Special Issue "Meal Timing to Improve Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marta Garaulet
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: nutrigenetics; chronobiology; including food timing and obesity
Prof. Frank A.J.L. Scheer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Interests: circadian rhythms; metabolism; cardiovascular; diabetes
Dr. Hassan S. Dashti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Interests: nutrition; genetics; sleep; chronobiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Whereas nutrition studies have primarily focused on “what” we eat, i.e., energy intake and macronutrient composition, currently, meal timing is being considered as a novel dimension of diet that may influence obesity, diabetes, and other cardiometabolic diseases. In 2013, a weight loss trial based on the Mediterranean diet conducted in a Spanish population showed that food timing was a predictive factor of weight loss success. Concurrently, a similar weight loss study with a 12-week follow-up showed that individuals consuming higher energy for dinner, compared to breakfast, lost less weight, and had worse glucose tolerance. These two studies, along with other complimentary animal studies, opened a new line of research-based on food timing and its impact on obesity, weight loss, and glucose tolerance.

New controlled laboratory studies are necessary to explain the mechanisms involved in the different response of late versus early eating to treatment.

The genetic makeup of people may also be involved. Former studies showed that only those who present a genetic variant in the Perilipin gene (PLIN1) were sensitive to food timing’s effect on weight loss. Furthermore, based on classical twin studies, genetics appear to influence a significant proportion of the variability in food timing, particularly breakfast. Thus, interventions related to food timing may be more effective when targeting afternoon/evening traits, such as lunch or dinner times, and when targetting individuals based on genotype.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature on the topic of “Meal Timing to improve Human Health” at mechanistic, observational, and epidemiological levels, under the following topics:

  • Human dietary intervention studies that provide evidence for the effects of meal timing on human health;
  • Studies of human genotypes metabolic phenotypes and/or across age to help to explain variation the effect of meal timing on obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk;
  • Studies that provide mechanistic insights into the inter-relationship between meal timing, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk, including studies performed in vitro or in animal models;
  • Observational studies on the association between meal timing and cardiometabolic diseases.

“Meal timing” includes the following concepts:

  • Clock and biological timing of food intake;
  • Food timing within the (circadian) day;
  • Intake frequency;
  • Intake distribution across the day;
  • Food intake window duration (and/or fasting duration);
  • Food regularity;
  • Intermittent fasting.

Prof. Marta Garaulet
Prof. Frank A.J.L. Scheer
Dr. Hassan S. Dashti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food timing
  • Meal timing
  • Food frequency
  • Circadian
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cardiovascular risk

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Late Eating Is Associated with Obesity, Inflammatory Markers and Circadian-Related Disturbances in School-Aged Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2881; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092881 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3709
Abstract
Late eating has been shown to promote metabolic dysregulation and to be associated with obesity in adults. However, few studies have explored this association in children. We compared the presence of obesity, metabolic alterations and circadian-related disturbances between school-aged children who were early [...] Read more.
Late eating has been shown to promote metabolic dysregulation and to be associated with obesity in adults. However, few studies have explored this association in children. We compared the presence of obesity, metabolic alterations and circadian-related disturbances between school-aged children who were early dinner eaters (EDE) or late dinner eaters (LDE). School-age children (n = 397; 8–12 years; mean BMI (range): 19.4 kg/m2 (11.6–35.1); 30.5% overweight/obesity) from Spain were classified into EDE and LDE, according to dinner timing (Median: 21:07). Seven-day-dietary-records were used to assess food-timing and composition. Non-invasive tools were used to collect metabolic biomarkers (saliva), sleep and circadian-related variables (body-temperature and actigraphy). Compared to EDE, LDE were more likely to be overweight/obese [OR: 2.1 (CI: 1.33, 3.31); p = 0.002], and had higher waist-circumference and inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 (1.6-fold) (p = 0.036)) and CRP (1.4-fold) than EDE (p = 0.009). LDE had alterations in the daily patterns of: (a) body-temperature, with a phase delay of 26 min (p = 0.002), and a reduced amplitude (LDE = 0.028 (0.001) and EDE = 0.030 (0.001) (Mean (SEM); p = 0.039); (b) cortisol, with a reduced amplitude (LDE = 0.94 (0.02) and EDE = 1.00 (0.02); p = 0.035). This study represents a significant step towards the understanding of novel aspects in the timing of food intake in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Skipping Breakfast for 6 Days Delayed the Circadian Rhythm of the Body Temperature without Altering Clock Gene Expression in Human Leukocytes
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2797; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092797 - 12 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Breakfast is often described as “the most important meal of the day” and human studies have revealed that post-prandial responses are dependent on meal timing, but little is known of the effects of meal timing per se on human circadian rhythms. We evaluated [...] Read more.
