Special Issue "Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 March 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tyler Barker
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Precision Genomics, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
2. Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
3. Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Interests: osteoarthritis; cachexia; vitamin D; cytokines; systemic inflammation; precision medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamins are essential compounds involved in fundamental functions of the body. Vitamins differ in physiological functions and are broadly classified as water-soluble or fat-soluble. The purpose of this Special Issue, “Vitamins and Human Health,” is to provide cutting-edge original research and review articles regarding the diverse properties of various vitamins in disease and healthy living conditions. This Special Issue will discuss the potential role of vitamins on health and disease etiology, progression, treatment, and the recovery from injury and/or surgery. Articles eloquently discussing the various or new determinants of endogenous vitamin levels in disease and non-disease related conditions are encouraged. Submissions discussing the influence of a vitamin or vitamins on physical performance and survival are welcome.

Dr. Tyler Barker
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vitamin C
  • vitamin B complex
  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Potential of Vitamin D Food Fortification in Prevention of Cancer Deaths—A Modeling Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3986; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13113986 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have estimated a 13% reduction of cancer mortality by vitamin D supplementation among older adults. We evaluated if and to what extent similar effects might be expected from vitamin D fortification of foods. We reviewed the literature [...] Read more.
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have estimated a 13% reduction of cancer mortality by vitamin D supplementation among older adults. We evaluated if and to what extent similar effects might be expected from vitamin D fortification of foods. We reviewed the literature on RCTs assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cancer mortality, on increases of vitamin D levels by either supplementation or food fortification, and on costs of supplementation or fortification. Then, we derived expected effects on total cancer mortality and related costs and savings from potential implementation of vitamin D food fortification in Germany and compared the results to those for supplementation. In RCTs with vitamin D supplementation in average doses of 820–2000 IU per day, serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D increased by 15–30 nmol/L, respectively. Studies on food fortification found increases by 10–42 nmol/L, thus largely in the range of increases previously demonstrated by supplementation. Fortification is estimated to be considerably less expensive than supplementation. It might be similarly effective as supplementation in reducing cancer mortality and might even achieve such reduction at substantially larger net savings. Although vitamin D overdoses are unlikely in food fortification programs, implementation should be accompanied by a study monitoring the frequency of potentially occurring adverse effects by overdoses, such as hypercalcemia. Future studies on effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation and fortification are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
Article
Distribution and Determinants of Vitamin D-Binding Protein, Total, “Non-Bioavailable”, Bioavailable, and Free 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Older Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3982; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13113982 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Background: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (“total 25 OH(D)”) is the most commonly used indicator of vitamin D status. However, 25(OH)D is mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) or albumin in blood, and it has been suggested that the remaining bioavailable [...] Read more.
Background: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (“total 25 OH(D)”) is the most commonly used indicator of vitamin D status. However, 25(OH)D is mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) or albumin in blood, and it has been suggested that the remaining bioavailable or free 25(OH)D may be more relevant for vitamin D associated health outcomes. We aimed to explore distributions and determinants of VDBP, total, bioavailable, complementary “non-bioavailable”, and free 25(OH)D in a large cohort of older adults in Germany. Methods: total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin concentrations were measured in blood samples of 5899 men and women aged 50–75 years and used to calculate bioavailable (and complementary “non-bioavailable”) and free 25(OH)D concentrations. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations of potential determinants of the various vitamin D biomarkers. Results: mean concentrations of VDBP, total, non-bioavailable, bioavailable, and free 25(OH)D were 323.6 µg/mL, 49.8 nmol/L, 43.4 nmol/L, 2.5 ng/mL, and 5.7 pg/mL, respectively. Seasonal variations were observed for all markers, with peak values in spring for VDBP and in summer for total, non-bioavailable, bioavailable, and free 25(OH)D. Consistent inverse associations were seen with age and body mass index for all markers, but divergent associations were seen with C-reactive protein. Strong variations by VDBP genotypes were seen for bioavailable and free 25(OH)D, and, in opposite direction for non-bioavailable 25(OH)D. Conclusion: commonalities and differences in determinants of various markers of vitamin D status were observed, which may help to enable a better understanding of their potential role for various vitamin D related health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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Review

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Review
Vitamins as Possible Cancer Biomarkers: Significance and Limitations
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3914; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13113914 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 933
Abstract
The Western-style diet, which is common in developed countries and spreading into developing countries, is unbalanced in many respects. For instance, micronutrients (vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K plus iron, zinc, selenium, and iodine) are generally depleted in Western food [...] Read more.
The Western-style diet, which is common in developed countries and spreading into developing countries, is unbalanced in many respects. For instance, micronutrients (vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E, and K plus iron, zinc, selenium, and iodine) are generally depleted in Western food (causing what is known as ‘hidden hunger’), whereas some others (such as phosphorus) are added beyond the daily allowance. This imbalance in micronutrients can induce cellular damage that can increase the risk of cancer. Interestingly, there is a large body of evidence suggesting a strong correlation between vitamin intake as well as vitamin blood concentrations with the occurrence of certain types of cancer. The direction of association between the concentration of a given vitamin and cancer risk is tumor specific. The present review summarized the literature regarding vitamins and cancer risk to assess whether these could be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers, thus confirming their potential as biomarkers. Despite many studies that highlight the importance of monitoring vitamin blood or tissue concentrations in cancer patients and demonstrate the link between vitamin intake and cancer risk, there is still an urgent need for more data to assess the effectiveness of vitamins as biomarkers in the context of cancer. Therefore, this review aims to provide a solid basis to support further studies on this promising topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Vitamin D Supplementation and Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124207 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
Vitamin D has a promising role in multiple sclerosis (MS) management, and it has been found to be beneficial for patients’ mental health, which is reduced in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the [...] Read more.
Vitamin D has a promising role in multiple sclerosis (MS) management, and it has been found to be beneficial for patients’ mental health, which is reduced in MS patients. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the influence of vitamin D supplementation on mental health in MS patients. The systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020155779) and it was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA guidelines. The search procedure was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science databases and it included studies published up until September 2021. Six studies were included in the systematic review. The risk of bias was analyzed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). Within the included studies, there were two studies randomized against placebo and four other prospective studies. The studies presented vitamin D interventions randomized against placebo or not randomized, while supplementation was applied for various durations—from 4 weeks to 12 months, or the studies compared patients who applied vitamin D supplementation and those who did not apply it and verified the effect of the supplementation after a number of years. The mental health outcomes that were assessed included quality of life, depression/depressive symptoms, and fatigue as an additional element. The majority of studies supported the positive influence of vitamin D on the mental health of MS patients, including the study characterized as having the highest quality (randomized against placebo with the highest NOS score). All the studies that assessed the quality of life indicated the positive influence of vitamin D while the studies that did not find a positive influence of vitamin D were conducted for depression/depressive symptoms. In spite of the fact that only a small number of studies have been conducted so far, and only two studies were randomized against a placebo, some conclusions may be formulated. The systematic review allowed us to conclude that there may be a positive effect of vitamin D supplementation in MS patients, which was stated in all of the studies analyzing quality of life, as well as in one study analyzing depressive symptoms. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is common in MS patients, and the potential positive influence of supplementation on the quality of life, supplementation should be applied at least in doses that cover the recommended intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health: Systematic Reviews)
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