recommendations. Sensitivity, specificity, negative, and positive likelihood ratios were calculated. The most predictive time point was 24 weeks’ gestation using the minimum weight change parameter of +/−2 kg, demonstrating reasonable sensitivity (0.81, 95% CI 0.61–0.83) and specificity (0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.83), resulting in 55% (n = 72/131) of the cohort qualifying for dietetic referral. Given the current health service constraints, a review of dietetic services within maternity care is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
Article
Higher-Dose DHA Supplementation Modulates Immune Responses in Pregnancy and Is Associated with Decreased Preterm Birth
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124248 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Pregnancy and parturition involve extensive changes in the maternal immune system. In our randomized, multi-site, double-blind superiority trial using a Bayesian adaptive design, we demonstrated that 1000 mg/day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was superior to 200 mg/day in preventing both early preterm birth [...] Read more.
Pregnancy and parturition involve extensive changes in the maternal immune system. In our randomized, multi-site, double-blind superiority trial using a Bayesian adaptive design, we demonstrated that 1000 mg/day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was superior to 200 mg/day in preventing both early preterm birth (less than 34 weeks’ gestation) and preterm birth (less than 37 weeks’ gestation). The goal of this secondary study is to compare the effects of 1000 mg/day versus 200 mg/day on maternal inflammation, a possible mechanism by which DHA may prevent preterm birth. Maternal blood samples were collected at enrollment (12–20 weeks’ gestation) and at delivery. Red blood cell DHA levels were measured by gas chromatography, and plasma concentrations of sRAGE, IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα, and INFγ were measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed for associations with the DHA dose, gestational age at birth, and preterm birth (<37 weeks). Higher baseline and lower delivery levels of maternal sRAGE were associated with a greater probability of longer gestation and delivery at term gestation. Higher-dose DHA supplementation increased the probability of a smaller decrease in delivery sRAGE levels. Higher IL-6 concentrations at delivery were associated with the probability of delivering after 37 weeks, and higher-dose DHA supplementation increased the probability of greater increases in IL-6 concentrations between enrollment and delivery. These data provide a proposed mechanistic explanation of how a higher dose of DHA during pregnancy provides immunomodulatory regulation in the initiation of parturition by influencing sRAGE and IL-6 levels, which may explain its ability to reduce the risk of preterm birth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
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Article
Pregnancy Is Enough to Provoke Deleterious Effects in Descendants of Fructose-Fed Mothers and Their Fetuses
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3667; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13103667 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
The role of fructose in the global obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic is widely recognized. However, its consumption is allowed during pregnancy. We have previously demonstrated that maternal fructose intake in rats induces detrimental effects in fetuses. However, these effects only appeared in [...] Read more.
The role of fructose in the global obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic is widely recognized. However, its consumption is allowed during pregnancy. We have previously demonstrated that maternal fructose intake in rats induces detrimental effects in fetuses. However, these effects only appeared in adult descendants after a re-exposure to fructose. Pregnancy is a physiological state that leads to profound changes in metabolism and hormone response. Therefore, we wanted to establish if pregnancy in the progeny of fructose-fed mothers was also able to provoke an unhealthy situation. Pregnant rats from fructose-fed mothers (10% w/v) subjected (FF) or not (FC) to a fructose supplementation were studied and compared to pregnant control rats (CC). An OGTT was performed on the 20th day of gestation, and they were sacrificed on the 21st day. Plasma and tissues from mothers and fetuses were analyzed. Although FF mothers showed higher AUC insulin values after OGTT in comparison to FC and CC rats, ISI was lower and leptinemia was higher in FC and FF rats than in the CC group. Accordingly, lipid accretion was observed both in liver and placenta in the FC and FF groups. Interestingly, fetuses from FC and FF mothers also showed the same profile observed in their mothers on lipid accumulation, leptinemia, and ISI. Moreover, hepatic lipid peroxidation was even more augmented in fetuses from FC dams than those of FF mothers. Maternal fructose intake produces in female progeny changes that alter their own pregnancy, leading to deleterious effects in their fetuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
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Article
Associations of Food and Nutrient Intake with Serum Hepcidin and the Risk of Gestational Iron-Deficiency Anemia among Pregnant Women: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13103501 - 03 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Hepcidin is a regulator of iron metabolism. Diet affects the body’s iron status, but how it influences hepcidin concentrations and the risk of gestational iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) remains unclear. We investigated relationships of food and nutrient intake with serum hepcidin levels in relation [...] Read more.
Hepcidin is a regulator of iron metabolism. Diet affects the body’s iron status, but how it influences hepcidin concentrations and the risk of gestational iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) remains unclear. We investigated relationships of food and nutrient intake with serum hepcidin levels in relation to the iron status at a population scale. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted based on data obtained from the Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in pregnant women, Taiwan (2017~2020). In total, 1430 pregnant women aged 20~45 years with a singleton pregnancy were included. Data from blood biochemistry, 24-h dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire were collected during a prenatal checkup. Adjusted multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were employed to measure the beta coefficient (ß) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of serum hepcidin and the odds ratio (OR) of IDA. In IDA women, serum hepcidin levels were positively correlated with the intake frequency of Chinese dim sum and related foods (β = 0.037 (95% CI = 0.015~0.058), p = 0.001) and dark leafy vegetables (β = 0.013 (0.001~0.025), p = 0.040), but they were negatively correlated with noodles and related products (β = −0.022 (−0.043~−0.001), p = 0.038). An adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dietary protein [OR: 0.990 (0.981~1.000), p = 0.041], total fiber [OR: 0.975 (0.953~0.998), p = 0.031], and rice/rice porridge [OR: 1.007 (1.00~1.014), p = 0.041] predicted gestational IDA. Total carbohydrates [OR: 1.003 (1.000~1.006), p = 0.036], proteins [OR: 0.992 (0.985~0.999), p = 0.028], gourds/shoots/root vegetables [OR: 1.007 (0.092~1.010), p = 0.005], and to a lesser extent, savory and sweet glutinous rice products [OR: 0.069 (0.937~1.002), p = 0.067] and dark leafy vegetables [OR: 1.005 (0.999~1.011), p = 0.088] predicted IDA. The risk of IDA due to vegetable consumption decreased with an increasing vitamin C intake (p for trend = 0.024). Carbohydrates and vegetables may affect the gestational iron status through influencing hepcidin levels. Vitamin C may lower the risk of gestational IDA due to high vegetable consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Feto-maternal expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) in health and disease.
Authors: Rafał Sibiak^1,2 , Ewa Wender-Ozegowska^2 , Paweł Gutaj^2 , Bartosz Kempisty^1,3,4,5
Affiliation: ^1 Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences ^2 Department of Reproduction, Poznan University of Medical Sciences ^3 Department of Anatomy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences^ ^4 Prestage Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University^ ^5 Department of Veterinary Surgery, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun^
Abstract: The review will describe the key aspects of glucose transporting mechanisms in the feto-maternal compartment in physiological pregnancy, emphasizing the role of the glucose transporters (GLUT) protein family. It will also summarize the results of the studies focused on assessing GLUT mRNA and protein expression in the placental tissue obtained from patients with impaired glucose tolerance – individuals with preexisting diabetes (type 1 and type 2 diabetes) and gestational diabetes mellitus. Moreover, we will analyze the patterns of GLUT expression in pregnancies with inappropriate fetal growth – fetal growth restriction and excessive fetal weight.

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