Breakfast is often described as “the most important meal of the day” and human studies have revealed that post-prandial responses are dependent on meal timing, but little is known of the effects of meal timing per se on human circadian rhythms. We evaluated the effects of skipping breakfast for 6 days on core body temperature, dim light melatonin onset, heart rate variability, and clock gene expression in 10 healthy young men, with a repeated-measures design. Subjects were provided an isocaloric diet three times daily (3M) or two times daily (2M, i.e., breakfast skipping condition) over 6 days. Compared with the 3M condition, the diurnal rhythm of the core body temperature in the 2M condition was delayed by 42.0 ± 16.2 min (p = 0.038). On the other hand, dim light melatonin onset, heart rate variability, and clock gene expression were not affected in the 2M condition. Skipping breakfast for 6 days caused a phase delay in the core body temperature in healthy young men, even though the sleep–wake cycle remained unchanged. Chronic effects of skipping breakfast on circadian rhythms remain to be studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Association between Unhealthy Dietary Habits and Proteinuria Onset in a Japanese General Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2511; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092511 - 19 Aug 2020
Viewed by 3397
Abstract
The relationship between dietary habits and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the association between unhealthy dietary habits and proteinuria onset, a key prognostic factor of CKD, among a Japanese general population aged [...] Read more.
The relationship between dietary habits and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the association between unhealthy dietary habits and proteinuria onset, a key prognostic factor of CKD, among a Japanese general population aged ≥40 years. The risks of proteinuria onset were estimated based on the status of baseline unhealthy dietary habits (quick eating, late dinner, late evening snack, and skipping breakfast) compared with the status without these habits. A total of 26,764 subjects were included, with a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years. The most frequent unhealthy dietary habit was quick eating (29%), followed by late dinner (19%), late evening snack (16%), and skipping breakfast (9%). During the follow-up period, 10.6% of participants developed proteinuria. Late dinner and skipping breakfast showed an increased adjusted risk of proteinuria onset (hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.22, and HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.31, respectively). Unhealthy dietary habits were not associated with changes in body mass index or waist-to-height ratio during the follow-up period. Our results suggest that late dinner and skipping breakfast are associated with higher risks for proteinuria onset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Impact of Meal Timing and Chronotype on Food Reward and Appetite Control in Young Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051506 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3174
Abstract
Early meal timing and chronotype are associated with lower BMI, but their impact on appetite is poorly understood. We examined the impact of meal timing and chronotype on appetite and food reward. Forty-four adults were divided into early (EC; Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) score [...] Read more.
Early meal timing and chronotype are associated with lower BMI, but their impact on appetite is poorly understood. We examined the impact of meal timing and chronotype on appetite and food reward. Forty-four adults were divided into early (EC; Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) score = 55 ± 5) or late chronotype (LC; MEQ score = 40 ± 6) and assessed for body mass index, habitual energy intake (EI; three-day online dietary record) and eating behavior traits from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Participants attended the laboratory after ≥3 h fast on two occasions for early (AM; 8–10 a.m.) and late (PM; 4–6 p.m.) counterbalanced testing sessions in a 2 × 2 design. Appetite ratings and food reward (validated diurnal Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) were measured in response to a standardized test meal. LC was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.01), but not with EI or TFEQ. The composite appetite score was lower in AM than PM (MΔ= −5 (95% CI −10, −0.2) mm, p = 0.040). Perceived test meal fillingness was higher in AM than PM and EC compared to LC (p ≤ 0.038). Liking and wanting high-fat food were lower in AM than PM (p ≤ 0.004). The late chronotype was associated with greater desire for high-fat food (p = 0.006). To conclude, early meal timing and early chronotype are independently associated with smaller appetite and lower desire for high-fat food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Effects of Shift Work on the Eating Behavior of Police Officers on Patrol
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 999; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12040999 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6164
Abstract
Recent studies indicate that the timing of food intake can significantly affect metabolism and weight management. Workers operating at atypical times of the 24-h day are at risk of disturbed feeding patterns. Given the increased risk of weight gain, obesity and metabolic syndrome [...] Read more.
Recent studies indicate that the timing of food intake can significantly affect metabolism and weight management. Workers operating at atypical times of the 24-h day are at risk of disturbed feeding patterns. Given the increased risk of weight gain, obesity and metabolic syndrome in shift working populations, further research is required to understand whether their eating behavior could contribute to these increased metabolic risks. The objective of this study was to characterize the dietary patterns of police officers across different types of shifts in their natural environments. Thirty-one police officers (six women; aged 32.1 ± 5.4 years, mean ± SD) from the province of Quebec, Canada, participated in a 28- to 35-day study, comprising 9- to 12-h morning, evening, and night shifts alternating with rest days. Sleep and work patterns were recorded with actigraphy and diaries. For at least 24 h during each type of work day and rest day, participants logged nutrient intake by timestamped photographs on smartphones. Macronutrient composition and caloric content were estimated by registered dieticians using the Nutrition Data System for Research database. Data were analyzed with linear mixed effects models and circular ANOVA. More calories were consumed relative to individual metabolic requirements on rest days than both evening- and night-shift days (p = 0.001), largely sourced from increased fat (p = 0.004) and carbohydrate (trend, p = 0.064) intake. Regardless, the proportions of calories from carbohydrates, fat, and protein did not differ significantly between days. More calories were consumed during the night, between 2300 h and 0600 h, on night-shift days than any other days (p < 0.001). Caloric intake occurred significantly later for night-shift days (2308 h ± 0114 h, circular mean ± SD) than for rest days (1525 h ± 0029 h; p < 0.01) and was dispersed across a longer eating window (13.9 h ± 3.1 h vs. 11.3 h ± 1.8 h, mean ± SD). As macronutrient proportions were similar and caloric intake was lower, the finding of later meals times on night-shift days versus rest days is consistent with emerging hypotheses that implicate the biological timing of food intake—rather than its quantity or composition—as the differentiating dietary factor in shift worker health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Energy, Nutrient and Food Intakes of Male Shift Workers Vary According to the Schedule Type but Not the Number of Nights Worked
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 919; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12040919 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Shift work is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases due to circadian rhythm disruptions and behavioral changes such as in eating habits. Impact of type of shifts and number of night shifts on energy, nutrient and food intake is as yet unknown. [...] Read more.
Shift work is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases due to circadian rhythm disruptions and behavioral changes such as in eating habits. Impact of type of shifts and number of night shifts on energy, nutrient and food intake is as yet unknown. Our goal was to analyze shift workers’ dietary intake, eating behavior and eating structure, with respect to frequency of nights worked in a given week and seven schedule types. Eating habits and dietary intakes of 65 male shift workers were analyzed in three steps based on 365 24-h food records: (1) according to the number of nights, (2) in a pooled analysis according to schedule type, and (3) in search of an interaction of the schedule and the timing of intake. Mean nutrient and food group intake during the study period did not depend on the number of nights worked. Amount and distribution of energy intake as well as quality of food, in terms of nutrient and food groups, differed depending on the type of schedule, split night shifts and recovery day (day after night shift) being the most impacted. Shift workers’ qualitative and quantitative dietary intakes varied between different schedules, indicating the need for tailored preventive interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Effects of Timing of Acute and Consecutive Catechin Ingestion on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Mice and Humans
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 565; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020565 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
We examined the effects of the timing of acute and consecutive epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin-rich green tea ingestion on postprandial glucose in mice and human adults. In mouse experiments, we compared the effects of EGCG administration early (morning) and late (evening) in [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of the timing of acute and consecutive epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin-rich green tea ingestion on postprandial glucose in mice and human adults. In mouse experiments, we compared the effects of EGCG administration early (morning) and late (evening) in the active period on postprandial glucose. In human experiments, participants were randomly assigned to the morning-placebo (MP, n = 10), morning-green tea (MGT, n = 10), evening-placebo (EP, n = 9), and evening-green tea (EGT, n = 9) groups, and consumed either catechin-rich green tea or a placebo beverage for 1 week. At baseline and after 1 week, participants consumed their designated beverages with breakfast (MP and MGT) or supper (EP and EGT). Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after each meal. Consecutive administration of EGCG in the evening, but not in the morning, reduced postprandial glucose at 30 (p = 0.006) and 60 (p = 0.037) min in the evening trials in mice. In humans, ingestion of catechin-rich green tea in the evening decreased postprandial glucose (three-factor analysis of variance, p < 0.05). Thus, catechin intake in the evening more effectively suppressed elevation of postprandial glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Chrono-Nutrition and Diet Quality in Adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 539; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020539 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Background: Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSPD), characterized by delayed sleep-onset and problems with awakening in the morning, is mostly prevalent in adolescents. Several studies have suggested chrono-nutrition could present a possible modifiable risk factor for DSPD. Objective: To describe differences in chrono-nutrition [...] Read more.
Background: Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSPD), characterized by delayed sleep-onset and problems with awakening in the morning, is mostly prevalent in adolescents. Several studies have suggested chrono-nutrition could present a possible modifiable risk factor for DSPD. Objective: To describe differences in chrono-nutrition and diet quality in adolescents with DSPD compared to age-related controls. Methods: Chrono-nutrition and diet quality of 46 adolescents with DSPD, aged 13–20 years, and 43 controls were assessed via questionnaires. Diet quality included the Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index) and Eating Choices Index (ECI). Results were analysed using logistic regression and Spearman’s partial correlation. Results: Compared with controls, DSPD patients consumed their first food of the day significantly later on weekdays (+32 ± 12 min, p = 0.010) and weekends (+25 ± 8 min, p = 0.005). They consumed their dinner more regularly (80.4% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.002) and consumed morning-snacks less frequently (3.0 ± 2.1 days vs. 4.2 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.006). No differences in clock times of breakfast, lunch, or dinner were found. Moreover, no significant differences in overall diet quality were observed. Conclusion: This descriptive study showed chrono-nutritional differences between adolescents with and without DPSD. Further studies are needed to explore features of chrono-nutrition as a possible treatment of DPSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
Article
A Delayed Morning and Earlier Evening Time-Restricted Feeding Protocol for Improving Glycemic Control and Dietary Adherence in Men with Overweight/Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020505 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4787
Abstract
We determined the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF; 8 h/d) versus extended feeding (EXF; 15 h/d) on 24-h and postprandial metabolism and subjective opinions of TRF in men with overweight/obesity. In a randomized crossover design, 11 sedentary males (age 38 ± 5 y; [...] Read more.
We determined the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF; 8 h/d) versus extended feeding (EXF; 15 h/d) on 24-h and postprandial metabolism and subjective opinions of TRF in men with overweight/obesity. In a randomized crossover design, 11 sedentary males (age 38 ± 5 y; BMI: 32.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed two isoenergetic diet protocols for 5 days, consuming meals at 1000, 1300 and 1700 h (TRF) or 0700, 1400 and 2100 h (EXF). On Day 5, participants remained in the laboratory for 24 h, and blood samples were collected at hourly (0700–2300 h) then 2-hourly (2300–0700 h) intervals for concentrations of glucose, insulin and appetite/incretin hormones. Structured qualitative interviews were conducted following completion of both dietary conditions and investigated thematically. Total 24-h area under the curve (AUCtotal) [glucose] tended to be lower for TRF versus EXF (−5.5 ± 9.0 mmol/L/h, p = 0.09). Nocturnal glucose AUC was lower in TRF (−4.2 ± 5.8 mmol/L/h, p = 0.04), with no difference in waking glucose AUC or AUCtotal for [insulin]. Attitudes towards TRF were positive with improved feelings of well-being. Barriers to TRF were work schedules, family commitments and social events. Compared to extended feeding, short-term TRF improved nocturnal glycemic control and was positively perceived in men with overweight/obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Article
Association between Timing of Energy Intake and Insulin Sensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 503; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020503 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3566
Abstract
In addition to the caloric and macronutrient composition of meals, timing of energy consumption may be important for optimal glucose metabolism. Our goal was to examine whether the habitual timing of energy intake was associated with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers. Volunteers without [...] Read more.
In addition to the caloric and macronutrient composition of meals, timing of energy consumption may be important for optimal glucose metabolism. Our goal was to examine whether the habitual timing of energy intake was associated with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers. Volunteers without diabetes aged 21–50 years completed a 3-day food diary and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin sensitivity (n = 44). From the food diary, we calculated the proportions of the total energy and macronutrients consumed in the morning and evening, and the clock time at which 25%, 50% and 75% of total energy was consumed. A greater proportion of energy intake in the morning was significantly associated with higher insulin sensitivity estimated by Matsuda Index (B = 2.8 per 10%; 95%CI: 0.3, 5.2). The time at which 25% of energy was consumed was associated with insulin sensitivity estimated by Matsuda Index (B = −1.6 per hour; 95%CI: −3.0, −0.3) and QUICKI (B = −1.4 per hour, 95%CI: −2.8, −0.1). The timing of carbohydrate consumption demonstrated similar associations. Greater energy intake earlier in the day was associated with higher insulin sensitivity in individuals without diabetes. Full article
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Article
Saliva Samples as A Tool to Study the Effect of Meal Timing on Metabolic And Inflammatory Biomarkers
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020340 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Meal timing affects metabolic regulation in humans. Most studies use blood samples for their investigations. Saliva, although easily available and non-invasive, seems to be rarely used for chrononutritional studies. In this pilot study, we tested if saliva samples could be used to study [...] Read more.
Meal timing affects metabolic regulation in humans. Most studies use blood samples for their investigations. Saliva, although easily available and non-invasive, seems to be rarely used for chrononutritional studies. In this pilot study, we tested if saliva samples could be used to study the effect of timing of carbohydrate and fat intake on metabolic rhythms. In this cross-over trial, 29 nonobese men were randomized to two isocaloric 4-week diets: (1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 13:30 and high-fat meals between 16:30 and 22:00 or (2) the inverse order of meals. Stimulated saliva samples were collected every 4 h for 24 h at the end of each intervention, and levels of hormones and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed in saliva and blood. Cortisol, melatonin, resistin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 and MCP-1 demonstrated distinct diurnal variations, mirroring daytime reports in blood and showing significant correlations with blood levels. The rhythm patterns were similar for both diets, indicating that timing of carbohydrate and fat intake has a minimal effect on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in saliva. Our study revealed that saliva is a promising tool for the non-invasive assessment of metabolic rhythms in chrononutritional studies, but standardisation of sample collection is needed in out-of-lab studies. Full article
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Article
Eating Jet Lag: A Marker of the Variability in Meal Timing and Its Association with Body Mass Index
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2980; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11122980 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 9314
Abstract
The timing of food intake has been associated with obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes, independently of the amount or content of food intake and activity level. However, the impact of the variability in the timing of food intake between weekends and weekdays on [...] Read more.
The timing of food intake has been associated with obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes, independently of the amount or content of food intake and activity level. However, the impact of the variability in the timing of food intake between weekends and weekdays on BMI (body mass index) remains unexplored. To address that, we propose to study a marker of the variability of meal timing on weekends versus weekdays (denominated as ‘eating jet lag’) that could be associated with increments in BMI. This cross-sectional study included 1106 subjects (aged 18–25 years). Linear regression models were used to examine the associations of eating jet lag with BMI and circadian related variables (including chronotype, eating duration, sleep duration, and social jet lag). Subsequently, a hierarchical multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the association of eating jet lag with BMI was independent of potentially confounding variables (e.g., chronotype and social jet lag). Moreover, restricted cubic splines were calculated to study the shape of the association between eating jet lag and BMI. Our results revealed a positive association between eating jet lag and BMI (p = 0.008), which was independent of the chronotype and social jet lag. Further analysis revealed the threshold of eating jet lag was of 3.5 h or more, from which the BMI could significantly increase. These results provided evidence of the suitability of the eating jet lag, as a marker of the variability in meal timing between weekends and weekdays, for the study of the influence of meal timing on obesity. In a long run, the reduction of the variability between meal timing on weekends versus weekdays could be included as part of food timing guidelines for the prevention of obesity among general population. Full article
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Article
Associations of Meal Timing and Frequency with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2437; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11102437 - 13 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Emerging studies indicate that meal timing is linked to cardiometabolic risks by deterioration of circadian rhythms, however limited evidence is available in humans. This large-scale cross-sectional study explored the associations of meal timing and frequency with obesity and metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. [...] Read more.
Emerging studies indicate that meal timing is linked to cardiometabolic risks by deterioration of circadian rhythms, however limited evidence is available in humans. This large-scale cross-sectional study explored the associations of meal timing and frequency with obesity and metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Meal timing was defined as nightly fasting duration and morning, evening, and night eating, and meal frequency was estimated as the number of daily eating episodes using a single-day 24-hour dietary recall method. Meal frequency was inversely associated with prevalence of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, and elevated triglycerides in men only. Independent of the nightly fasting duration and eating episodes, morning eating was associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.57–0.93 for men and OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54–0.89 for women) than no morning eating, whereas night eating was associated with a 48% higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.15–1.90) than no night eating in men only. Longer fasting duration and less sleep were associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that overall eating patterns, including energy distribution across the day, eating frequency, and sleep duration, rather than fasting duration alone, are related to cardiometabolic risks in free-living Korean adults. Full article
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Review

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Review
Chrononutrition during Pregnancy: A Review on Maternal Night-Time Eating
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2783; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092783 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Evidence from women working night shifts during pregnancy indicates that circadian rhythm disruption has the potential to adversely influence pregnancy outcomes. In the general population, chronodisruption with the potential to affect pregnancy outcomes may also be seen in those with high energy intakes [...] Read more.
Evidence from women working night shifts during pregnancy indicates that circadian rhythm disruption has the potential to adversely influence pregnancy outcomes. In the general population, chronodisruption with the potential to affect pregnancy outcomes may also be seen in those with high energy intakes in the evening or at night. However, maternal night eating during pregnancy remains understudied. This narrative review provides an overview of the prevalence, contributing factors, nutritional aspects and health implications of night eating during pregnancy. We derived evidence based on cross-sectional studies and longitudinal cohorts. Overall, night eating is common during pregnancy, with the estimated prevalence in different populations ranging from 15% to 45%. The modern lifestyle and the presence of pregnancy symptoms contribute to night eating during pregnancy, which is likely to coexist and may interact with multiple undesirable lifestyle behaviors. Unfavorable nutritional characteristics associated with night eating have the potential to induce aberrant circadian rhythms in pregnant women, resulting in adverse metabolic and pregnancy outcomes. More research, particularly intervention studies, are needed to provide more definite information on the implications of night eating for mother-offspring health. Full article
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Review
The Effects of Intermittent Fasting Combined with Resistance Training on Lean Body Mass: A Systematic Review of Human Studies
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2349; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12082349 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 10694
Abstract
Diets utilising intermittent fasting (IF) as a strategic method to manipulate body composition have recently grown in popularity, however, dietary practices involving fasting have also been followed for centuries for religious reasons (i.e., Ramadan). Regardless of the reasons for engaging in IF, the [...] Read more.
Diets utilising intermittent fasting (IF) as a strategic method to manipulate body composition have recently grown in popularity, however, dietary practices involving fasting have also been followed for centuries for religious reasons (i.e., Ramadan). Regardless of the reasons for engaging in IF, the impacts on lean body mass (LBM) may be detrimental. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training promotes LBM accrual, however, whether this still occurs during IF is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this review is to systematically analyse human studies investigating the effects of variations of IF combined with resistance training on changes in LBM in previously sedentary or trained (non-elite) individuals. Changes in body weight and fat mass, and protocol adherence were assessed as a secondary objective. This review followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched for articles investigating IF, combined with resistance training that reported measures of body composition. Eight studies met the eligibility criteria. LBM was generally maintained, while one study reported a significant increase in LBM. Body fat mass or percentage was significantly reduced in five of eight studies. Results suggest that IF paired with resistance training generally maintains LBM, and can also promote fat loss. Future research should examine longer-term effects of various forms of IF combined with resistance training compared to traditional forms of energy restriction. Prospero registration CRD42018103867. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Review
The Effect of Timing of Exercise and Eating on Postprandial Response in Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12010221 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3160 | Correction
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern. Management of this condition has focused on behavior modification through diet and exercise interventions. A growing body of evidence has focused on temporality of dietary intake and exercise and potential effects on health. This [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern. Management of this condition has focused on behavior modification through diet and exercise interventions. A growing body of evidence has focused on temporality of dietary intake and exercise and potential effects on health. This review summarizes current literature that investigates the question “how does the timing of exercise relative to eating throughout the day effect postprandial response in adults?” Databases PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus were searched between March–May 2019. Experimental studies conducted in healthy adults (≥18 y) and those with type 2 diabetes were included. Full texts were examined by at least two independent reviewers. Seventeen studies with a total of 332 participants met the inclusion criteria. The primary finding supports that exercise performed post-meal regardless of time of day had a beneficial impact on postprandial glycemia. There was insufficient evidence regarding whether timing of exercise performed pre- vs. post-meal or vice versa in a day is related to improved postprandial glycemic response due to inherent differences between studies. Future studies focusing on the investigation of timing and occurrence of meal intake and exercise throughout the day are needed to inform whether there is, and what is, an optimal time for these behaviors regarding long-term health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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Correction
Correction: Aqeel, M.; et al. “The Effect of Timing of Exercise and Eating on Postprandial Response in Adults: A Systematic Review”. Nutrients, 2020, 12, 221
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12051263 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
We would like to submit the following corrections to our recently published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meal Timing to Improve Human Health)
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